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Canonical Identifiers Forms

Overview

Identifiers (e.g., DOI, ORCID, etc.) will be used in GeoLink LOD graphs and we would like to have a set of guidelines for how each type of identifier should show up in our graphs. See https://github.com/ec-geolink/design/issues/81 for discussion on this topic.

In general, identifiers have attributes such as a schema, some concept resembling a value (sometimes normalized and then used for comparison of identifiers), a display form (for print), and one of more HTTP-resolvable URI forms. However, it is often the case that the a specification detailing these forms does not exist or does not provide guidance on all of the aforementioned attributes. Commonly, all that is made available is a specification of a schema and a value and recommendations about how to display an identifier in print (or in RDF) are left undiscussed.

While it may be difficult to decide on the best way to serialize identifiers in GeoLink, deciding as a group on a single way to do things will ensure we're doing something reasonable and that we're all doing the same reasonable thing in our graphs. In this document I present a list of identifiers, information about their specification and attributes, and provide my recommendations for how we should serialize them in our graphs.

For each identifier, I:

  • Tried to find a best source of information for the identifier and included a link if I found one
  • Tried to find an example usage of the identifier in the wild
  • Tried to make the distinction between use cases and make sure we had the best form for use in an LOD graph
  • Tried to find an endpoint that responds with RDF/XML or some other serialization of triples for each identifier

I then wrote recommendations for what values to fill in as properties of glbase:Identifier resources we put in our graphs.

The current set of properties are:

  • glbase:hasIdentifierScheme: Captures the scheme (e.g., DOI) for an identifier. Always use DataCite named individuals. Use datacite:local-resource-identifier for internal identifiers (e.g., some DataONE PIDs)
  • glbase:hasIdentifierValue: Defined in the ontology as: "Points to the actual string value of identifier., e.g.: "doi:10.5063/AA/ArchivalTag.4.1"". This is vague.

I propose we break up glbase:hasIdentifierValue into two properties, glbase:hasIdentifierValue and glbase:hasIdentifierResolveURI. I welcome feedback on the names of the properties (esp the latter) and also the number of properties we need to properly serialize identifiers in our graphs.

  • glbase:hasIdentifierValue: Captures the canonical form of the identifier. Subject to three principles:

    1. Avoid using HTTP resolve URIs: e.g., prefer 'doi:10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354' to 'http://doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354'
    2. Avoid forms that need other information to be recognized as an identifier of its scheme: e.g., prefer doi:10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354 to 10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354
    3. If an identifier has an established URI scheme, use it, and if it doesn't, don't make something up.
  • glbase:hasIdentifierResolveURI: If present, include the preferred HTTP URI at which the identifier can be resolved in some way. Always starts with 'http(s)://' and may return anything relevant to the identifier.

For dataset (:x) with a DOI identifier that has the DOI name '10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354', the corresponding (elided) Turtle serialization would look like this:

@prefix rdf: <http://www.w3.org/1999/02/22-rdf-syntax-ns#> .
@prefix glbase: <http://schema.geolink.org/dev/view.owl > .
@prefix datacite: <http://purl.org/spar/datacite/> .

:x a glbase:Dataset ;
  #...elided...
  glbase:hasIdentifier [
    glbase:hasIdentifierScheme datacite:doi ;
    glbase:hasIdentifierValue "doi:10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354" ;
    glbase:hasIdentifierResolveURI <http://doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354> .
  ] ;
  #...elided...

GeoLink Identifiers Ontology

To use identifiers not listed under the DataCite ontology while still giving every identifier a hasIdentifierScheme property, we needed to create an ontology of NamedIndividuals for these extra identifiers. See https://github.com/ec-geolink/design/issues/81.

The extra identifiers are:

  • IGSN
  • IMA
  • InterRidge
  • GVP
  • SCAR
  • UUID

The ontology is located in this repo at https://github.com/ec-geolink/design/blob/master/voc/identifiers.owl and can be hosted at a URL like <http://schema.geolink.org/voc/identifiers#> with the prefix glidentifiers. This prefix (glidentifiers) is used in the recommendations below to reference this ontology.

Contents

Here's the set of identifiers the GeoLink project has expressed interest in putting into our graphs. The list started as a 1:1 copy of the identifiers listed at http://purl.org/spar/datacite but has expanded to a few identifiers requested by members of the GeoLink team.

A Note on Web-Resolvable Identifiers

It might be really nice to ensure we take a similar approach for all identifiers that have resolution services (e.g. DOI, Handle). This gets tricky because a number of services use identifiers of this form but they recommend slightly different use patterns.

