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JB/cMIUI kernel for Samsung Galaxy S2 I9100

This branch is 0 commits ahead and 0 commits behind master-maliv3

Merge branch 'irq-core-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/lin…

…ux/kernel/git/tip/tip

Pull irq code updates from Thomas Gleixner:
 "The irq department proudly presents:

   - Another tree wide sweep of irq infrastructure abuse.  Clear winner
     of the trainwreck engineering contest was:
         #include "../../../kernel/irq/settings.h"

   - Tree wide update of irq_set_affinity() callbacks which miss a cpu
     online check when picking a single cpu out of the affinity mask.

   - Tree wide consolidation of interrupt statistics.

   - Updates to the threaded interrupt infrastructure to allow explicit
     wakeup of the interrupt thread and a variant of synchronize_irq()
     which synchronizes only the hard interrupt handler.  Both are
     needed to replace the homebrewn thread handling in the mmc/sdhci
     code.

   - New irq chip callbacks to allow proper support for GPIO based irqs.
     The GPIO based interrupts need to request/release GPIO resources
     from request/free_irq.

   - A few new ARM interrupt chips.  No revolutionary new hardware, just
     differently wreckaged variations of the scheme.

   - Small improvments, cleanups and updates all over the place"

I was hoping that that trainwreck engineering contest was a April Fools'
joke.  But no.

* 'irq-core-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/tip/tip: (68 commits)
  irqchip: sun7i/sun6i: Disable NMI before registering the handler
  ARM: sun7i/sun6i: dts: Fix IRQ number for sun6i NMI controller
  ARM: sun7i/sun6i: irqchip: Update the documentation
  ARM: sun7i/sun6i: dts: Add NMI irqchip support
  ARM: sun7i/sun6i: irqchip: Add irqchip driver for NMI controller
  genirq: Export symbol no_action()
  arm: omap: Fix typo in ams-delta-fiq.c
  m68k: atari: Fix the last kernel_stat.h fallout
  irqchip: sun4i: Simplify sun4i_irq_ack
  irqchip: sun4i: Use handle_fasteoi_irq for all interrupts
  genirq: procfs: Make smp_affinity values go+r
  softirq: Add linux/irq.h to make it compile again
  m68k: amiga: Add linux/irq.h to make it compile again
  irqchip: sun4i: Don't ack IRQs > 0, fix acking of IRQ 0
  irqchip: sun4i: Fix a comment about mask register initialization
  irqchip: sun4i: Fix irq 0 not working
  genirq: Add a new IRQCHIP_EOI_THREADED flag
  genirq: Document IRQCHIP_ONESHOT_SAFE flag
  ARM: sunxi: dt: Convert to the new irq controller compatibles
  irqchip: sunxi: Change compatibles
  ...
latest commit 0adc98b5c2
Linus Torvalds torvalds authored dorimanx committed
Octocat-spinner-32 Documentation Merge branch 'irq-core-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/lin… April 07, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 READY-JB Update Included SuperSu to 1.94 by chainfire! April 03, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 RECOVERY-PAYLOAD Moved Payload back to Kernel section! to free the initramfs + CIFS FIX. August 07, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 android-toolchain Merge branch 'net' into net-merge April 01, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 android lets show the unbelivers that this is 3.10.y kernel, ported all not u… August 18, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 arch Merge branch 'irq-core-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/lin… April 07, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 block SYNC block/blk-core.c with 3.14.rc8 main line. March 30, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 crypto crypto: create generic version of ablk_helper January 08, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 drivers Merge branch 'irq-core-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/lin… April 07, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 firmware Merge All UNUSED code from Main Line 3.14.rc6 source! nothing to see … March 15, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 fs Merge branch 'timers-core-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/… April 07, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 include Merge branch 'irq-core-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/lin… April 07, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 init Merge branch 'core-locking-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm… April 01, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 ipc Merge branch 'compat' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/gi… April 01, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 kernel Merge branch 'irq-core-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/lin… April 07, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 lib Merge branch 'net-merge' of https://github.com/StanTRC/Dorimanx-SG2-I… April 02, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 mm Merge branch 'for-3.15' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/… April 01, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 net Merge branch 'net-merge' of https://github.com/StanTRC/Dorimanx-SG2-I… April 02, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 samples Merge tag 'driver-core-3.14-rc1' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linu… February 15, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 scripts Merge branch 'x86-asmlinkage-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/s… April 01, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 security Merge branch 'net-merge' of https://github.com/StanTRC/Dorimanx-SG2-I… April 02, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 sound Merge branch 'net' into net-merge April 01, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 tools Merge branch 'perf-core-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/li… April 01, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 usr Merge branch 'akpm' (patches from Andrew Morton) November 13, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 virt Merge branch 'x86-asmlinkage-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/s… April 01, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 .gitignore Merge branch 'akpm' (patches from Andrew Morton) February 16, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 .hgignore test commit March 31, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 .mailmap Merge branch 'for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel… August 27, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 COPYING test commit March 31, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 CREDITS Merge tag 'char-misc-3.13-rc3' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/… December 10, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 Kbuild test commit March 31, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 Kconfig test commit March 31, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 MAINTAINERS Merge branch 'timers-core-for-linus' of git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/… April 07, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 Makefile Linux 3.14 April 01, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 README Update README for kernel. January 04, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 REPORTING-BUGS lets show the unbelivers that this is 3.10.y kernel, ported all not u… August 18, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 build_kernel.sh Misc mods to config and build. March 02, 2014
Octocat-spinner-32 clean-junk.sh Nuked old JUNK and parallel needs and enabled cross memory attach! August 10, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 clean-kernel.sh + some testing for *.sh June 12, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 compress-payload.sh Moved Payload back to Kernel section! to free the initramfs + CIFS FIX. August 07, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 compress-recovery-payload.sh + some testing for *.sh June 12, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 fix-permissions.sh + some testing for *.sh June 12, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 gitpush.sh + some testing for *.sh June 12, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 load_config.sh CSNAPPY: This saves a few movzwl instructions + build_kernel mods June 16, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 menu.sh + some testing for *.sh June 12, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 mkshbootimg.py More critical permissions fix. July 24, 2012
Octocat-spinner-32 mod_logo_build.sh Fixed centered text on boot logo October 20, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 payload.tar.xz Kernel build and compiler reconstruction, fixed sod on sleep. August 12, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 recovery.tar.xz Moved Payload back to Kernel section! to free the initramfs + CIFS FIX. August 07, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 supersu_update_md5.sh Added SuperSu md5 file to help auto updater on boot. November 15, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 update-alucard24.sh Fixed permissions August 11, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 update-voku.sh + some testing for *.sh June 12, 2013
Octocat-spinner-32 update.sh + some testing for *.sh June 12, 2013
README
                       This is Dorimanx Kernel 9.X/8.x

