Skip to content
🍾 Flexible promise-based React data loader
Branch: master
Clone or download
Latest commit e2f526b Mar 21, 2019
Permalink
Type Name Latest commit message Commit time
Failed to load latest commit information.
examples
src Export types and interfaces. Use built-in types for Fetch API. Mar 21, 2019
.babelrc @babel/preset-env is required for Jest. Include it only when BABEL_EN… Mar 3, 2019
.eslintrc Enable prop-type eslint rule. Feb 21, 2019
.gitignore
.prettierrc
.travis.yml
LICENSE
README.md
package.json
react-async.png

README.md

React Async
Handle promises with ease.


npm version npm downloads minified size build status code coverage license issues pull requests

React component and hook for declarative promise resolution and data fetching. Leverages the Render Props pattern and Hooks for ultimate flexibility as well as the new Context API for ease of use. Makes it easy to handle loading and error states, without assumptions about the shape of your data or the type of request.

  • Zero dependencies
  • Works with promises, async/await and the Fetch API
  • Choose between Render Props, Context-based helper components or the useAsync and useFetch hooks
  • Provides convenient isLoading, startedAt and finishedAt metadata
  • Provides cancel and reload actions
  • Automatic re-run using watch or watchFn prop
  • Accepts onResolve and onReject callbacks
  • Supports abortable fetch by providing an AbortController
  • Supports optimistic updates using setData
  • Supports server-side rendering through initialValue
  • Comes with type definitions for TypeScript
  • Works well in React Native too!

Upgrading to v4

When upgrading to React Async v4, please note the following breaking API changes:

  • deferFn now receives an args array as the first argument, instead of arguments to run being spread at the front of the arguments list. This enables better interop with TypeScript. You can use destructuring to keep using your existing variables.
  • The shorthand version of useAsync now takes the options object as optional second argument. This used to be initialValue, but was undocumented and inflexible.

Table of Contents

Rationale

React Async is different in that it tries to resolve data as close as possible to where it will be used, while using a declarative syntax, using just JSX and native promises. This is in contrast to systems like Redux where you would configure any data fetching or updates on a higher (application global) level, using a special construct (actions/reducers).

React Async works really well even in larger applications with multiple or nested data dependencies. It encourages loading data on-demand and in parallel at component level instead of in bulk at the route / page level. It's entirely decoupled from your routes, so it works well in complex applications that have a dynamic routing model or don't use routes at all.

React Async is promise-based, so you can resolve anything you want, not just fetch requests.

Concurrent React and Suspense

The React team is currently working on a large rewrite called Concurrent React, previously known as "Async React". Part of this rewrite is Suspense, which is a generic way for components to suspend rendering while they load data from a cache. It can render a fallback UI while loading data, much like <Async.Loading>.

React Async has no direct relation to Concurrent React. They are conceptually close, but not the same. React Async is meant to make dealing with asynchronous business logic easier. Concurrent React will make those features have less impact on performance and usability. When Suspense lands, React Async will make full use of Suspense features. In fact you can already start using React Async right now, and in a later update you'll get Suspense features for free.

Installation

npm install --save react-async

Or with Yarn:

yarn add react-async

This package requires react as a peer dependency. Please make sure to install that as well. If you want to use the useAsync hook, you'll need react@16.8.0 or later.

Usage

React Async offers three primary APIs: the useAsync hook, the <Async> component and the createInstance factory function. Each has its unique benefits and downsides.

As a hook

The useAsync hook (available from React v16.8.0) offers direct access to React Async's core functionality from within your own function components:

import { useAsync } from "react-async"

const loadCustomer = async ({ customerId }, { signal }) => {
  const res = await fetch(`/api/customers/${customerId}`, { signal })
  if (!res.ok) throw new Error(res)
  return res.json()
}

const MyComponent = () => {
  const { data, error, isLoading } = useAsync({ promiseFn: loadCustomer, customerId: 1 })
  if (isLoading) return "Loading..."
  if (error) return `Something went wrong: ${error.message}`
  if (data)
    return (
      <div>
        <strong>Loaded some data:</strong>
        <pre>{JSON.stringify(data, null, 2)}</pre>
      </div>
    )
  return null
}

