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README.md
internal_ntp_servers_list.txt
permitted_ref_clocks.txt
restricted_ntp_servers.txt

README.md

NTP CHECKER

ntp_checker compares internal NTP sources in a .txt file list, with the National Physical Laboratory and warns if the offset between NPL and local servers exceeds a definable (fraction of) seconds. If NPL is not available, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) is used. A log file is created each time the script runs. Logs older than 28 days are automatically deleted. ntp_checker has a build script ntp_builder.pl but evolved to use InfluxDB and Grafana. At this point it became known as Timewatch. Additional components are installed with the timewatch_builder.pl script.

How it works

ntp_checker script runs every hour via cron and creates log files and an html page. Normally there should be no warnings. If a warning event is detected, a warnings only log is created & appended to on each successive run. Servers used for offset comparison are variables in the script but by default:
ntp2.npl.co.uk
ptbtime3.ptb.de
The secondary server will only be used if the primary server is not responding.

If the difference in offsets is more than $offset_limit seconds, or a leap Indicator bit is set, or the server does not respond, a warning is logged.

As a single source (usually NPL) is used for the comparison, a delayed response may result in an occasional warning if set too tight. In practice .3 of a second seems a safe limit.

A new warning will create a warning log file and send an email alert. A warning condition exists while a current warning file is present.

No further emails are sent for new warnings; these are appended to the current warning log. The warning file is automatically renamed with a date stamp if older than 7 days. Acknowledging the warning date stamps the file name. Once date stamped, the warning file is effectively archived. This provides the required behaviour of only sending one email a week if a persistent error (such as one of the internal servers being down).

Run from command line

-h Prints a help page
-v Verbose mode
-m Email send test
-s snmp trap send (for Timewatch2)

Operation

Flocking is used to ensure only one instance of this script runs at a time. NTP uses UTC - all times are in UTC. Log files will be deleted after 28 days, warning files will be renamed with a time stamp after 7 days. Acknowledged (date stamped) warning files exist forever. A web page is generated by the script.

Installation

Create an instance of Ubuntu 14.04 server in your favourite VM. From /root, download and run the ntp_builder.pl script. It may be useful to run script to capture the output. Apache and necessary perl modules/scripts will be installed along with tools such as git. crontab will be modified to run the ntp_checker every hour. The crontab script generated remains as /root/crontabadditon; it can be deleted along with ntp_builder once successfully run. Download and run the ntp_builder.pl script:

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/fss1/ntp_checker/master/perl/ntp_builder.pl
perl ntp_builder.pl

dpkg-reconfigure tzdata needs too be run manually as part of the build to set/check the UTC time zone. Select Geographic area, None of the above -> UTC and run dpkg-reconfigure -f noninteractive tzdata or date to confirm. A prompt is generated at the end of the build script to set the time zone to UTC. If InfuxDB and Grafana are required also run the timewatch_builder script:

wget https://github.com/fss1/ntp_checker/blob/master/perl/timewatch_builder.pl
perl timewatch_builder.pl

If using a dedicated VM specific for ntp_checker, install to /root, otherwise change the paths/crontab as required.

Variables in ntp_chekcer for the email settings need to be modified manually:

$mailaddress = your internal email relay
$mailto = mail TO address
$mailcc = mail Cc address, will take comma separate multiple addresses

Offset limit in seconds between external NTP reference and internal servers list is defined in: $offset_limit

The file containing lists of internal servers (one per line) is $ntplist, internal_ntp_servers_list.txt is the default name.
This file must exist and be in the same path as the script. ntp_checker needs to be run at least once to create the home page.

As the ntp_builder adds git it is now possible to git pull the project. This was intended to run from root on a VM only running these scripts. If continuing with 'Timewatch' copy the timewatch scripts into root and make them executable. Edit the crontab to remove the original ntp_checker entry once timewatch has been proven.

Example internal_ntp_servers_list.txt

The internal_ntp_servers_list.txt file must be present in the same path as the checking script for the script to run. IP or hostnames can be used - there is no validity checking of either. A copy of this list is made each time the script runs making it visible as a link in the web page, so take care with the comments. These may be visible to others.

