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A Simple Workflow Library


fair_flow is a simple implementation of a work flow engine. A work flow describes a series of activities for a computer to do.

This is handy when you have a complex system but you want non-programmers to be able to make changes. Instead of writing up requirements and waiting for programmers, non-programmers can use fair_flow to create or modify a process. This encourages innovation with rapid feedback.

The basic building block in fair_flow is the activity. An activity is a reusable piece of code that completes one step. For instance, an activity might get data from a service, calculate a value, or send an email. One activity can be strung together with other activities to describe a process. Activities are reusable in the same process or in different processes.

A process is a group of activities. The process describes what activities will be executed and how they relate. Think of a process as a recipe.

To run a process, you first create a job. A job is a copy of the process that remembers its state. The state is made up of which activities have been done, and what variables have been set.

If a process is a recipe for a sandwich, a job is a copy of the recipe PLUS the state of the sandwich. If someone ordered 2 sandwiches at the same time, we'd want to keep track of each sandwich separately to make sure every step got done. Jobs keep up with which activities have run and which variables have been set.


For an example, lets say we have a smart home, and we wanted a process that would automate the morning dog chores. The steps might be.

  1. Feed the dog.
  2. Give it water if it needs it.
  3. If it's the first of the month, give it a pill. If its the last pill, order more.

If you break this into individual activities, it might look like this:

  1. Feed the dog.

  2. Does it need water?

    2.1 Yes: give it water.

    2.2 No: do nothing.

  3. Is it the first of the month?

    3.1 No: do nothing.

    3.2 Yes: Give it a pill

    3.3 Any pills left?

    3.3.1 Yes: do nothing.
    3.3.2 No:  order pills.
  4. Finish

There are several steps to implementing this work flow.

  1. Conceptually - Each activity needs to be stubbed out and placed in a process so you can see what the process will look like.
  2. Programmatically - Each activity needs to be written. These will be classes in python that inherit from Activity.


This flow could graphically look like this

Example Chores Process

We start at the top and see the first activity is to feed the dog. Then the arrow goes to "need_water" activity, where your code would interact with the smart home to find the water level in the dog's bowl. There are two arrows that come from that, labeled True and False. If the needs_water activity decides that dog does need water, it follows the True path and add some water to her bowl. If not, it skips that step and goes on.

Each activity can have a "returned" vale that can be either True, False, or Any. For an activity, The job will only follow the True or False path if the returned value matches for that activity. If the label leading from that activity is Any, then the job will always execute that step regardless of the returned value.

Behind the scenes, chores are saved in DOT file format like this.

digraph chores
    feed_dog [name="fair_flow_example.FeedDog"]
    needs_water [name="fair_flow_example.CheckWater"]
    water_dog [name="fair_flow_example.WaterDog"]
    is_first_of_month [name=Command command="me.returned=True"]
    end [name=Say]
    medicate_dog [name="fair_flow_example.MedicateDog"]
    pills_left [name=Command command="me.returned=False"]
    order_medication [name="fair_flow_example.OrderMedication"]

    feed_dog -> needs_water [label=Any]
    needs_water -> water_dog [label=True]
    needs_water -> is_first_of_month [label=False]
    water_dog -> is_first_of_month [label=Any]
    is_first_of_month -> end [label=False]
    is_first_of_month -> medicate_dog [label=True]
    medicate_dog -> pills_left
    pills_left -> end [label=True]
    pills_left -> order_medication [label=False]
    order_medication -> end [label=Any]

You can see we start with a

  digraph chores

which in DOT language means "directed graph", or nodes that are connected by edges. Then in {} we have two types of objects: a set of nodes and a set of edges. The nodes look like

  node_name [ key=value ]

The keys and values depend on the python class for that activity, but each node gets at least a class name. The first two nodes are feed_dog and need_water.

The next session is a list of edges between the nodes like this:

  feed_dog -> needs_water [label=Any]

Here the idea is the same as nodes, but the only key is 'label' and the value is the condition that we require from the activity's returned value.

Step 3: Programmatically

Programmatically, you can see there are two types of tasks: custom and standard. Our custom commands interact with the smart home: feed dog, water dog, medicate dog, order medication.

Custom steps are written in Python, and extend the Activity class. This gives them a method called 'execute' where the custom code can go. It's also the key to testing activities with different inputs and outputs before they go into production.

Custom commands look like this:

import fair_flow

class FeedDog(fair_bpm.Activity):
    def execute(self, context=None):
        print("Starting feed dog")
        # Put feed dog code here

class WaterDog(fair_bpm.Activity):
    def execute(self, context=None):
        print("Starting water dog")
        # Put water dog code here

class MedicateDog(fair_bpm.Activity):
    def execute(self, context=None):
        print("Starting medicate dog")
        # Put medicate dog code here
        # Set Pills Left in context

class OrderMedication(fair_bpm.Activity):
    def execute(self, context=None):
        print("Starting order_medication dog")
        # Put order_medication dog code here

For the other tasks, we can use the built-in activities. Making simple decisions, comparing strings, and string manipulation can be handled by the Command activity. This activity runs a snippet of custom python code that you describe in your process. Note: Running custom code that your users type in is a security risk that we won't get into here.


  • Modular design
  • Conditional logic
  • Graphical Components
  • Easy to save and analyze

Behind the scenes

FairBPM communicates jobs and processes in a language known as DOT. DOT describes activities as nodes, and decisions as lines. This way, we can easily describe what needs to be done.

If you'll look at the chores example above, you can see there are a set of nodes (feed_dog, needs_water,...), a blank line, and then a list of relationships between the nodes. This is how DOT files work. You can add all the extra key/value pairs you need, and it's still valid DOT format, whether DOT uses that pair or not. This flexibility lets us use it for our processes.

For each activity there are a list of key/value pairs [inside brackets] that give you the name of the activity. These correspond to the class names that get run for every activity.

If you'll look at the is_first_of_month node, the name is Command, and it has a "command" key with a value of "me.returned=True". This string is actually python code that gets run for this activity. This is dangerous in the hands of hackers so you'll need to be careful.

What's Missing?

The big thing that users need (but the library doesn't) is a Graphical User Interface. This is a graphical language, and it needs a reliable interface for the users to use. Otherwise, they'll be POSTing dot strings to services, and we can do better than that.

Luckily, Graphviz has been around for decades, so there are parsers for it in just about any language you'd want to use.

In order to be a helpful tool for non-programmers, we'll need a snazzy front end that makes it easy to:

  • Declare nodes and Edges (and their attributes)
  • Use the RESTful interface to CRUD processes

I took a first cut at a front-end and put it up at .


First, clone this repo and run pip install -r requirements from the clone directory. This will add libraries you'll need to get things started. Then, run python for the demonstration. Navigate to http://localhost:5000

Getting Started

From the web page you'll have examples to load into the left pane. Click on one of those to see the dot file format in it's most simple form. Then, select to either step through each step, or run them all at once.

Note: If you step through each step, the layout (left to right) may change, but the values do not. Graphviz is not very good at maintaining the same order between runs.

You can step through all the steps, or select Run at any time to complete the flow.

Doing more

Now that you've got the basic idea, try implementing your own steps. One step could read a file and save it in a variable. The next step could capitalize all the letters. The next step could write it to a different file. Lay it out conceptually, stub out a process, then write all the classes to implement it.


A Simple Workflow Library




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