# You can build this kernel easily on BBQLinux (http://www.bbqlinux.org/), an Arch based distro for Android Devs.
# Install it and simply do these commands:

# Use 64BIT installation or build will fail!!!

# To compile you need:
sudo pacman -S bc

# set your shell to bash
chsh -s /bin/bash YOUR-USER(best if it will be root)

# set permissions on temp!
sudo chmod -R 777 /tmp

# Clean TMP
sudo rm -rf /tmp/*

# To clone this repo
mkdir ~/samsung-i9100
cd ~/samsung-i9100
git clone https://github.com/dorimanx/Dorimanx-SG2-I9100-Kernel.git
git clone https://github.com/dorimanx/initramfs3.git

# allow access for login as root to ssh
vi /etc/ssh/sshd_config

# look for
#PermitRootLogin yes

# uncomment
PermitRootLogin yes
# save file. (shift :wq)

# To enable SSH access to machine:
# open terminal
sudo systemctl start sshd

# to start it, and to make it start always at boot
sudo systemctl enable sshd.service
# ssh is online now :)

# Install normal text editor!
sudo pacman -S vim
export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vi
sudo rm /usr/bin/vi
sudo cp /usr/bin/vim /usr/bin/vi
echo "syntax on" > $HOME/.vimrc
echo "colo elflord" >> $HOME/.vimrc
echo "export EDITOR=vi" >> ~/.bashrc

# setup git to help you to work :)
cd ~/samsung-i9100/Dorimanx-SG2-I9100-Kernel
# tell git who are you!
git config --global user.name John Doe
git config --global user.email johndoe@example.com
# set helpers
git config --global push.default simple
git config --global alias.last 'log -1 HEAD'
git config --global alias.unstage 'reset HEAD --'
git config --global alias.hard 'reset --hard'
git config --global alias.co checkout
git config --global alias.br branch
git config --global alias.ci commit
git config --global alias.st status
git config --global color.diff auto
git config --global color.ui auto
git config --global color.status auto
git config --global color.branch auto

# check all config
git config -l
# set auto complite commands for git when using bash shell
cp /usr/share/git/completion/git-completion.bash ~/.git-completion.bash
vi ~/.bashrc
# add at the bottom if file
source ~/.git-completion.bash
# save! shift :wq
# to make it work exit and loggin to ssh/terminal again.

