mitm6 is a pentesting tool that exploits the default configuration of Windows to take over the default DNS server. It does this by replying to DHCPv6 messages, providing victims with a link-local IPv6 address and setting the attackers host as default DNS server. As DNS server, mitm6 will selectively reply to DNS queries of the attackers choosing and redirect the victims traffic to the attacker machine instead of the legitimate server. For a full explanation of the attack, see our blog about mitm6. Mitm6 is designed to work together with ntlmrelayx from impacket for WPAD spoofing and credential relaying.
Dependencies and installation
mitm6 is compatible with both Python 2.7 and 3.x. You can install the requirements for your version with
pip install -r requirements.txt. In both cases, mitm6 uses the following packages:
For python 2.7, it uses the
ipaddress backport module.
You can install the latest release from PyPI with
pip install mitm6, or the latest version from source with
python setup.py install after cloning this git repository.
After installation, mitm6 will be available as a command line program called
mitm6. Since it uses raw packet capture with Scapy, it should be run as root. mitm6 should detect your network settings by default and use your primary interface for its spoofing. The only option you will probably need to specify is the AD
domain that you are spoofing. For advanced tuning, the following options are available:
usage: mitm6.py [-h] [-i INTERFACE] [-l LOCALDOMAIN] [-4 ADDRESS] [-6 ADDRESS] [-m ADDRESS] [-a] [-v] [--debug] [-d DOMAIN] [-b DOMAIN] [-hw DOMAIN] [-hb DOMAIN] [--ignore-nofqnd] mitm6 - pwning IPv4 via IPv6 For help or reporting issues, visit https://github.com/fox-it/mitm6 optional arguments: -h, --help show this help message and exit -i INTERFACE, --interface INTERFACE Interface to use (default: autodetect) -l LOCALDOMAIN, --localdomain LOCALDOMAIN Domain name to use as DNS search domain (default: use first DNS domain) -4 ADDRESS, --ipv4 ADDRESS IPv4 address to send packets from (default: autodetect) -6 ADDRESS, --ipv6 ADDRESS IPv6 link-local address to send packets from (default: autodetect) -m ADDRESS, --mac ADDRESS Custom mac address - probably breaks stuff (default: mac of selected interface) -a, --no-ra Do not advertise ourselves (useful for networks which detect rogue Router Advertisements) -v, --verbose Show verbose information --debug Show debug information Filtering options: -d DOMAIN, --domain DOMAIN Domain name to filter DNS queries on (Whitelist principle, multiple can be specified.) -b DOMAIN, --blacklist DOMAIN Domain name to filter DNS queries on (Blacklist principle, multiple can be specified.) -hw DOMAIN, --host-whitelist DOMAIN Hostname (FQDN) to filter DHCPv6 queries on (Whitelist principle, multiple can be specified.) -hb DOMAIN, --host-blacklist DOMAIN Hostname (FQDN) to filter DHCPv6 queries on (Blacklist principle, multiple can be specified.) --ignore-nofqnd Ignore DHCPv6 queries that do not contain the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) option.
You can manually override most of the autodetect options (though overriding the MAC address will break things). If the network has some hardware which blocks or detects rogue Router Advertisement messages, you can add the
--no-ra flag to not broadcast those. Router Advertisements are not needed for mitm6 to work since it relies mainly on DHCPv6 messages.
Several filtering options are available to select which hosts you want to attack and spoof. First there are the
--host-blacklist options (or
-hb for short), which take a (partial) domain as argument. Incoming DHCPv6 requests will be filtered against this list. The property checked is the DHCPv6 FQND option, in which the client provides its hostname.
The same applies for DNS requests, for this the
--domain option (or
-d) is available, where you can supply which domain(s) you want to spoof. Blacklisting is also possible with
For both the host and DNS filtering, simple string matching is performed. So if you choose to reply to
wpad, it will also reply to queries for
wpad.corpdomain.com. If you want more specific filtering, use both the whitelist and blacklist options, since the blacklist takes precedence over the whitelist.
By default the first domain specified will be used as the DNS search domain, if you explicitliy want to specify this domain yourself use the
About network impact and restoring the network
mitm6 is designed as a penetration testing tool and should thus impact the network as little as possible. This is the main reason mitm6 doesn't implement a full man-in-the-middle attack currently, like we see in for example the SLAAC attack. To further minimize the impact, the IP addresses assigned have low time-to-live (TTL) values. The lease will expire within 5 minutes when mitm6 is stopped, which will remove the DNS server from the victims configuration. To prevent DNS replies getting cached, all replies are sent with a TTL of 100 seconds, which makes sure the cache is cleared within minutes after the tool exits.
Usage with ntlmrelayx
mitm6 is designed to be used with ntlmrelayx. You should run the tools next to each other, in this scenario mitm6 will spoof the DNS, causing victims to connect to ntlmrelayx for HTTP and SMB connections. For this you have to make sure to run ntlmrelayx with the
-6 option, which will make it listen on both IPv4 and IPv6. To obtain credentials for WPAD, specify the WPAD hostname to spoof with
-wh HOSTNAME (any non-existing hostname in the local domain will work since mitm6 is the DNS server). Optionally you can also use the
-wa N parameter with a number of attempts to prompt for authentication for the WPAD file itself in case you suspect victims do not have the MS16-077 patch applied.
The Fox-IT Security Research Team team has released Snort and Suricata signatures to detect rogue DHCPv6 traffic and WPAD replies over IPv6. The signatures are available here: https://gist.github.com/fox-srt/98f29051fe56a1695de8e914c4a2373f