Or using the shorthand version:

const MyComponent = () => {
  const { data, error, isLoading } = useAsync(loadCustomer, options)
  // ...
}

With useFetch

Because fetch is so commonly used with useAsync, there's a dedicated useFetch hook for it:

import { useFetch } from "react-async"

const MyComponent = () => {
  const headers = { Accept: "application/json" }
  const { data, error, isLoading, run } = useFetch("/api/example", { headers }, options)
  // This will setup a promiseFn with a fetch request and JSON deserialization.
}

useFetch takes the same arguments as fetch itself, as well as options to the underlying useAsync hook. The options object takes two special boolean properties: defer and json. These can be used to switch between deferFn and promiseFn, and enable JSON parsing. By default useFetch automatically uses promiseFn or deferFn based on the request method (deferFn for POST / PUT / PATCH / DELETE) and handles JSON parsing if the Accept header is set to "application/json".

As a component

The classic interface to React Async. Simply use directly in your JSX component tree, leveraging the render props pattern:

import Async from "react-async"

// Your promiseFn receives all props from Async and an AbortController instance
const loadCustomer = ({ customerId }, { signal }) =>
  fetch(`/api/customers/${customerId}`, { signal })
    .then(res => (res.ok ? res : Promise.reject(res)))
    .then(res => res.json())

const MyComponent = () => (
  <Async promiseFn={loadCustomer} customerId={1}>
    {({ data, error, isLoading }) => {
      if (isLoading) return "Loading..."
      if (error) return `Something went wrong: ${error.message}`
      if (data)
        return (
          <div>
            <strong>Loaded some data:</strong>
            <pre>{JSON.stringify(data, null, 2)}</pre>
          </div>
        )
      return null
    }}
  </Async>
)

With helper components

Several helper components are available for better legibility. These don't have to be direct children of <Async>, because they use Context, offering full flexibility. You can even use render props and helper components together.

import Async from "react-async"

const loadCustomer = ({ customerId }, { signal }) =>
  fetch(`/api/customers/${customerId}`, { signal })
    .then(res => (res.ok ? res : Promise.reject(res)))
    .then(res => res.json())

const MyComponent = () => (
  <Async promiseFn={loadCustomer} customerId={1}>
    <Async.Loading>Loading...</Async.Loading>
    <Async.Resolved>
      {data => (
        <div>
          <strong>Loaded some data:</strong>
          <pre>{JSON.stringify(data, null, 2)}</pre>
        </div>
      )}
    </Async.Resolved>
    <Async.Rejected>{error => `Something went wrong: ${error.message}`}</Async.Rejected>
  </Async>
)

As a factory

You can also create your own component instances, allowing you to preconfigure them with options such as default onResolve and onReject callbacks.

import { createInstance } from "react-async"

const loadCustomer = ({ customerId }, { signal }) =>
  fetch(`/api/customers/${customerId}`, { signal })
    .then(res => (res.ok ? res : Promise.reject(res)))
    .then(res => res.json())

// createInstance takes a defaultProps object and a displayName (both optional)
const AsyncCustomer = createInstance({ promiseFn: loadCustomer }, "AsyncCustomer")

const MyComponent = () => (
  <AsyncCustomer customerId={1}>
    <AsyncCustomer.Resolved>{customer => `Hello ${customer.name}`}</AsyncCustomer.Resolved>
  </AsyncCustomer>
)

API

Options

These can be passed in an object to useAsync(), or as props to <Async> and custom instances.

  • promise An already started Promise instance.
  • promiseFn Function that returns a Promise, automatically invoked.
  • deferFn Function that returns a Promise, manually invoked with run.
  • watch Watch a value and automatically reload when it changes.
  • watchFn Watch this function and automatically reload when it returns truthy.
  • initialValue Provide initial data or error for server-side rendering.
  • onResolve Callback invoked when Promise resolves.
  • onReject Callback invoked when Promise rejects.

useFetch additionally takes these options:

  • defer Force the use of deferFn or promiseFn.
  • json Enable JSON parsing of the response.

promise

Promise

A Promise instance which has already started. It will simply add the necessary resolve/reject callbacks and set startedAt to the time promise was first provided. Changing the value of promise will cancel any pending promise and listen to the new one. If promise is initially undefined, the React Async state will be pending.