# To start the build
#********************************************
#!!!!Login to SSH/Terminal as ROOT user!!!!!!
#********************************************
# now if you are ROOT, then build, if you are not ROOT, go away.

cd ~/samsung-i9100/Dorimanx-SG2-I9100-Kernel
sh load_config.sh
sh build_kernel.sh

# Enjoy!

==================================================================

# This kernel is compiled on Ubuntu Server/Desktop 12.04 64BIT ONLY!!!.
# Kernel not support 32BIT!

# It is important to keep this one, otherwise the kernel will be compiled
# but it won't boot as the script will fire errors.

# It is important to install this otherwise the linaro GCC will fire errors
sudo apt-get install ia32-libs lib32ncurses5-dev ccache imagemagick libxml2-utils optipng zip tar bash vim

# Set you ssh shell to bash
chsh -s /bin/bash YOUR-USER(best if will be root)

# set permissions on temp!
sudo chmod -R 777 /tmp

# Clean TMP
sudo rm -rf /tmp/*

# Install normal text editor!
export EDITOR=/usr/bin/vim
update-alternatives --config editor
# choose  /usr/bin/vim.basic
echo "syntax on" > $HOME/.vimrc
echo "colo elflord" >> $HOME/.vimrc

# To clone this repo
sudo apt-get install git
mkdir ~/samsung-i9100
cd ~/samsung-i9100
git clone https://github.com/dorimanx/Dorimanx-SG2-I9100-Kernel.git
git clone https://github.com/dorimanx/initramfs3.git

# setup git to help you to work :)
cd ~/samsung-i9100/Dorimanx-SG2-I9100-Kernel
# tell git who are you!
git config --global user.name John Doe
git config --global user.email johndoe@example.com
# set helpers
git config --global push.default simple
git config --global alias.last 'log -1 HEAD'
git config --global alias.unstage 'reset HEAD --'
git config --global alias.hard 'reset --hard'
git config --global alias.co checkout
git config --global alias.br branch
git config --global alias.ci commit
git config --global alias.st status
git config --global color.diff auto
git config --global color.ui auto
git config --global color.status auto
git config --global color.branch auto

# check all config
git config -l
# set auto complite commands for git when using bash shell
cp /usr/share/git/completion/git-completion.bash ~/.git-completion.bash
vi ~/.bashrc
# add at the bottom if file
source ~/.git-completion.bash
# save! shift :wq
# to make it work exit and loggin to ssh/terminal again.

# To start the build
#***********************************
#!!!!Login to SSH as ROOT user!!!!!!
#***********************************

# now if you are ROOT, then build, if you are not ROOT, go away.
cd ~/samsung-i9100/Dorimanx-SG2-I9100-Kernel
sh load_config.sh
sh build_kernel.sh

==================================================================
My info guide.

How to cherry pick commits from other branch to yours.

fetch new branch, checkout inside.

git fetch git://github.com/dorimanx/Dorimanx-SG2-I9100-Kernel.git
git checkout FETCH_HEAD

now git log

find the hash number of the oldest commit that you want and the newst commit that you want,
it's a range of commits! :)

now example! ( the .. from old to new is a must)
rm -f *.patch  (clean all old junk)

you must use commit hash -1 from commit that you want to start adding!
just take commit that you have/not want as first!, git format-patch will start from next to one you put as the oldest.!

then "OLD" + "NEW" are info, dont write.

git format-patch "OLD" 177e5c7ce53b6d06b9ee3448c00215ba6d70ffc9..c87ade04d28d2024b8ed2000346aa568a07a7f0b "NEW"
git checkout DESTINATION/YOUR branch.
git am *.patch
rm -f *.patch
git push

all done :)

if git am fail to add patch, you can stop and try to fix the commit, that is another story :)

=================================================================

UNIX & Linux Shell Scripting Tutorial

TOC | Introduction | Variables | If/Else | Looping | Cases | Functions | Search & Sort | Advanced | Forum

If/Else

In order for a script to be very useful, you will need to be able to test the conditions of variables. Most programming and scripting languages have some sort of if/else expression and so does the bourne shell. Unlike most other languages, spaces are very important when using an if statement. Let's do a simple script that will ask a user for a password before allowing him to continue. This is obviously not how you would implement such security in a real system, but it will make a good example of using if and else statements.

#!/bin/sh
# This is some secure program that uses security.