# Internal NTP servers list, internal_ntp_servers_list.txt
# Please ensure each server address begins at the beginning of a new line
# Lines beginning with hash or space are treated as comment lines

# Your internal NTP sources 10.0.0.1
10.0.0.2
10.0.0.3

# Your distribution layer 'VIP' addresses
192.168.0.1
192.168.0.2
192.168.0.3

Log file definitions

Server = Internal NTP server
Ref = Reference clock (time source used by each server)
St = Stratum
Li = Leap Indicator, normally zero
Precision = Clock quality measured as a power of two,
E.g. precision=-16 is about 15 microseconds (2^-16 s)
offset = offset of server compared to local clock

For more information check the RFC 5905 (V4)
https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/rfc5905/

Suggested master time servers

NPL
ntp1.npl.co.uk 139.143.5.30
ntp2.npl.co.uk 139.143.5.31

Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB)
ptbtime1.ptb.de
ptbtime2.ptb.de
ptbtime3.ptb.de

What can be monitored

Net::NTP is used, so anything returned in the associative array based upon RFC1305 and RFC2030 is available. A Data::Dumper example:

{
'Key Identifier' => '',
'Root Delay' => '0.0635833740234375',
'Reference Clock Identifier' => '168.192.123.45',
'Reference Timestamp' => '1447426807.23475',
'Poll Interval' => '0.0000',
'Receive Timestamp' => '1447426995.51275',
'Offset' => '-0.0133742094039917',
'Root Dispersion' => '0.0000',
'Destination Timestamp' => '1447426995.52267',
'Originate Timestamp' => '1447426995.90532',
'Precision' => -6,
'Stratum' => 4,
'Leap Indicator' => 0,
'Mode' => 4,
'Delay' => '0.00690',
'Message Digest' => '',
'Transmit Timestamp' => '1447426995.51275',
'Version Number' => 3
};

Net::NTP calculates the offset of an NTP Packet (from B), returning the offset to local (A) according to its xmttime(T1) and rectime(T4),
theta = T(B) - T(A) = 1/2 * [(T2-T1) + (T3-T4)]
Net::NTP returns the delay from the sender (B) of $packet given known local xmttime(T1) and rectime(T4)
delta = T(ABA) = (T4-T1) - (T3-T2)

Identifying NTP services on the LAN

Use nmap to scan for port 123 responses. To identify domain controllers & active directory forests, it is possible to use nslookup from a client on the same Windows domain. Check the Service Location (SRV) locator resource records for your_local_domain.com with the command below. The SRV record is a Domain Name System (DNS) resource record that is used to identify servers hosting specific services, in this case ldap and ntp

From a Windows terminal run nslookup and try these example commands:
nslookup
> set type=all
> _ldap._tcp.dc._msdcs.your_local_domain.com
and
> ntp._udp.your_local_domain.com
exit to quit. To check an identified address responds to a time request
w32tm /monitor /computers:192.168.0.1

Timewatch

It was decided to visualise the data. InfluxDB + Grafana seem to be a nice match. ntp_checker above 0.0.37 gained influxDB integration to become Timewatch.
The additional build script timewatch_builder.pl, will add InfluxDB and Grafan and the database 'timewatch'.
Graphs look better over an interval of days if data points are every 15 mins. A crontab entry for timewatch has been added for this (the ntp_checker was hourly).

Interfaces:

InfuxDB
http://localhost:8083/

or the command line:
# /opt/influxdb/influx
Connected to http://localhost:8086 version
InfluxDB shell 0.9.x.x

The script uses curl to make http inserts to InfluxDB - curl must be present.

Grafana http://localhost:3000/login [default login admin,admin]

Grafana 2.6 works with Influx 0.9 but not fully with 0.10 flavour
Grafana 3.0 is beta (April 2016) and should work with 0.10, 0.11 - not tried this yet

Influx configuration

Check out the query language specificaiton https://influxdb.com/docs/v0.9/query_language/spec.html
The install script initialises Influx as required with the timewatch database.
Be careful with keywords. SERVER is a keyword and matches 'server' in a query if also used as a database key. This still works but it is necessary to double quote "server" in a query string.

