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README.md

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Dynamic (DYN) v2.4.4.1

DYN logo

Copyright (c) 2016-2019 Duality Blockchain Solutions

What is Dynamic?

  • Coin Suffix: DYN
  • PoW Mining Algorithm: Argon2d
  • PoW Difficulty Algorithm: Digishield V3
  • PoW Period: Unlimited
  • PoW Target Spacing: 128 Seconds
  • PoW Reward per Block: Controlled via Fluid Protocol
  • PoW Reward Start Height: Block 5,137
  • Maturity: 10 Blocks
  • PoW Blocks: ~675 per day
  • Dynode Collateral Amount: 1000 DYN
  • Dynode Min Confirmation: 17 Blocks
  • Dynode Reward: Controlled via Fluid Protocol
  • Dynode Reward Start Height: Block 10,273
  • Total Coins: 263 - 1
  • Min TX Fee: 0.0001 DYN
  • Max Block Size: 4MB

Dynamic(DYN) allows fast, secure, verifiable transfers of data using blockchain technology and enables third-party developers to build low-cost solutions across varied industry using the BDAP protocol. Dynamic can be used to run incentivized Dynodes; the second tier of nodes on the network processing, verifying, validating and storing data.

MainNet Parameters P2P Port = 33300 RPC Port = 33350 Dynodes = 33300 Magic Bytes: 0x5e 0x61 0x74 0x80

TestNet Parameters P2P Port = 33400 RPC Port = 33450 Dynodes = 33400 Magic Bytes: 0x2f 0x32 0x15 0x40

RegTest Parameters P2P Port = 33500 RPC Port = 33550 Dynodes = 33500 Magic Bytes = 0x2f 0x32 0x15 0x3f

UNIX BUILD NOTES

Some notes on how to build Dynamic in Unix.

Note

Always use absolute paths to configure and compile Dynamic and the dependencies, for example, when specifying the the path of the dependency:

../dist/configure --enable-cxx --disable-shared --with-pic --prefix=$BDB_PREFIX

Here BDB_PREFIX must absolute path - it is defined using $(pwd) which ensures the usage of the absolute path.

To Build

./autogen.sh
./configure
make
make install # optional

This will build dynamic-qt as well if the dependencies are met.

Dependencies

These dependencies are required:

Library Purpose Description
libssl SSL Support Secure communications
libboost Boost C++ Library
libevent Networking OS independent asynchronous networking

Optional dependencies:

Library Purpose Description
miniupnpc UPnP Support Firewall-jumping support
libdb4.8 Berkeley DB Wallet storage (only needed when wallet enabled)
qt GUI GUI toolkit (only needed when GUI enabled)
protobuf Payments in GUI Data interchange format used for payment protocol (only needed when GUI enabled)
libqrencode QR codes in GUI Optional for generating QR codes (only needed when GUI enabled)
libzmq3 ZMQ notification Optional, allows generating ZMQ notifications (requires ZMQ version >= 4.x)

For the versions used in the release, see release-process.md under Fetch and build inputs.

System requirements

C++ compilers are memory-hungry. It is recommended to have at least 3 GB of memory available when compiling Dynamic.

Dependency Build Instructions: Ubuntu & Debian

It is required to build Dynamic on Ubuntu 18.04LTS(Bionic) or later due to C++14/GCC7 requirements. Also OpenSSL 1.1.0g is included in Ubuntu 18.04LTS and later, however it is suggested to use OpenSSL 1.1.1LTS.

Build requirements:

sudo apt-get install build-essential libtool autotools-dev autoconf pkg-config libssl-dev libcrypto++-dev libevent-dev git automake

For Ubuntu 18.04LTS(Bionic) and later, or Debian 7 and later; libboost-all-dev has to be installed:

sudo apt-get install libboost-all-dev

db4.8 packages are available here. You can add the repository using the following command:

sudo add-apt-repository ppa:bitcoin/bitcoin
sudo apt-get update

Ubuntu 18.04 and later have packages for libdb 5.3.21 but using these will break binary wallet compatibility, and is not recommended.