VALID_PASSWORD="secret" #this is our password.

echo "Please enter the password:"
read PASSWORD

if [ "$PASSWORD" == "$VALID_PASSWORD" ]; then
	echo "You have access!"
else
	echo "ACCESS DENIED!"
fi

Remember that the spacing is very important in the if statement. Notice that the termination of the if statement is fi. You will need to use the fi statement to terminate an if whether or not use use an else as well. You can also replace the "==" with "!=" to test if the variables are NOT equal. There are other tokens that you can put in place of the "==" for other types of tests. The following table shows the different expressions allowed.
Comparisons:
-eq	equal to
-ne	not equal to
-lt	less than
-le	less than or equal to
-gt	greater than
-ge	greater than or equal to

File Operations:
-s	file exists and is not empty
-f	file exists and is not a directory
-d	directory exists
-x	file is executable
-w	file is writable
-r	file is readable

Let's try using a couple of these in a script. This next script will ask for a user name, if there is not a file that exists with the name "username_DAT", the script will prompt the user for their age, it will then make sure that they are old enough to use this program and then it will write their age to a file with the name "username_DAT". If the file already exists, it will just display the age of the user.

#!/bin/sh

# Prompt for a user name...
echo "Please enter your name:"
read USERNAME

# Check for the file.
if [ -s ${USERNAME}_DAT ]; then
        # Read the age from the file.
        AGE=`cat ${USERNAME}_DAT`
        echo "You are $AGE years old!"
else
        # Ask the user for his/her age
        echo "How old are you?"
        read AGE

	if [ "$AGE" -le 2 ]; then
		echo "You are too young!"
	else
		if [ "$AGE" -ge 100 ]; then
			echo "You are too old!"
		else
			# Write the age to a new file.
			echo $AGE > ${USERNAME}_DAT
		fi
	fi
fi

Run this program a couple of times. First run it and give it the user name of "john". When it asks for an age, enter the age "1". Notice that it will say that you are too you and then exit. Now run the program again with the name "john" and the age 200. This time the script will tell you that you are too old and exit. Now run the the script again with the name of "john", enter the age 30. The script exits normally this time, the program created a file called "john_DAT" which contains the text "30". Finally run the program one more time and give it the name "john". This time it will not prompt you to enter an age, instead it will read the age from a file and say "Your are 30 years old!".

We introduced something else new in this script. On line 10 of the file, we see the code:

	AGE=`cat ${USERNAME}_DAT`

This is how you execute a command and put the text output from the command into a variable. The unix command cat reads the file named ${USERNAME}_DAT and outputs it to the console. Instead of putting it to the console in our script, we wrap the command with the character `, this puts the text into our variable AGE.

You can test multiple expressions at once by using the || (or) operator or the && (and) operator. This can save you from writing extra code to nest if statements. The above code has a nested if statement where it checks if the age is greater than or equal to 100. This could be changed as well by using elif (else if). The structure of elif is the same as the structure of if, we will use it in an example below. In this example, we will check for certain age ranges. If you are less than 20 or greater than 50, you are out of the age range. If you are between 20 and 30 you are in your 20's and so on.

#!/bin/sh

# Prompt for a user name...
echo "Please enter your age:"
read AGE

if [ "$AGE" -lt 20 ] || [ "$AGE" -ge 50 ]; then
	echo "Sorry, you are out of the age range."
elif [ "$AGE" -ge 20 ] && [ "$AGE" -lt 30 ]; then
	echo "You are in your 20s"
elif [ "$AGE" -ge 30 ] && [ "$AGE" -lt 40 ]; then
	echo "You are in your 30s"
elif [ "$AGE" -ge 40 ] && [ "$AGE" -lt 50 ]; then
	echo "You are in your 40s"
fi




More will be added later.

