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A simple compiler written from scratch in C++ for an undergraduate course in program translation.
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README.md

Compiler

This is a simple compiler written for an undergraduate course in Program Translation.

Usage

  1. Run make.

  2. Create a program file. For example, myprogram.txt:

! myprogram.txt !
program
var num
start
  let num = 42 ,
  print num ,
end
  1. Compile the program into assembly code.
$ comp myprogram.txt
  1. Run the interpreter on the corresponding assembly code
$ asmb myprogram.asm

Sample Programs and Language Features

Variables

program
var num
start
  let num = 42 ,
  print num ,
end

Output:

42

Loops

program
var i
start
  let i = 0 ,
  iter (i < 3)
    start
      print i ,
      let i = (i + 1) ,
    end ,
  ,
end

Output:

0
1
2

Conditionals

program
start
if (10 > 5)
  print 1 ,
,
end

Output:

1

Supported Operators

  • > - Greater than
  • < - Less than
  • : - Equals

Arithmetic and Expressions

program
start
  print #(((2 + 2) * 3) / 4) ,
end

Output:

-3

NOTE: All operators have standard meaning except # means negation.

Input

program
start
  var num
  read num ,
  print num ,
end

The program would print whatever the user input.

Comments

program
start
  ! This is a comment !
  print 1 ,
end

Comments are surrounded in exclamation points !.

Frontend

The frontend of our compiler is composed of two parts:

  1. Scanner - Converts a stream of characters into tokens
  2. Parser - Converts the tokens into a parse tree

The scanner uses a driver and state transition table.

Deterministic Finite Automaton

Deterministic Finite Automaton

To edit import assets/deterministic-finite-automaton.json at https://merfoo.github.io/fsm/

State Transition Table

The following table is located at src/compiler/frontend/scanner/state_transition_table/state_transition_table.cpp.

The function corresponding to the finite automaton driver is Scanner::read() in src/compiler/frontend/scanner/scanner.cpp.

To edit import assets/state-transition-table.csv into your favorite spreadsheet program.

0-9 ! + - * / < > = : # . ( ) , { } ; [ ] a-z A-Z EoF White Space
1 9 10 11 12 Error EoF 0
3 Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer
2 Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer
4 Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer
5 Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer
6 Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer
7 Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer
8 Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer
Error Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer Integer
9 0 9 9 9 9 9 9
Operator Operator Operator Operator Operator Operator Operator Operator
Delimiter Delimiter Delimiter Delimiter Delimiter Delimiter Delimiter Delimiter
13 Identifier Identifier Identifier 13 13 Identifier Identifier
14 Identifier Identifier Identifier 14 14 Identifier Identifier
15 Identifier Identifier Identifier 15 15 Identifier Identifier
16 Identifier Identifier Identifier 16 16 Identifier Identifier
17 Identifier Identifier Identifier 17 17 Identifier Identifier
18 Identifier Identifier Identifier 18 18 Identifier Identifier
19 Identifier Identifier Identifier 19 19 Identifier Identifier
Error Identifier Identifier Identifier Error Error Identifier Identifier

BNF

The parser enforces the following grammar rules.

<S> -> program <vars> <block>

<block> -> start <vars> <stats> end

<vars> -> var Identifier <vars> | empty

<expr> -> <H> + <expr> | <H> - <expr> | <H> / <expr> | <H> * <expr> | <H>

<H> -> # <R> | <R>

<R> -> ( <expr> ) | Identifier | Integer

<stats> -> <stat> <m_stat>

<m_stat> -> <stats> | empty

<stat> -> <in> , | <out> , | <block> , | <ifstat> , | <loop> , | <assign> ,

<in> -> read Identifier

<out> -> print <expr>

<ifstat> -> if ( <expr> <O> <expr> ) <stat>

<loop> -> iter ( <expr> <O> <expr> ) <stat>

<assign> -> let Identifier = <expr>

<O> -> < | > | :

Backend

The backend of our compiler is composed of three parts:

  1. Static semantics
  2. Code generation
  3. and optimization

Static Semantics

The only static semantics imposed by the compiler are proper use of variables. Before using a variable, you must first declare it using the var keyword.

In our language scopes are imposed by blocks denoted by start and end, conditionals denoted by if, and loops denoted by iter.

For our compiler, we implement local scoping in contrast to global scoping.

Code Generation

We traverse the decorated parse tree for each node generate corresponding assembly code.

Optimization

For optimization we remove redundant assembly code statements to read from stack memory when we just wrote to that same location in stack memory.

For example, consider the following program:

program
var id1
start
let id1 = 2 ,
print id1 ,
end

For which the compiler generates the following assembly code:

PUSH
PUSH
LOAD 2
STACKW 1
STACKR 1
STORE T0
WRITE T0
POP
POP
STOP
T0 0

The optimization removes the STACKR 1 statement since it is immediately preceded by STACKW 1.

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