A few influx example queries and settings:

CREATE DATABASE timewatch
DROP DATABASE timewatch
SHOW MEASUREMENTS
SHOW SERIES
SHOW SERIES FROM ntp_offset WHERE "server" = '192.168.12.34'
SHOW TAG KEYS FROM ntp_offset
select * from ntp_offset where "server" =~ /10.0.0.*/
select * from /.*/ limit 5
select * from ntp_offset where "server" = '192.168.0.1' and time > '2016-01-26' and time < '2016-01-27' select value from ntp_offset where time > now() - 1h limit 100
SELECT last(value) FROM poffset WHERE time > now() - 1h and "server" =~ /ref_server/
The select syntax takes the usual now() with d for day w for week.

CREATE USER god WITH PASSWORD 'keepcalmandcodequietly' WITH ALL PRIVILEGES
CREATE USER admin WITH PASSWORD 'admin' WITH ALL PRIVILEGES
SHOW USERS
Optionally, create a retention policy
CREATE RETENTION POLICY timewatch_2years ON timewatch DURATION 104w REPLICATION 1
Confimr retention is active with
SHOW RETENTION POLICIES ON "timewatch" (there is always a default policy)

Paths vary between versions, check within /etc/init.d/influxdb
Configuration file is /etc/influxdb/influxdb.conf
The backup (snapshot) option in 0.9.5 had issues but seems to work in 0.9.6 without modifying the conf file. Repeating the influxd backup command to the same file name results in a .0 incremental file being created.
To restore, service influxd stop, then influxd restore -config /etc/influxdb/influxdb.conf /path_to/snapshot_file

For plotting purposes, the external reference servers become a single plot with the same name defined in $ref_server.

Grafana configuration

In Grafana, edit the Data Source to be Type InfluxDB 0.9.x; as this is running on the same host, Http settings are url http://localhost:8086 Data source name is used by the dashboards to idenify the database, effectively an alias. For example, Name: influxdb_timewatch, Database timewatch, User admin. ADD ROW -> Add Panel -> Graph with multiple lines such as 'SELECT mean(value) FROM ntp_offset WHERE server=ip_of_server GROUP BY time($interval)

A few suggestions:

  • Row title allows the graph to be collapsed but looks cluttered if a graph title is also used. Graph title can be blank but remains as a hover over link directly below the row title, to access the edit menu (wait for the hand to appear then click for menu).
  • Settings (the cog) -> Rows, allows title to be added. Settings -> Links are also very useful
  • For each dashboard, time (X axis) can be utc or browser. This is selected for each dashboard via the Manage Dashboard cog -> Settings -> Timezone. Time should be displayed as utc - beware that the Grafana default is browser
  • The period configuration (top left) allows auto refresh to be defined (1 min seems sensible) change from default of off
  • For an offset graph, Y left set to 0.05 max and -0.05 min works well
  • Row pop out menu, Set Row height to 350px
  • Display Styles, Line Options with Line fill 0, Line Width 2, Null point mode connected; Axis and Grids, show legend right
  • Add a text row as a help menu. As above, use the row title and leave the General options title blank
  • When done, Settings -> Export to download the configuration
  • For single statistics, span 1, height 0 works provided the pre and post description is short and provides a minimal area
  • Metrics now allow 'ALIAS BY' instead of using the tag value to label the server
  • Change admin password and create a view only user, timewatch. Grafana Admin -> Global Users -> Create User (and Edit admin account)

NTP offset for Singlestat

Within Grafana -> Add Panel -> Single stat -> Options it is possible to define colours to value ranges and a value to text mapping. Use last value to provide a current condition. SELECT last(value) FROME poffset WHERE server = ref_server GROUP BY time($interval) server The ntp_offset is made always positive and added to the timewatch database as a separate row, poffset. Suggested thresholds are set as 0,0.3,0.5 Colors as Green, Orange and Red. Exception cases exist that can be identified by using text mapping for specific values. If no response from the server is found then the offset is set to 666. If the leap indicator bit is set then the offset is set to 667. The value 666 is mapped to display 'Not Available' The value 667 is mapped to display 'LI Set'

Max Positive V Negative Offset

Another graph of max positive and negative offset was considered. Additional entries were made in the database for measurement 'maxoffset' to provide 'maxpos_server' and 'maxneg_server' offset values each time the script is run. This is taken from the internal server pool and excludes external references.