=================================================================

Kernel is updated to 3.12.Y and beyond.(hybrid)(we have 90% from 3.12.Y kernel!)
This is JB Tuned Kernel only! not supporting any 2.x.x/4.0.x roms!
Dual CPU support
Default CPU governor: HYPER
CFS CPU SCHEDULER Tweaks.
Default CPU frequency: 200-1200 MHz (MAX OC up to 1.6Ghz speed!)
Kernel Support STweaks and 5 Profiles.
Overclocking to 1600 MHz. (via ANY CPU Tweak Apps or STweaks)
Kernel support 16 CPU steps! 1600Mhz->100Mhz by static default!
You can set MIN/MAX CPU Freq in STweaks app! + lots of CPU tweaks.
Kernel will sleep in deep sleep on 200Mhz->800Mhz as Samsung requesting to prevent SOD.
Support undervolt/overvolting via sysfs interface/apps interface. and STweaks (850-1500mV) (all set to best)
Be very careful with voltage settings! (all set already)
Default I/O Scheduling: ROW
More I/O Scheduling present in kernel: DEADLINE, VR, NOOP, FIFO, CFQ, SIO, ZEN
Native USB Tethering.
Native Wi-Fi Tethering
File systems support: Ext3/4, FAT32, NFS, CIFS, NTFS
Added tweaks to increase I/O Speed.
Added tweaks to increase CPU speed
Removed all the debuggers to free kernel from unneeded jobs, and logs.
More Govs present, conservative, performance, pegasusq, nightmare, zzmoove, ondemand(default sleep gov), sleepy.
ZRAM SWAP add more 150/300/600MB compressed RAM, activated by STweaks, set to off by default.
Tweak camera (better picks quality)
Kernel Include Siyah Recovery with Dual ROM support!
In Recovery you have section to select kernel profile. Performance, default, battery, the default is DEFAULT.
Kernel will Auto ROOT your device!
You can disable ROOT in STweaks app!
Tuned for I/O Mega Speed SQLite is injected to ROM after install, only for CM10.1 or AOKP and JB SAMMY ROMS, will NOT be injected to cMIUI.
BLN by GM! lights time out, and blink/breathing effect, see STweaks BLN tab to activate!
New Kernel Management app STweaks by GM! installed with kernel.
BLN without Wakelock to save battery when BLN active till timed out. by GM.
Touch Keys Light change with the screen brightness! by GM.
Massive script for kernel/ROM management made by Voku and me
It's will work by auto and set lots of tweaks: NET tweaks, GPU tweaks, CPU management, Deep Sleep Tuning, Charging states, and more!
It's name is cortexbrain-tune.sh
WE SAFE (MMC_CAP_ERASE not present) in kernel MMC Code!
MMC code merged with SAMMY Update 7
FM-RADIO WORKING! (you need Spirit FM PAID!!!!) or Sammy ROM with FM APP.
Touch screen color + touch thresholds are in STweaks,
Kernel Cleaning Script is build IN! by VOKU.
BT Support for SAMMY 4.0.4 ported by GM! + BT driver from SAMMY JB LEAK
Video(GPU) + Camera Driver from SAMMY JB/CM10.1 + patches
WIFI Driver 1.61.47
Modem Driver from SAMMY JB SOURCE
SMP Processor code updated from Kernel 3.10.Y
RCU + SRCU Processor code updated from Kernel 3.10.Y
Kernel Code for on screen gestures by Tungstwenty fixed by MARIO1968
EXT4 Code merged with lots of updates from 3.6.Y kernel
SLUB fully merged with 3.9.Y Google Android kernel
SCHED CORE fully merged with 3.10.Y kernel.
Mem merged with 3.9.Y Google Android kernel.
VFP updated to MAX from 3.10.Y
Slide2Wake by FLUXI, (swipe from left to right on turned off screen to wakeup device, tweak can be turned on/off in STweaks, this mod use 5% battery! (Modded by GM for less battery drain)
Sound boost controls by FLUXI in STweaks.
New Mali V2 Video Driver combined with old to support JB STOCK in one kernel(8.X branch) by Gokhanmoral/me/CM-TEAM!
In 9.X branch we have MALIv2 ONLY video driver for CM/AOKP new ROMS.
Added mdnie interface and made hardcore.s sharpness tweaks optional by GM!
5 GPU FREQ Steps from 108Mhz to 520Mhz by GM!
Ultra KSM from 3.9.y kernel.

	Linux kernel release 3.x <http://kernel.org/>

These are the release notes for Linux version 3.  Read them carefully,
as they tell you what this is all about, explain how to install the
kernel, and what to do if something goes wrong.

WHAT IS LINUX?

  Linux is a clone of the operating system Unix, written from scratch by
  Linus Torvalds with assistance from a loosely-knit team of hackers across
  the Net. It aims towards POSIX and Single UNIX Specification compliance.

  It has all the features you would expect in a modern fully-fledged Unix,
  including true multitasking, virtual memory, shared libraries, demand
  loading, shared copy-on-write executables, proper memory management,
  and multistack networking including IPv4 and IPv6.

  It is distributed under the GNU General Public License - see the
  accompanying COPYING file for more details.

ON WHAT HARDWARE DOES IT RUN?

  Although originally developed first for 32-bit x86-based PCs (386 or higher),
  today Linux also runs on (at least) the Compaq Alpha AXP, Sun SPARC and
  UltraSPARC, Motorola 68000, PowerPC, PowerPC64, ARM, Hitachi SuperH, Cell,
  IBM S/390, MIPS, HP PA-RISC, Intel IA-64, DEC VAX, AMD x86-64, AXIS CRIS,
  Xtensa, Tilera TILE, AVR32 and Renesas M32R architectures.

  Linux is easily portable to most general-purpose 32- or 64-bit architectures
  as long as they have a paged memory management unit (PMMU) and a port of the
  GNU C compiler (gcc) (part of The GNU Compiler Collection, GCC). Linux has
  also been ported to a number of architectures without a PMMU, although
  functionality is then obviously somewhat limited.
  Linux has also been ported to itself. You can now run the kernel as a
  userspace application - this is called UserMode Linux (UML).