Note that reload will not do anything when using promise. Use promiseFn instead.

promiseFn

function(props: object, controller: AbortController): Promise

A function that returns a promise. It is automatically invoked in componentDidMount and componentDidUpdate. The function receives all component props (or options) and an AbortController instance as arguments.

Be aware that updating promiseFn will trigger it to cancel any pending promise and load the new promise. Passing an arrow function will cause it to change and reload on every render of the parent component. You can avoid this by defining the promiseFn value outside of the render method. If you need to pass variables to the promiseFn, pass them as additional props to <Async>, as promiseFn will be invoked with these props. Alternatively you can use memoization to avoid unnecessary updates.

deferFn

function(args: any[], props: object, controller: AbortController): Promise

A function that returns a promise. This is invoked only by manually calling run(...args). Receives the same arguments as promiseFn, as well as any arguments to run which are passed through as an array. The deferFn is commonly used to send data to the server following a user action, such as submitting a form. You can use this in conjunction with promiseFn to fill the form with existing data, then updating it on submit with deferFn.

Be aware that when using both promiseFn and deferFn, the shape of their resolved value should match, because they both update the same data.

watch

any

Watches this property through componentDidUpdate and re-runs the promiseFn when the value changes, using a simple reference check (oldValue !== newValue). If you need a more complex update check, use watchFn instead.

watchFn

function(props: object, prevProps: object): boolean | any

Re-runs the promiseFn when this callback returns truthy (called on every update). Any default props specified by createInstance are available too.

initialValue

any | Error

Initial state for data or error (if instance of Error); useful for server-side rendering.

onResolve

function(data: any): void

Callback function invoked when a promise resolves, receives data as argument.

onReject

function(reason: Error): void

Callback function invoked when a promise rejects, receives rejection reason (error) as argument.

defer

boolean

Enables the use of deferFn if true, or enables the use of promiseFn if false. By default this is automatically chosen based on the request method (deferFn for POST / PUT / PATCH / DELETE, promiseFn otherwise).

json

boolean

Enables or disables JSON parsing of the response body. By default this is automatically enabled if the Accept header is set to "application/json".

Render props

<Async> provides the following render props to the children function:

  • data Last resolved promise value, maintained when new error arrives.
  • error Rejected promise reason, cleared when new data arrives.
  • initialValue The data or error that was provided through the initialValue prop.
  • isLoading Whether or not a Promise is currently pending.
  • startedAt When the current/last promise was started.
  • finishedAt When the last promise was resolved or rejected.
  • counter The number of times a promise was started.
  • cancel Cancel any pending promise.
  • run Invokes the deferFn.
  • reload Re-runs the promise when invoked, using the any previous arguments.
  • setData Sets data to the passed value, unsets error and cancels any pending promise.
  • setError Sets error to the passed value and cancels any pending promise.

data

any

Last resolved promise value, maintained when new error arrives.

error

Error

Rejected promise reason, cleared when new data arrives.

initialValue

any | Error

The data or error that was originally provided through the initialValue prop.

isLoading

boolean

true while a promise is pending, false otherwise.

startedAt

Date

Tracks when the current/last promise was started.

finishedAt

Date

Tracks when the last promise was resolved or rejected.

counter

number

The number of times a promise was started.

cancel

function(): void

Cancels the currently pending promise by ignoring its result and calls abort() on the AbortController.

run

function(...args: any[]): Promise

Runs the deferFn, passing any arguments provided as an array.

reload

function(): void

Re-runs the promise when invoked, using the previous arguments.

setData

function(data: any, callback?: () => void): any

Function that sets data to the passed value, unsets error and cancels any pending promise. Takes an optional callback which is invoked after the state update is completed. Returns the data to enable chaining.

setError

function(error: Error, callback?: () => void): Error

Function that sets error to the passed value and cancels any pending promise. Takes an optional callback which is invoked after the state update is completed. Returns the error to enable chaining.