Timewatch server administration

The timewatch script is running on a VM with only 1G of RAM. The build script adds sar but this is not enabled.
edit /etc/default/sysstat to enable and check /etc/cron.d/sysstat if monitoring required at intervals other than the default 10 minutes.
use sar -r to check memory usage.
service sysstat start, service sysstat status, to start and check sysstat is running.

Check influxdb and grafana are configured to run at start up with sysv-rc-conf

Create backups (snapshots) of influx while the database is still running with influxd backup snapshot_file_name

NTP configuration

It was found that a slight glitch may occur if the checking script runs while the local clock is being adjusted. To prevent this it is possible to synchronise the local clock at a fixed time using cron just before the checking script is run. It is possible to check the peers list while ntpd is running with 'ntpq -p'. If you don't want to use a 'random' pool modify the /etc/ntp.conf with your preferred time sources

server swisstime.ethz.ch
server ntp0.pipex.net
server ntp-p1.obspm.fr
server ntp1.npl.co.uk
server ntp1.sp.se
server ntp2.ja.net
server ptbtime1.ptb.de

UK ntp1.npl.co.uk National Physical Laboratory
Teddington, Middlesex

UK ntp0.pipex.net Pipex

CH swisstime.ethz.ch
Integrated Systems Laboratory, Swiss Fed. Inst. of Technology, Zurich

FR ntp-p1.obspm.fr
LPTF - Observatoire de Paris, France

SE ntp1.sp.se (62.119.40.98) SP Swedish National Testing and Research Institute, BORAS, SWEDEN

UK ntp2.ja.net (193.63.94.26)
University of London Computer Centre, UK

DE ptbtime1.ptb.de (192.53.103.103)
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig, Germany

also add the usual restrictions

restrict swisstime.ethz.ch noquery nomodify notrap
restrict ntp0.pipex.net noquery nomodify notrap
restrict ntp-p1.obspm.fr noquery nomodify notrap
restrict ntp1.npl.co.uk noquery nomodify notrap
restrict ntp1.sp.se noquery nomodify notrap
restrict ntp2.ja.net noquery nomodify notrap
restrict ptbtime1.ptb.de noquery nomodify notrap

noquery - deny ntpq and ntpdc requests
nomodify - deny modification requests from these servers (query ok)
notrap - Decline to provide mode 6 control message trap service to matching hosts

Make the new ntp.conf active service ntp restart and check with ntpq -p

Manually sync with 'ntpd -gqx' (ntpdate is deprecated)

-g This option allows the time to be set to any value without restriction
-q Exit the ntpd just after the first time the clock is set

add ntpd to cron so it runs a minute or so before the check script, redirect stderr to stderr 2>&1 to prevent default email from cron (stdout > dev/null does not catch stderr)

*/15 * * * * /root/timewatch.pl >/dev/null 2>&1
14-59/15 * * * * /usr/sbin/ntpd -gqx >/dev/null 2>&1
# or this for debug
# 14-59/15 * * * * /usr/sbin/ntpd -gqx >> /root/ntpd_log.txt && date >> /root/ntpd_log.txt

service ntp stop

Stop the ntp service running on reboot with sysv-rc-conf (chkconfig is getting old). Remove the logging from cron once it has been proven. Suggested /etc/ntp.conf configuration change above is manual but can be left with the Ubuntu default.

When running ntpd from cron, this was found to give more variation to the local clock than leaving ntpd running and did not give a smooth clock when plotted.

A better approach may be to use npt-wait as a system call in the script, so the script will wait if the clock is synchronised. ntp-wait is part of the ntp servivce (necessary for the ntp_checker to work and installed with apt-get install ntp). ntpd could still synchronise during script execution, however running ntp-wait before each ntp request reduces this to an acceptable edge case.

If synchronizing it will wait and not return
# ntp-wait -v
Waiting for ntpd to synchronize...