DOCUMENTATION:

 - There is a lot of documentation available both in electronic form on
   the Internet and in books, both Linux-specific and pertaining to
   general UNIX questions.  I'd recommend looking into the documentation
   subdirectories on any Linux FTP site for the LDP (Linux Documentation
   Project) books.  This README is not meant to be documentation on the
   system: there are much better sources available.

 - There are various README files in the Documentation/ subdirectory:
   these typically contain kernel-specific installation notes for some
   drivers for example. See Documentation/00-INDEX for a list of what
   is contained in each file.  Please read the Changes file, as it
   contains information about the problems, which may result by upgrading
   your kernel.

 - The Documentation/DocBook/ subdirectory contains several guides for
   kernel developers and users.  These guides can be rendered in a
   number of formats:  PostScript (.ps), PDF, HTML, & man-pages, among others.
   After installation, "make psdocs", "make pdfdocs", "make htmldocs",
   or "make mandocs" will render the documentation in the requested format.

INSTALLING the kernel source:

 - If you install the full sources, put the kernel tarball in a
   directory where you have permissions (eg. your home directory) and
   unpack it:

		gzip -cd linux-3.X.tar.gz | tar xvf -

   or
		bzip2 -dc linux-3.X.tar.bz2 | tar xvf -


   Replace "XX" with the version number of the latest kernel.

   Do NOT use the /usr/src/linux area! This area has a (usually
   incomplete) set of kernel headers that are used by the library header
   files.  They should match the library, and not get messed up by
   whatever the kernel-du-jour happens to be.

 - You can also upgrade between 3.x releases by patching.  Patches are
   distributed in the traditional gzip and the newer bzip2 format.  To
   install by patching, get all the newer patch files, enter the
   top level directory of the kernel source (linux-3.x) and execute:

		gzip -cd ../patch-3.x.gz | patch -p1

   or
		bzip2 -dc ../patch-3.x.bz2 | patch -p1

   (repeat xx for all versions bigger than the version of your current
   source tree, _in_order_) and you should be ok.  You may want to remove
   the backup files (xxx~ or xxx.orig), and make sure that there are no
   failed patches (xxx# or xxx.rej). If there are, either you or me has
   made a mistake.

   Unlike patches for the 3.x kernels, patches for the 3.x.y kernels
   (also known as the -stable kernels) are not incremental but instead apply
   directly to the base 3.x kernel.  Please read
   Documentation/applying-patches.txt for more information.

   Alternatively, the script patch-kernel can be used to automate this
   process.  It determines the current kernel version and applies any
   patches found.

		linux/scripts/patch-kernel linux

   The first argument in the command above is the location of the
   kernel source.  Patches are applied from the current directory, but
   an alternative directory can be specified as the second argument.

 - If you are upgrading between releases using the stable series patches
   (for example, patch-3.x.y), note that these "dot-releases" are
   not incremental and must be applied to the 3.x base tree. For
   example, if your base kernel is 3.0 and you want to apply the
   3.0.3 patch, you do not and indeed must not first apply the
   3.0.1 and 3.0.2 patches. Similarly, if you are running kernel
   version 3.0.2 and want to jump to 3.0.3, you must first
   reverse the 3.0.2 patch (that is, patch -R) _before_ applying
   the 3.0.3 patch.
   You can read more on this in Documentation/applying-patches.txt

 - Make sure you have no stale .o files and dependencies lying around:

		cd linux
		make mrproper

   You should now have the sources correctly installed.

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

   Compiling and running the 3.x kernels requires up-to-date
   versions of various software packages.  Consult
   Documentation/Changes for the minimum version numbers required
   and how to get updates for these packages.  Beware that using
   excessively old versions of these packages can cause indirect
   errors that are very difficult to track down, so don't assume that
   you can just update packages when obvious problems arise during
   build or operation.

BUILD directory for the kernel:

   When compiling the kernel all output files will per default be
   stored together with the kernel source code.
   Using the option "make O=output/dir" allow you to specify an alternate
   place for the output files (including .config).
   Example:
     kernel source code:	/usr/src/linux-3.N
     build directory:		/home/name/build/kernel

   To configure and build the kernel use:
   cd /usr/src/linux-3.N
   make O=/home/name/build/kernel menuconfig
   make O=/home/name/build/kernel
   sudo make O=/home/name/build/kernel modules_install install

   Please note: If the 'O=output/dir' option is used then it must be
   used for all invocations of make.

CONFIGURING the kernel:

   Do not skip this step even if you are only upgrading one minor
   version.  New configuration options are added in each release, and
   odd problems will turn up if the configuration files are not set up
   as expected.  If you want to carry your existing configuration to a
   new version with minimal work, use "make oldconfig", which will
   only ask you for the answers to new questions.