for Debian 7 (Wheezy) and later: The oldstable repository contains db4.8 packages. Add the following line to /etc/apt/sources.list, replacing [mirror] with any official debian mirror.

deb http://[mirror]/debian/ oldstable main

To enable the change run

sudo apt-get update

for other Debian & Ubuntu (with ppa):

sudo apt-get install libdb4.8-dev libdb4.8++-dev

Optional (see --with-miniupnpc and --enable-upnp-default):

sudo apt-get install libminiupnpc-dev

ZMQ dependencies (provides ZMQ API 4.x):

    sudo apt-get install libzmq3-dev

Dependencies for the GUI: Ubuntu & Debian

If you want to build Dynamic-Qt, make sure that the required packages for Qt development are installed. Qt 5 is necessary to build the GUI. If both Qt 4 and Qt 5 are installed, Qt 5 will be used. Pass --with-gui=qt5 to configure to choose Qt5. To build without GUI pass --without-gui.

For Qt 5 you need the following:

sudo apt-get install libqt5gui5 libqt5core5a libqt5dbus5 qttools5-dev qttools5-dev-tools libprotobuf-dev protobuf-compiler libcrypto++-dev

libqrencode (optional) can be installed with:

sudo apt-get install libqrencode-dev

Once these are installed, they will be found by configure and a dynamic-qt executable will be built by default.

Notes

The release is built with GCC and then "strip dynamicd" to strip the debug symbols, which reduces the executable size by about 90%.

miniupnpc

The dependencies for miniupnpc are included above within the 'Dependency Build Instructions: Ubuntu & Debian' section, however, for any reason you wish to build the source, please follow these instructions.

miniupnpc may be used for UPnP port mapping. It can be downloaded from here. UPnP support is compiled in and turned off by default. See the configure options for upnp behavior desired:

--without-miniupnpc      No UPnP support miniupnp not required
--disable-upnp-default   (the default) UPnP support turned off by default at runtime
--enable-upnp-default    UPnP support turned on by default at runtime

To build:

tar -xzvf miniupnpc-1.6.tar.gz
cd miniupnpc-1.6
make
sudo su
make install

Berkeley DB

It is recommended to use Berkeley DB 4.8 and is included in the dependencies above in the 'Dependency Build Instructions: Ubuntu & Debian' section.

If you have to, or wish to build Berkeley DB 4.8 yourself:

    bash
    DYNAMIC_ROOT=$(pwd)

    # Pick some path to install BDB to, here we create a directory within the dynamic directory
    BDB_PREFIX="${DYNAMIC_ROOT}/db4"
    mkdir -p $BDB_PREFIX

    # Fetch the source and verify that it is not tampered with
    wget 'http://download.oracle.com/berkeley-db/db-4.8.30.NC.tar.gz'
    echo '12edc0df75bf9abd7f82f821795bcee50f42cb2e5f76a6a281b85732798364ef  db-4.8.30.NC.tar.gz' | sha256sum -c
    # -> db-4.8.30.NC.tar.gz: OK
    tar -xzvf db-4.8.30.NC.tar.gz

    # Build the library and install to our prefix
    cd db-4.8.30.NC/build_unix/
    #  Note: Do a static build so that it can be embedded into the exectuable, instead of having to find a .so at runtime
    ../dist/configure --prefix=/usr/local --enable-cxx
    make 
    sudo make install

    # Configure Dynamic to use our own-built instance of BDB
    cd $DYNAMIC_ROOT
    ./configure (other args...) LDFLAGS="-L${BDB_PREFIX}/lib/" CPPFLAGS="-I${BDB_PREFIX}/include/"

Note: You only need Berkeley DB if the wallet is enabled (see the section Disable-Wallet mode below).

Boost

If you need to build Boost yourself, in terminal enter:

sudo su
./bootstrap.sh
./bjam install

Security

To help make your Dynamic installation more secure by making certain attacks impossible to exploit even if a vulnerability is found, binaries are hardened by default.

This can be disabled with:

Hardening Flags:

./configure --enable-hardening
./configure --disable-hardening

Hardening enables the following features:

  • Position Independent Executable Build position independent code to take advantage of Address Space Layout Randomization offered by some kernels. An attacker who is able to cause execution of code at an arbitrary memory location is thwarted if he doesn't know where anything useful is located. The stack and heap are randomly located by default but this allows the code section to be randomly located as well.