For example, DOI suggests using http://doi.org/{DOI} while FundRef uses http://dx.doi.org/{DOI} as their identifiers. It may be confusing to store DOIs in different forms but in a way, a DOI that is used as a FundRef DOI Is more of a 'FundRef DOI' rather than an 'DOI DOI'.

ARK

Source: https://confluence.ucop.edu/display/Curation/ARK (See: ARK Anatomy)

Notes:

  • "The immutable, globally unique identifier follows the "ark:" label."

    • ark:/12025/654xz321/s3/f8.05v.tiff
  • "When embedded in a URL, it is preceded by the protocol ("http://") and name of a service that provides support for that ARK." e.g.

  • "The NMA part, which makes the ARK actionable (clickable in a web browser), is in brackets to indicate that it is optional and replaceable"

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "ark:/12025/654xz321/s3/f8.05v.tiff"
hasIdentifierResolveURI <http://example.org/ark:/12025/654xz321/s3/f8.05v.tiff>

arXiv

Sources:

Notes:

  • arXiv makes the distinction between internal and external identifier forms where an internal identifier could be 'hep-th/9901001' and the external form for the same identifier is 'arXiv:hep-th/9901001' (Source: http://arxiv.org/help/arxiv_identifier_for_services)
  • arXiv changes their format over time and article identifiers are not updated.
  • "The form of arXiv identifiers for new articles changed on 1 April 2007, and the number of digits in the sequence number changed again on 1 January 2015. All existing articles retain their identifiers."
  • arXiv uses arXiv:hep-th/9901001v2 to link to http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/9901001v2

Example: arXiv:1207.2147 General form: arXiv:YYMM.number

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "arXiv:1501.00001"
hasIdentifierResolveURI <http://arxiv.org/abs/1501.00001>
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:arxiv

DAI

Source: https://wiki.surfnet.nl/display/standards/DAI

Notes:

  • "The DAI (or PPN) contains 9 to 10 characters. The first 8 to 9 characters are numbers. The last (9th or 10th) character is a control character. The control character is a modulus 11 check digit, like in the ISBN."
  • "The DAI is the number after the string info:eu-repo/dai/nl/ . A DAI is a number like 123456785. The last character is a MOD11 check-digit.
  • The string: info:eu-repo/dai/nl/ is just an authority namespace, telling the user or machine that the number is a DAI originating from the Netherlands."
  • So the DAI is 9-10 chars. If it's URI-ified, it'll have something like 'info:eu-repo/dai/nl/' prepended to it.
  • I found an example of one on narcis.nl: info:eu-repo/dai/nl/275853993

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "info:eu-repo/dai/nl/275853993"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:dia

DOI

Notes:

To resolve a DOI via a standard web hyperlink, the DOI name itself should be appended to the address for the proxy server. EXAMPLE The DOI name "10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354" would be made an actionable link as "http://doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354".

Source: http://www.doi.org/doi_handbook/2_Numbering.html

So while it may be awkward, we recommend some convention of showing both the plain DOI name and a way to resolve it online (a shorthand way of saying "the DOI name for this article is 10.1002/prot.999 and current information may be found on the web through http://doi.org/10.1002/prot.999" or "...available via http://doi.org/...".

Resolve URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093%2Fnar%2Fgks1195

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "doi:10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354"
hasIdentifierResolveURI <http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jmbi.1998.2354>
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:doi

EAN13

Source: http://www.gs1.org/barcodes/ean-upc

General form: 13-digit (12 data, 1 check) number

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "9501101530003"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:ean13

EISSN

Sources:

Notes:

What form does an ISSN take? The ISSN takes the form of the acronym ISSN followed by two groups of four digits, separated by a hyphen. The eighth digit is a check digit calculated according to a modulus 11 algorithm on the basis of the 7 preceding digits; this eighth control digit may be an "X" if the result of the computing is equal to "10", in order to avoid any ambiguity.

e. g.:

ISSN 0317-8471

ISSN 1050-124X

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "1099-4300"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:eissn

FundRef

Source: http://www.crossref.org/fundref/

Notes:

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "doi:10.13039/100000001"
hasIdentifierResolveURI <http://doi.org/10.13039/100000001>
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:fundref

GVP

Sources:

About:

Smithsonian's Global Volcanism Program (GVP) announces new and permanent unique identifiers (Volcano Numbers, or VNums) for volcanoes documented in the Volcanoes of the World (VOTW) database maintained by GVP and accessible at www.volcano.si.edu.