 - Alternate configuration commands are:
	"make config"      Plain text interface.
	"make menuconfig"  Text based color menus, radiolists & dialogs.
	"make nconfig"     Enhanced text based color menus.
	"make xconfig"     X windows (Qt) based configuration tool.
	"make gconfig"     X windows (Gtk) based configuration tool.
	"make oldconfig"   Default all questions based on the contents of
			   your existing ./.config file and asking about
			   new config symbols.
	"make silentoldconfig"
			   Like above, but avoids cluttering the screen
			   with questions already answered.
			   Additionally updates the dependencies.
	"make defconfig"   Create a ./.config file by using the default
			   symbol values from either arch/$ARCH/defconfig
			   or arch/$ARCH/configs/${PLATFORM}_defconfig,
			   depending on the architecture.
	"make ${PLATFORM}_defconfig"
			  Create a ./.config file by using the default
			  symbol values from
			  arch/$ARCH/configs/${PLATFORM}_defconfig.
			  Use "make help" to get a list of all available
			  platforms of your architecture.
	"make allyesconfig"
			   Create a ./.config file by setting symbol
			   values to 'y' as much as possible.
	"make allmodconfig"
			   Create a ./.config file by setting symbol
			   values to 'm' as much as possible.
	"make allnoconfig" Create a ./.config file by setting symbol
			   values to 'n' as much as possible.
	"make randconfig"  Create a ./.config file by setting symbol
			   values to random values.

   You can find more information on using the Linux kernel config tools
   in Documentation/kbuild/kconfig.txt.

	NOTES on "make config":
	- having unnecessary drivers will make the kernel bigger, and can
	  under some circumstances lead to problems: probing for a
	  nonexistent controller card may confuse your other controllers
	- compiling the kernel with "Processor type" set higher than 386
	  will result in a kernel that does NOT work on a 386.  The
	  kernel will detect this on bootup, and give up.
	- A kernel with math-emulation compiled in will still use the
	  coprocessor if one is present: the math emulation will just
	  never get used in that case.  The kernel will be slightly larger,
	  but will work on different machines regardless of whether they
	  have a math coprocessor or not.
	- the "kernel hacking" configuration details usually result in a
	  bigger or slower kernel (or both), and can even make the kernel
	  less stable by configuring some routines to actively try to
	  break bad code to find kernel problems (kmalloc()).  Thus you
	  should probably answer 'n' to the questions for
          "development", "experimental", or "debugging" features.

COMPILING the kernel:

 - Make sure you have at least gcc 3.2 available.
   For more information, refer to Documentation/Changes.

   Please note that you can still run a.out user programs with this kernel.

 - Do a "make" to create a compressed kernel image. It is also
   possible to do "make install" if you have lilo installed to suit the
   kernel makefiles, but you may want to check your particular lilo setup first.

   To do the actual install you have to be root, but none of the normal
   build should require that. Don't take the name of root in vain.

 - If you configured any of the parts of the kernel as `modules', you
   will also have to do "make modules_install".

 - Verbose kernel compile/build output:

   Normally the kernel build system runs in a fairly quiet mode (but not
   totally silent).  However, sometimes you or other kernel developers need
   to see compile, link, or other commands exactly as they are executed.
   For this, use "verbose" build mode.  This is done by inserting
   "V=1" in the "make" command.  E.g.:

	make V=1 all

   To have the build system also tell the reason for the rebuild of each
   target, use "V=2".  The default is "V=0".

 - Keep a backup kernel handy in case something goes wrong.  This is
   especially true for the development releases, since each new release
   contains new code which has not been debugged.  Make sure you keep a
   backup of the modules corresponding to that kernel, as well.  If you
   are installing a new kernel with the same version number as your
   working kernel, make a backup of your modules directory before you
   do a "make modules_install".
   Alternatively, before compiling, use the kernel config option
   "LOCALVERSION" to append a unique suffix to the regular kernel version.
   LOCALVERSION can be set in the "General Setup" menu.

 - In order to boot your new kernel, you'll need to copy the kernel
   image (e.g. .../linux/arch/i386/boot/bzImage after compilation)
   to the place where your regular bootable kernel is found.

 - Booting a kernel directly from a floppy without the assistance of a
   bootloader such as LILO, is no longer supported.

   If you boot Linux from the hard drive, chances are you use LILO which
   uses the kernel image as specified in the file /etc/lilo.conf.  The
   kernel image file is usually /vmlinuz, /boot/vmlinuz, /bzImage or
   /boot/bzImage.  To use the new kernel, save a copy of the old image
   and copy the new image over the old one.  Then, you MUST RERUN LILO
   to update the loading map!! If you don't, you won't be able to boot
   the new kernel image.

