Recipe to build an OpenVPN (Static Key Configuration) image for Docker
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OpenVPN for Docker

Quick instructions:

CID=$(docker run -d --privileged -p 1194:1194/udp gaomd/openvpn-static)
docker run -t -i -p 8080:8080 --volumes-from $CID gaomd/openvpn-static serveconfig

Now download the file located at the indicated URL. You will get a certificate warning, since the connection is done over SSL, but we are using a self-signed certificate. After downloading the configuration, stop the serveconfig container. You can restart it later if you need to re-download the configuration, or to download it to multiple devices.

The file can be used immediately as an OpenVPN profile. It embeds all the required configuration and credentials. It has been tested successfully on Linux, Windows, and Android clients. If you can test it on OS X and iPhone, let me know!

Note: there is a bug in the Android Download Manager which prevents downloading files from untrusted SSL servers; and in that case, our self-signed certificate means that our server is untrusted. If you try to download with the default browser on your Android device, it will show the download as "in progress" but it will remain stuck. You can download it with Firefox; or you can transfer it with another way: Dropbox, USB, micro-SD card...

If you reboot the server (or stop the container) and you docker run again, you will create a new service (with a new configuration) and you will have to re-download the configuration file. However, you can use docker start to restart the service without touching the configuration.

How does it work?

When the gaomd/openvpn-static image is started, it generates:

  • Diffie-Hellman parameters,
  • a private key,
  • a self-certificate matching the private key,
  • an OpenVPN server configurations (for UDP),
  • an OpenVPN client profile.

Then, it starts an OpenVPN server processes (on 1194/udp).

The configuration is located in /etc/openvpn, and the Dockerfile declares that directory as a volume. It means that you can start another container with the --volumes-from flag, and access the configuration. Conveniently, gaomd/openvpn-static comes with a script called serveconfig, which starts a pseudo HTTPS server on 8080/tcp. The pseudo server does not even check the HTTP request; it just sends the HTTP status line, headers, and body right away.

OpenVPN details

We configure OpenVPN using static key instead of Public Key Infrastructure, because it seems more stable in China and connects much faster.

One of it's disadvantages is that the server supports only one client. But for Docker, it's not a problem, just docker run one more instance.

We use tun mode, because it works on the widest range of devices. tap mode, for instance, does not work on Android, except if the device is rooted.

The topology used is net30, because it works on the widest range of OS. p2p, for instance, does not work on Windows.

The UDP server uses

The client profile specifies redirect-gateway def1, meaning that after establishing the VPN connection, all traffic will go through the VPN. This might cause problems if you use local DNS recursors which are not directly reachable, since you will try to reach them through the VPN and they might not answer to you. If that happens, use public DNS resolvers like those of Google ( and or OpenDNS ( and

Security discussion

As per the OpenVPN documentation suggests, OpenVPN configured as static key mode has the following security disadvantages:

  • Lack of perfect forward secrecy -- key compromise results in total disclosure of previous sessions
  • Secret key must exist in plaintext form on each VPN peer
  • Secret key must be exchanged using a pre-existing secure channel

Also please note that "If you use the same encryption/decryption key for a long period of time, encrypting a large amount of data with it, you can present certain kinds of clues to a sniffing attacker which will gradually weaken the key.", please refer to an [openvpn-users] mailing list thread for more information.