    On an Amd64 processor where a library was not compiled with -fPIC, this will cause an error such as: "relocation R_X86_64_32 against `......' can not be used when making a shared object;"

    To test that you have built PIE executable, install scanelf, part of paxutils, and use:

    scanelf -e ./dynamicd

    The output should contain:

    TYPE ET_DYN

  • Non-executable Stack If the stack is executable then trivial stack based buffer overflow exploits are possible if vulnerable buffers are found. By default, dynamic should be built with a non-executable stack but if one of the libraries it uses asks for an executable stack or someone makes a mistake and uses a compiler extension which requires an executable stack, it will silently build an executable without the non-executable stack protection.

    To verify that the stack is non-executable after compiling use: scanelf -e ./dynamicd

    the output should contain: STK/REL/PTL RW- R-- RW-

    The STK RW- means that the stack is readable and writeable but not executable.

Disable-wallet mode

When the intention is to run only a P2P node without a wallet, dynamic may be compiled in disable-wallet mode with:

./configure --disable-wallet

In this case there is no dependency on Berkeley DB 4.8.

Mining is also possible in disable-wallet mode, but only using the getblocktemplate RPC call not getwork.

AVX2 Mining Optimisations

For increased performance when mining, AVX2 optimisations can be enabled.

At configure time:

--enable-avx2

CPU's with AVX2 support:

Intel
    Haswell processor, Q2 2013
    Haswell E processor, Q3 2014
    Broadwell processor, Q4 2014
    Broadwell E processor, Q3 2016
    Skylake processor, Q3 2015
    Kaby Lake processor, Q3 2016(ULV mobile)/Q1 2017(desktop/mobile)
    Coffee Lake processor, Q4 2017

AMD
    Carrizo processor, Q2 2015
    Ryzen processor, Q1 2017

AVX512 Mining Optimisations

For increased performance when mining, AVX512 optimisations can be enabled.

At configure time:

--enable-avx512f

CPU's with AVX512 support:

Intel
    Xeon Phi x200/Knights Landing processor, 2016
    Knights Mill processor, 2017
    Skylake-SP processor, 2017
    Skylake-X processor, 2017
    Cannonlake processor, expected in 2019
    Ice Lake processor, expected in 2019

GPU Mining

To enable GPU mining within the wallet, OpenCL or CUDA can be utilised. Please use GCC/G++ 6.4 or newer and for CUDA to be utilised please use CUDA 9.1 or newer and ensure you have graphics drivers installed.

For OpenCL you need the following:

sudo apt-get install ocl-icd-opencl-dev

For CUDA please visit: https://docs.nvidia.com/cuda/cuda-installation-guide-linux/index.html

At configure time for OpenCL(Nvidia/AMD):

--enable-gpu 

At configure time for CUDA(Nvidia):

--enable-gpu --enable-cuda

Example Build Command

Qt Wallet and Deamon, CLI version build without GPU support and without AVX support:

./autogen.sh && ./configure --with-gui --disable-gpu && make

CLI and Deamon Only build without GPU support and without AVX support:

./autogen.sh && ./configure --without-gui --disable-gpu && make

Use Qt Creator as IDE

You can use Qt Creator as IDE, for debugging and for manipulating forms, etc. Download Qt Creator from http://www.qt.io/download/. Download the "community edition" and only install Qt Creator (uncheck the rest during the installation process).

  1. Make sure you installed everything through homebrew mentioned above
  2. Do a proper ./configure --with-gui=qt5 --enable-debug
  3. In Qt Creator do "New Project" -> Import Project -> Import Existing Project
  4. Enter "dynamic-qt" as project name, enter src/qt as location
  5. Leave the file selection as it is
  6. Confirm the "summary page"
  7. In the "Projects" tab select "Manage Kits..."
  8. Select the default "Desktop" kit and select "Clang (x86 64bit in /usr/bin)" as compiler
  9. Select LLDB as debugger (you might need to set the path to your installtion)
  10. Start debugging with Qt Creator
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