Notes:

  • There doesn't appear to be any common prefix (like GVP:XXXXX) used with this identifier

Examples:

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "210010"
hasIdentifierResolveURI <http://volcano.si.edu/volcano.cfm?vn=210010>
hasIdentifierScheme glidentifiers:gvp

Handle

Sources:

Notes:

It appears handles have no URN-style prefix we can use.

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "10.1045/may99-payette"
hasIdentifierResolveURI <http://hdl.handle.net/10.1045/may99-payette>
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:handle

IGSN

Sources:

About:

IGSN stands for International Geo Sample Number. The IGSN is 9-digit alphanumeric code that uniquely identifies samples from our natural environment and related sampling features. You can get an IGSN for your sample by registering it in the System for Earth Sample Registration SESAR.

Notes:

  • The IGSN is 9-digit alphanumeric code that uniquely identifies samples from our natural environment and related sampling features.
  • IGSN's can have resolve URIs, though not consistently: http://www.geosamples.org/profile?igsn=IECUR001E
  • The IGSN follows the syntax of the URN (Uniform Resource Name) which is composed of a 'Namespace Identifier' (NID), a unique, short string, and the 'Namespace Specific String' (NSS).
  • "...the first five digits of the IGSN represent a name space (a unique user code) that uniquely identifies the person or institution that registers the sample."
  • "The last 4 digits of the IGSN are a random string of alphanumeric characters (0-9, A-Z)."
  • "IGSN namespaces that were obtained before July 2014 may have three digit namespaces followed by a random string of 6 alphanumeric characters (e.g. examples #1 and # 2 above). For more information see http://www.geosamples.org/news/namespacechanges."

Examples:

  • IGSN:HRV003M16
  • IGSN: IECUR001E (has extra space)

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "IGSN:HRV003M16"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme glidentifiers:igsn

IMA

Sources:

About:

International Mineralogical Association (IMA) publish the list contains names and data for minerals which have been approved, discredited, redefined and renamed and is the new revised master list of all IMA-approved and grandfathered (i.e. inherited from before 1960) minerals.

Examples:

  • 2014-028
  • 1975-013
  • 'No. 2014-103' in print.

Notes:

  • Definition of the IMA number from the master list:

    IMA No. / Year: for approved minerals the IMA No. is given: it has the form XXXX-YYY, where XXXX is the year and YYY a sequential number; for grandfathered minerals the year of the original description is given.

  • "The continuing integrity of the (web-based) IMA mineral list will be maintained by the IMA outreach committee, and additional features are being developed by the RRUFF™ Project."

  • Each mineral has a "IMA No." which is something like "2015-041"

  • These numbers can be found in scheduled update PDFs, e.g., http://nrmima.nrm.se//CNMNC_Newsletter_27-2015.pdf

  • It does not publish the URIs that speak RDF

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "2014-028"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:ima

InfoURI

Source: http://info-uri.info/registry/docs/misc/faq.html

Scheme: info-scheme ":" info-identifier [ "#" fragment ]

Examples:

  • info:ddc/22/eng//004.678
  • info:lccn/2002022641

They seem to recommend included the info (info-scheme) when encoding in RDF, for example.

<rdf:Description about="info:pii/S0888-7543(02)96852-7">

Notes on Normalization:

The following generic normalization steps should be applied:

  1. Normalize the case of the "scheme" component to be lowercase.
  2. Normalize the case of the "namespace" component to be lowercase.
  3. Unescape all unreserved %-escaped characters in the "namespace" and "identifier" components.
  4. Normalize the case of any %-escaped characters in the "namespace" and "identifier" components to be uppercase.
  5. The subsequent namespace-specific normalization steps may be applied:
  6. Normalize the case of the "identifier" component as per any rules that may be recorded in the Registry.
  7. Normalize any punctuation characters in the "identifier" component as per any rules that may be recorded in the Registry.

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "info:pii/S0888-7543(02)96852-7"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:infouri

InterRidge

Sources:

About:

The InterRidge Global Database of Active Submarine Hydrothermal Vent Fields, hereafter referred to as the "InterRidge Vents Database," is to provide a comprehensive list of active and inferred active (unconfirmed) submarine hydrothermal vent fields for use in academic research and education.

Examples:

Notes:

  • It speaks RDF from version 3, and provide SPARQL endpoint http://vents-data.interridge.org/sparql

  • "In the vents database, the URIs are comprised of the site

  • namespace, which should be persistent ... and the node ID (nid) for each vent field (i.e., the

  • node ID for each vent field is effectively the unique identifier for that vent field) or unique name of

  • the vent field using path alias, e.g., Mariner is http://irvents-new3.whoi.edu/node/1001 and http://irvents-new3.whoi.edu/ventfield/mariner."