# ntp-wait -v
Waiting for ntpd to synchronize... OK!

# ntp-wait -v
Waiting for ntpd to synchronize... ntpd is not running!

if ntpd is not running ntp-wait returns immediately. When first used in the script -v is added to print to the terminal. Subsequent use drops the verbose switch.

Timewatch 2

More features were requested. These will be added to 0.0.50 and higher:

  • Ability to restrict alerting (email/snmp) for selected servers while still maintaining checking/logging
  • Capture and plot the absolute offset compared to the external reference (NPL/PTB)
  • SNMP trap to be sent along with the existing email alert

A restricted servers list, restricted_ntp_servers.txt can be placed in the same directory as the timewatch script. Matching items in this list will prevent alerting (but not logging). This list is pattern matched with the warning string. The server is still tested and logged. A match in the list below prevents an alert being sent. To be excluded from an alert, the server IP or hostname must match that in the servers list.
Partial matches such as 192.168 can be used to disable alerts for a subnet. Lines beginning with # or space or a new line are ignored. This feature allows legacy devices to still be monitored while only raising alerts for current high priority services.

An additonal series, abs_offset has been added to the timewatch database. This is the absolute (always positive) difference between the internal server and the external server (NPL or PTB).

SNMP Testing

To receive a trap on a Mac:
create /etc/snmp/snmptrapd.conf and adddisableAuthorization yes
sudo snmptrapd -f -Lo

To send a test trap from timewatch.pl set the destination parameters in the variables at the top of the script
perl timewatch.pl -s

To send a trap from Ubuntu:
snmptrap -v 1 -c public <trap_destination_ip> .1.3.6.1.4.1.16924.217 "" 6 666 "" .1.3.6.1.4.1.16924.237 s "allworkandnoplay..."
A null "" applies the default value to firstly the agent address and secondly the timestamp in the above command.

To trap to syslog on Ubuntu:

sudo apt-get install snmpd
vi /etc/default/snmpd

Change, TRAPDRUN= yes

snmptrapd now starts automatically

Check with, sudo service snmpd status

snmptrapd, needs some access control defined, for example /etc/snmpsnmptrapd.conf line: authCommunity log public will let any incoming notification with a community name of public be logged to syslog

sudo service snmpd restart to restart services after the configuration change.

Now tail the log to see the output tail -f /var/log/syslog

Home page refreshing

To refresh the home page an attempt was made at using the refresh meta tag within <head> and repeated at the document end. Apparently there is/was a 64K buffer that must be filled before a page is cached in IE.
<META HTTP-EQUIV="refresh" CONTENT="5">
This worked for the usual No Warnings page but failed to refresh the Warnings page even with no-cach and Expires meta tags added.
<META HTTP-EQUIV="Pragma" CONTENT="no-cache"> <META HTTP-EQUIV="Expires" CONTENT="-1"> </head>

The javascript alternative works and was added to 0.0.58
<body onload="javascript:setTimeout(function(){ location.reload(); },5000);">

Restricting alerts by requiring two successive warnings for the same server

It was found that on odd occasions a server, or the network, may not respond. By creating a last_run_badhosts.txt file (0.0.61), state from the previous check can be maintained. The name string was modified for easy regex >server_name_or_IP< as this could be hostname or IP and could have been incorrectly formatted in the server list. In (0.0.64), alerts are only be sent if the same server name errors on two successive runs. The alert send event is added to the warnings log. Parsing the warnings log is used to check if an alert has already been sent. The Previous Warnings Exist page shows if an alert was sent.

Monitoring Reference Clocks

A request was made (July 2017) to check the reference clock of the NTP source and compare this to a list of permitted clock addresses. This configuration is defined in the permitted_ref_clocks.txt file. The format is:
ntp.source.address, permitted.ref.1, permitted.ref.2
Simply edit the example provided and place in the same folder as the timewatch script. If this file is present, future versions of timewatch above 0.0.65 will check the reference clock sources are permitted. The log file created on each run now shows the reference clock list used in the header . A test script, permitted.pl was written to read the permitted_ref_clocks file and place the contents in a hash of arrays; this became a sub-routine within timewatch. The alerting behaviour described above is present for reference clock alerts. i.e. a warning for the same source must be present on two successive runs of the script to send and alert.

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