   Reinstalling LILO is usually a matter of running /sbin/lilo.
   You may wish to edit /etc/lilo.conf to specify an entry for your
   old kernel image (say, /vmlinux.old) in case the new one does not
   work.  See the LILO docs for more information.

   After reinstalling LILO, you should be all set.  Shutdown the system,
   reboot, and enjoy!

   If you ever need to change the default root device, video mode,
   ramdisk size, etc.  in the kernel image, use the 'rdev' program (or
   alternatively the LILO boot options when appropriate).  No need to
   recompile the kernel to change these parameters.

 - Reboot with the new kernel and enjoy.

IF SOMETHING GOES WRONG:

 - If you have problems that seem to be due to kernel bugs, please check
   the file MAINTAINERS to see if there is a particular person associated
   with the part of the kernel that you are having trouble with. If there
   isn't anyone listed there, then the second best thing is to mail
   them to me (torvalds@linux-foundation.org), and possibly to any other
   relevant mailing-list or to the newsgroup.

 - In all bug-reports, *please* tell what kernel you are talking about,
   how to duplicate the problem, and what your setup is (use your common
   sense).  If the problem is new, tell me so, and if the problem is
   old, please try to tell me when you first noticed it.

 - If the bug results in a message like

	unable to handle kernel paging request at address C0000010
	Oops: 0002
	EIP:   0010:XXXXXXXX
	eax: xxxxxxxx   ebx: xxxxxxxx   ecx: xxxxxxxx   edx: xxxxxxxx
	esi: xxxxxxxx   edi: xxxxxxxx   ebp: xxxxxxxx
	ds: xxxx  es: xxxx  fs: xxxx  gs: xxxx
	Pid: xx, process nr: xx
	xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx xx

   or similar kernel debugging information on your screen or in your
   system log, please duplicate it *exactly*.  The dump may look
   incomprehensible to you, but it does contain information that may
   help debugging the problem.  The text above the dump is also
   important: it tells something about why the kernel dumped code (in
   the above example it's due to a bad kernel pointer). More information
   on making sense of the dump is in Documentation/oops-tracing.txt

 - If you compiled the kernel with CONFIG_KALLSYMS you can send the dump
   as is, otherwise you will have to use the "ksymoops" program to make
   sense of the dump (but compiling with CONFIG_KALLSYMS is usually preferred).
   This utility can be downloaded from
   ftp://ftp.<country>.kernel.org/pub/linux/utils/kernel/ksymoops/ .
   Alternately you can do the dump lookup by hand:

 - In debugging dumps like the above, it helps enormously if you can
   look up what the EIP value means.  The hex value as such doesn't help
   me or anybody else very much: it will depend on your particular
   kernel setup.  What you should do is take the hex value from the EIP
   line (ignore the "0010:"), and look it up in the kernel namelist to
   see which kernel function contains the offending address.

   To find out the kernel function name, you'll need to find the system
   binary associated with the kernel that exhibited the symptom.  This is
   the file 'linux/vmlinux'.  To extract the namelist and match it against
   the EIP from the kernel crash, do:

		nm vmlinux | sort | less

   This will give you a list of kernel addresses sorted in ascending
   order, from which it is simple to find the function that contains the
   offending address.  Note that the address given by the kernel
   debugging messages will not necessarily match exactly with the
   function addresses (in fact, that is very unlikely), so you can't
   just 'grep' the list: the list will, however, give you the starting
   point of each kernel function, so by looking for the function that
   has a starting address lower than the one you are searching for but
   is followed by a function with a higher address you will find the one
   you want.  In fact, it may be a good idea to include a bit of
   "context" in your problem report, giving a few lines around the
   interesting one.

   If you for some reason cannot do the above (you have a pre-compiled
   kernel image or similar), telling me as much about your setup as
   possible will help.  Please read the REPORTING-BUGS document for details.

 - Alternately, you can use gdb on a running kernel. (read-only; i.e. you
   cannot change values or set break points.) To do this, first compile the
   kernel with -g; edit arch/i386/Makefile appropriately, then do a "make
   clean". You'll also need to enable CONFIG_PROC_FS (via "make config").

   After you've rebooted with the new kernel, do "gdb vmlinux /proc/kcore".
   You can now use all the usual gdb commands. The command to look up the
   point where your system crashed is "l *0xXXXXXXXX". (Replace the XXXes
   with the EIP value.)

   gdb'ing a non-running kernel currently fails because gdb (wrongly)
   disregards the starting offset for which the kernel is compiled.
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