  • These identifiers don't have a commonly-used prefix string

  • The name might be "FRSC, RC 129 and CTD 24 plume sites" but the special characters (commas, spaces) are replaced with hyphens when encoding the identifier: frsc-rc-129-and-ctd-24-plume-sites

  • The RDF for an identifier uses <http://vents-data.interridge.org/ventfield/frsc-rc-129-and-ctd-24-plume-sites> as the subject of triples

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "13-n-ridge-site"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme glidentifiers:interridge

ISBN

Source: https://www.isbn-international.org/sites/default/files/ISBN%20Manual%202012%20-corr.pdf

Notes:

  • "When printed, the ISBN is always preceded by the letters "ISBN"."
    • e.g. ISBN 978-0-571-08989-5

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "978-0-571-08989-5"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:isbn

ISNI

Sources:

Notes:

Linked data is part of the ISNI-IA’s strategy to make ISNIs freely available and widely diffused. Each assigned ISNI is accessible by a persistent URI in the form http://isni.org/isni/[isni] for example: http://isni.org/isni/0000000121032683. ISNI core metadata is available in html, xml and RD/XML.

Examples:

Notes:

  • For http://isni.org/isni/ URLs, ISNI doesn't make it very clear what that service is or how committed they are to keeping it up.

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "ISN:0000000395916013"
hasIdentifierResolveURI <http://isni.org/isni/0000000395916013> (no www)
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:isni

ISSN

Source: http://www.issn.org/understanding-the-issn/assignment-rules/issn-manual/

Notes:

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "1562-6865"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:issn

ISSN-L

See above (ISSN)

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "1748-7188"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:issn-l

ISTC

Source: http://www.istc-international.org/html/about_structure_syntax.aspx

Notes:

Examples:

  • ISTC A02-2009-000004BE-A
  • A02-2009-000004BE-A
  • A02 2009 000004BE A
  • A022009000004BEA

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "A022009000004BEA"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:istc

JST

Not sure on this one. Having a hard time finding anything.

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue None (To be done)
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:jst

LSID

Sources:

Notes:

  • 'Life Sciences Identifiers are case-insensitive for the first three portions of the identifier ("URN", "LSID", authority identification). The remainder of the identifier (namespace identification, object identification, revision identification) is case sensitive.'
  • They are of the form urn:lsid:<Authority>:<Namespace>:<ObjectID>[:<Version>]
  • LSIDs may be resolved by HTTP URIs, e.g. <http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:CDC8D258-8F57-41DC-B560-247E17D3DC8C>

Recommendation:

  • Downcase urn and lsid, but leave the rest in-tact.
Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:CDC8D258-8F57-41DC-B560-247E17D3DC8C"
hasIdentifierResolveURI <http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:CDC8D258-8F57-41DC-B560-247E17D3DC8C>
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:lsid

National Insurance Number

Source: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk/manuals/nimmanual/NIM39110.htm

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "QQ123456A"
hasIdentifierResolveURI

NIHMSID

Sources:

Notes:

  • "The NIHMSID is a preliminary article identifier that applies only to manuscripts deposited through the NIHMS system. "
  • "The NIHMSID is only valid for compliance reporting for 90 days after the publication date of an article. Once the Web version of the NIHMS submission is approved for inclusion in PMC and the corresponding citation is in PubMed, the article will also be assigned a PMCID."
  • When cited, NIHMSIDs are cited as 'NIHMSID: NIHMS44135'
  • There is a converter service to convert between PMID, PMCIDs, NIHMSIDs, etc. In that converter, you only have to enter '44135' to get it to find the NIHMSID with that number. I would say this is evidence that '44135' is the identifier itself.

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "44135" (no 'NIHMS' prefix)
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:nihmsid

OpenID

Notes:

Recommendation:

  • Format as URLs
Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "http(s)://example.org"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:openid

ORCID

Notes:

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "0000-0002-2389-8429"
hasIdentifierResolveURI <http://orcid.org/0000-0002-2389-8429>
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:orcid

PII

Sources:

Notes:

Examples:

  • Serial w/ ISSN: Sxxxx-xxxx(yy)iiiii-d
  • Book w/ ISSN: B x-xxx-xxxxx-x/iiiii-d
  • In print:
    • "PII: Sxxxx-xxxx(yy)iiiii-d"
    • "B x-xxx-xxxxx-x/iiiii-d"

Recommendation:

  • Just store the 17 characters (no hyphens, slashes).
Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "Sxxxx-xxxx(yy)iiiii-d"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:pii

PMCID

These need to be distinguished from PMIDs. That is done by prepending PMC to the ID, e.g. PMC3531190.

