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README.adoc

This project shows how to build "micro" applications with Spring and Spring Boot - the smallest, functional units, with the fewest dependencies and fastest start times

Open in Gitpod

Building the Apps

Build the jar:

$ ./mvnw clean install

Run it

$ java -jar target/micro-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar
...
2018-05-23 10:03:41.776 [main] INFO  com.example.demo.DemoApplication - Started DemoApplication in 1.885 seconds (JVM running for 3.769)
...

The default app is relatively full-bodied - it uses Spring Boot and auto-configuration.

You can run the smaller apps using command line flags:

$ java -jar target/micro-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar --thin.main=com.example.mini.MiniApplication
...
May 23, 2018 10:05:41 AM reactor.util.Loggers$Slf4JLogger info
INFO: Started HttpServer on /127.0.0.1:8080

The main class could be one of

Main

Description

com.example.demo.DemoApplication

(The default). Spring Boot with Webflux and full autoconfiguration

com.example.manual.ManualApplication

Spring Boot with Webflux but manually importing autoconfiguration using @ImportAutoConfiguration

com.example.boot.BootApplication

Spring Boot with Webflux and RouterFunction but no autoconfiguration

com.example.func.FuncApplication

Spring (not Boot) with Webflux and RouterFunction using manual functional bean registration

com.example.func.BuncApplication

Spring Boot with Webflux and RouterFunction using manual functional bean registration

com.example.mini.MiniApplication

Raw Spring, no autoconfiguration, but using @Configuration and RouterFunction

com.example.micro.MicroApplication

Raw Spring with no @Configuration

The thin.profile could be empty (the default) for just spring-boot-starter-webflux dependencies, or you can try jack for a more "normal" set of dependencies, e.g. with hibernate-validator, jackson, and logback. Other choices add more dependencies (e.g. actr for spring-boot-starter-actuator). You will need the "jack" profile to use actuators, so --thin.profile=actr,jack.

The apps are already systematically benchmarked here with regular JVMs: https://github.com/dsyer/spring-boot-startup-bench/blob/master/flux/README.adoc. The point of this project is just to extract them out of the JMH benchmarks, and make them easily executable as standalone apps. In the benchmarks, the "jack" profile is the default, and "jlog" is the faster reduced set of dependencies.

Benchmarks

Spring Boot 2.3.0:

class             method  sample  beans    classes   heap   memory  median  mean   range
MicroBenchmark    main    empt    38.000   3344.000  5.556  36.461  0.515   0.523  0.010
MicroBenchmark    main    react   ≈0       2163.000  5.995  30.828  0.223   0.228  0.007
MicroBenchmark    main    micro   6.000    3168.000  6.750  38.088  0.311   0.317  0.009
MicroBenchmark    main    mini    27.000   3731.000  6.625  41.262  0.450   0.455  0.008
MicroBenchmark    main    func    44.000   3325.000  7.117  39.532  0.447   0.455  0.008
MicroBenchmark    main    bunc    45.000   3955.000  6.859  43.211  0.505   0.521  0.023
MicroBenchmark    main    cunc    51.000   4145.000  6.057  43.402  0.545   0.571  0.046
MicroBenchmark    main    boot    28.000   3397.000  6.204  40.375  0.399   0.404  0.005
MicroBenchmark    main    manl    54.000   4301.000  6.323  44.583  0.612   0.619  0.012
MicroBenchmark    main    demo    105.000  4729.000  7.878  48.748  0.788   0.802  0.020
ProfileBenchmark  main    jack    103.000  5095.000  9.230  52.456  0.835   0.848  0.011
ProfileBenchmark  main    actr    190.000  5196.000  9.701  53.370  1.009   1.020  0.014
ProfileBenchmark  main    jdbc    140.000  5135.000  9.240  52.510  0.928   0.941  0.012
ProfileBenchmark  main    actj    230.000  5401.000  8.676  53.516  1.090   1.114  0.036

Spring Boot 2.2.1:

class           method  sample beans  classes    heap  memory  median  mean  range
MicroBenchmark    main  react ≈ 0     2166.000  5.897  30.746  0.219  0.224  0.007
MicroBenchmark    main  empt  32.000  3269.000  6.366  36.951  0.469  0.481  0.015
MicroBenchmark    main  micro 6.000   3156.000  6.638  37.913  0.305  0.312  0.008
MicroBenchmark    main  mini  27.000  3734.000  6.660  41.262  0.444  0.450  0.008
MicroBenchmark    main  func  45.000  3298.000  6.870  39.068  0.435  0.444  0.012
MicroBenchmark    main  bunc  46.000  3915.000  6.806  42.849  0.503  0.537  0.040
MicroBenchmark    main  cunc  52.000  4101.000  5.868  42.908  0.529  0.577  0.054
MicroBenchmark    main  boot  28.000  4043.000  6.012  42.109  0.387  0.395  0.011
MicroBenchmark    main  manl  53.000  4231.000  6.105  43.980  0.574  0.583  0.011
MicroBenchmark    main  demo  100.000 4671.000  7.352  47.825  0.731  0.756  0.031
ProfileBenchmark  main  jack  98.000  5431.000  9.899  54.039  0.778  0.795  0.015
ProfileBenchmark  main  actr  188.000 5704.000  9.418  55.329  0.945  0.957  0.014
ProfileBenchmark  main  jdbc  138.000 5625.000  8.262  53.747  0.880  0.980  0.137
ProfileBenchmark  main  actj  228.000 5884.000  10.758 57.704  1.030  1.142  0.116