Resolve URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3531190/

Notes:

  • As with NIHMSIDs, PMCIDs often shown prepended with the text PMC to distinguish them from similar identifers (in this case, PMIDs).
Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "3531190"
hasIdentifierResolveURI <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3531190/>
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:pmcid

PMID

These appear to just be a string of numbers, e.g. 23193287.

Resolve URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23193287

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "23193287"
hasIdentifierResolveURI <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23193287>
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:pmid

PURL

Source: https://sites.google.com/site/persistenturls/

Notes:

  • All PURLs are URLs.

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "http(s)://example.org/"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:purl

ResearcherID

Sources:

Notes:

  • ResearcherID are commonly serialized and shared as X-XXXX-XXXX
  • It's not clear if there are any other forms

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "X-XXXX-XXXX"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:researcherid

SCAR

Sources:

Notes:

  • The SCAR identifiers are from a gazetteer placenames in Antarctica, the Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica (CGA)
  • "The CGA is a compilation of recognized features, with a numerical Unique Identifier code (UID) assigned to each of them, jointly with a list of applicable place names." (http://www.scar.org/cga)
  • Individual countries act as naming authorities
  • No prefix like "SCAR:XXX" is used with these identifiers as far as I can tell so I'm recommending we just put the code itself inside hasIdentifierValue
  • It does not publish URIs that speak RDF

Examples:

  • 883
  • 121542
  • 79989642000

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "883"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme glidentifiers:gvp

SICI

I think this is the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Serial_Item_and_Contribution_Identifier)

Sources:

Notes:

  • There are threes forms, CSI-1 and CSI-2, and CSI-3:
    • CSI-1: 1234-5679(19950221)1:2:3<>1.0.TX;2-A
    • CSI-2: 1234-5679(19950221)1:2:3<123:ABCDEF>2.0.TX;2-A
    • CSI-3: 1234-5679(1996)<::INS-023456>3.0.CO;2-#

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "0015-6914(19960101)157:1<62:KTSW>2.O.TX;2-F"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:sici

SSN

Sources:

Notes:

  • The SSN is made up of Area-Group-Serial sections.

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "123-45-6789"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:social-security-number

UPC

Sources:

Notes:

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "12345678" or "123456789012"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:upc

URI

Source: https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3986#section-1.1.1

Examples:

  • ftp://ftp.is.co.za/rfc/rfc1808.txt
  • http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2396.txt
  • ldap://[2001:db8::7]/c=GB?objectClass?one
  • mailto:John.Doe@example.com
  • news:comp.infosystems.www.servers.unix
  • tel:+1-816-555-1212
  • telnet://192.0.2.16:80/
  • urn:oasis:names:specification:docbook:dtd:xml:4.1.2

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "ftp://ftp.is.co.za/rfc/rfc1808.txt"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:uri

URL

Source: https://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc1738.txt

Notes:

  • In general, URLs are written as follows: <scheme>:<scheme-specific-part>
  • And then IP-based schemes use //<user>:<password>@<host>:<port>/<url-path> in their <scheme-specific-part>

Examples:

  • http://<host>:<port>/<path>?<searchpart>
  • gopher://<host>:<port>/<gopher-path>
  • nntp://<host>:<port>/<newsgroup-name>/<article-number>
  • file://<host>/<path>

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "http://<host>:<port>/<path>?<searchpart>"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:url

URN

Sources:

Notes:

  • URNs are URIs
  • General form: <URN> ::= "urn:" <NID> ":" <NSS>

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "urn:foo:a123,456"
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:urn

UUID

Sources:

Notes:

The following is an example of the string representation of a UUID as a URN:

urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6

  • "The string representation of a UUID is fully compatible with the URN syntax."
  • "The UUID format is 16 octets; some bits of the eight octet variant field specified below determine finer structure."
  • "Since UUIDs are unique and persistent, they make excellent Uniform Resource Names. The unique ability to generate a new UUID without a registration process allows for UUIDs to be one of the URNs with the lowest minting cost."
  • UUIDs are commonly displayed as URNs (which are URIs)

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue urn:uuid:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme glidentifiers:uuid

VIAF

I think this is the Virtual International Authority File

Sources:

Notes:

Recommendation:

Predicate Object
hasIdentifierValue "120062731" (just numbers)
hasIdentifierResolveURI
hasIdentifierScheme datacite:viaf