Snapshots after 2.2.0.M4:

class         method  sample  beans  classes   heap  memory  median  mean  range
MicroBenchmark  main  empt  29.000  3272.000  6.388  36.948  0.461  0.491  0.051
MicroBenchmark  main  micro  6.000  3135.000  6.554  37.536  0.296  0.301  0.007
MicroBenchmark  main  mini  27.000  3697.000  6.546  40.860  0.426  0.438  0.011
MicroBenchmark  main  func  45.000  3317.000  6.955  39.155  0.427  0.438  0.022
MicroBenchmark  main  bunc  46.000  3922.000  6.745  42.758  0.471  0.482  0.011
MicroBenchmark  main  cunc  52.000  4082.000  5.819  42.736  0.510  0.524  0.029
MicroBenchmark  main  demo  96.000  4632.000  7.120  47.307  0.712  0.738  0.060

Earlier results:

class        method  sample  beans   classes  heap    memory  median  mean  range
MainBenchmark  main  empt  24.000   3230.000  5.103  38.769  0.546  0.555  0.018
MainBenchmark  main  jlog  80.000   3598.000  6.141  43.006  0.667  0.679  0.019
MainBenchmark  main  demo  93.000   4365.000  8.024  49.564  0.766  0.773  0.011
MainBenchmark  main  actr  174.000  5172.000  8.538  54.216  0.902  0.911  0.020
MainBenchmark  main  jdbc  131.000  5261.000  9.174  55.252  0.883  0.902  0.031
MainBenchmark  main  actj  214.000  5510.000  9.007  56.571  0.995  1.021  0.065
class         method  sample  beans  classes  heap  memory  median  mean  range
MiniBenchmark  boot   jlog  28.000  3336.000  7.082  41.949  0.588  0.597  0.014
MiniBenchmark  boot   demo  28.000  4012.000  6.508  45.566  0.703  0.710  0.011
MiniBenchmark  first  jlog  2.000   2176.000  6.556  38.574  0.416  0.418  0.004
MiniBenchmark  first  demo  2.000   2913.000  5.647  42.091  0.515  0.523  0.008
MiniBenchmark  micro  jlog  2.000   2176.000  4.608  32.886  0.336  0.345  0.013
MiniBenchmark  micro  demo  2.000   2913.000  7.318  40.454  0.438  0.451  0.016
MiniBenchmark  mini   jlog  27.000  3059.000  5.487  38.953  0.534  0.545  0.018
MiniBenchmark  mini   demo  27.000  3732.000  5.969  43.726  0.631  0.636  0.007

Building a Native Image

All the apps are compilable to a native binary image using the Graal tools once you have Andy’s Spring Graal Feature library - just clone it and mvn install it.

Download GraalVM and install it (add the bin dir to you path and set the JAVA_HOME to point to GraalVM). You can also use sdkman to download it. You will need GraalVM 19.0.

Compute the classpath using the graal profile so that we can work around some limitations[1] of the Graal Features library:

$ CP=`java -jar target/micro-0.0.1-SNAPSHOT.jar --thin.classpath --thin.profile=graal`

Then build an image:

$ native-image -Dio.netty.noUnsafe=true --no-server -H:Name=target/micro -H:+ReportExceptionStackTraces --no-fallback --allow-incomplete-classpath --report-unsupported-elements-at-runtime -cp $CP com.example.micro.MicroApplication

Then run it:

$ ./target/micro
Started HttpServer: 2ms

Excellent!

You can do the same with all the applications in this project, including DemoApplication (full Spring Boot):

$ native-image -Dio.netty.noUnsafe=true --no-server -H:Name=target/demo -H:+ReportExceptionStackTraces --no-fallback --allow-incomplete-classpath --report-unsupported-elements-at-runtime -cp $CP com.example.demo.DemoApplication
$ ./target/demo

  .   ____          _            __ _ _
 /\\ / ___'_ __ _ _(_)_ __  __ _ \ \ \ \
( ( )\___ | '_ | '_| | '_ \/ _` | \ \ \ \
 \\/  ___)| |_)| | | | | || (_| |  ) ) ) )
  '  |____| .__|_| |_|_| |_\__, | / / / /
 =========|_|==============|___/=/_/_/_/
 :: Spring Boot ::

Aug 07, 2018 11:25:13 AM org.springframework.boot.StartupInfoLogger logStarting
INFO: Starting application on tower with PID 11253 (started by dsyer in /home/dsyer/dev/demo/workspace/micro)
Aug 07, 2018 11:25:13 AM org.springframework.boot.SpringApplication logStartupProfileInfo
INFO: No active profile set, falling back to default profiles: default
Aug 07, 2018 11:25:13 AM org.springframework.boot.web.embedded.netty.NettyWebServer start
INFO: Netty started on port(s): 8080
Aug 07, 2018 11:25:13 AM org.springframework.boot.StartupInfoLogger logStarted
INFO: Started application in 0.036 seconds (JVM running for 0.04)
Benchmark app started
Started HttpServer: 40ms

Note that whenever @Configuration is used, including in meta annotations like @SpringBootApplication, it must have the proxyBeanMethods = false flag set. CGLib is not friendly with GraalVM native images.


1. Log4j with java.util logging doesn’t work at the moment.

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