Helper components

React Async provides several helper components that make your JSX more declarative and less cluttered. They don't have to be direct children of <Async> and you can use the same component several times.

<Async.Loading>

This component renders only while the promise is loading (unsettled).

Props

  • initial boolean Show only on initial load (when data is undefined).
  • children function(state: object): Node | Node Render function or React Node.

Examples

<Async.Loading initial>
  <p>This text is only rendered while performing the initial load.</p>
</Async.Loading>
<Async.Loading>{({ startedAt }) => `Loading since ${startedAt.toISOString()}`}</Async.Loading>

<Async.Resolved>

This component renders only when the promise is fulfilled with data (data !== undefined).

Props

  • persist boolean Show old data while loading new data. By default it hides as soon as a new promise starts.
  • children function(data: any, state: object): Node | Node Render function or React Node.

Examples

<Async.Resolved persist>{data => <pre>{JSON.stringify(data)}</pre>}</Async.Resolved>
<Async.Resolved>{({ finishedAt }) => `Last updated ${startedAt.toISOString()}`}</Async.Resolved>

<Async.Rejected>

This component renders only when the promise is rejected.

Props

  • persist boolean Show old error while loading new data. By default it hides as soon as a new promise starts.
  • children function(error: Error, state: object): Node | Node Render function or React Node.

Examples

<Async.Rejected persist>Oops.</Async.Rejected>
<Async.Rejected>{error => `Unexpected error: ${error.message}`}</Async.Rejected>

<Async.Pending>

Renders only while the deferred promise is still pending (not yet run), or you have not provided any promise.

Props

  • persist boolean Show until we have data, even while loading or when an error occurred. By default it hides as soon as the promise starts loading.
  • children function(state: object): Node | Node Render function or React Node.

Examples

<Async deferFn={deferFn}>
  <Async.Pending>
    <p>This text is only rendered while `run` has not yet been invoked on `deferFn`.</p>
  </Async.Pending>
</Async>
<Async.Pending persist>
  {({ error, isLoading, run }) => (
    <div>
      <p>This text is only rendered while the promise has not resolved yet.</p>
      <button onClick={run} disabled={!isLoading}>
        Run
      </button>
      {error && <p>{error.message}</p>}
    </div>
  )}
</Async.Pending>

Usage examples

Here's several examples to give you an idea of what's possible with React Async. For fully working examples, please check out the examples directory.

Data fetching

This does some basic data fetching, including a loading indicator, error state and retry.

class App extends Component {
  getSession = ({ sessionId }) => fetch(...)

  render() {
    // The promiseFn should be defined outside of render()
    return (
      <Async promiseFn={this.getSession} sessionId={123}>
        {({ data, error, isLoading, reload }) => {
          if (isLoading) {
            return <div>Loading...</div>
          }
          if (error) {
            return (
              <div>
                <p>{error.toString()}</p>
                <button onClick={reload}>try again</button>
              </div>
            )
          }
          if (data) {
            return <pre>{JSON.stringify(data, null, 2)}</pre>
          }
          return null
        }}
      </Async>
    )
  }
}

Form submission

This uses deferFn to trigger an update (e.g. POST / PUT request) after a form submit.

const subscribeToNewsletter = (args, props, controller) => fetch(...)

<Async deferFn={subscribeToNewsletter}>
  {({ error, isLoading, run }) => (
    <form onSubmit={run}>
      <input type="email" name="email" />
      <button type="submit" disabled={isLoading}>
        Subscribe
      </button>
      {error && <p>{error.toString()}</p>}
    </form>
  )}
</Async>

Optimistic updates

This uses both promiseFn and deferFn along with setData to implement optimistic updates.

const updateAttendance = ([attend]) => fetch(...).then(() => attend, () => !attend)

<Async promiseFn={getAttendance} deferFn={updateAttendance}>
  {({ data: isAttending, isLoading, run, setData }) => (
    <Toggle
      on={isAttending}
      onClick={() => {
        setData(!isAttending)
        run(!isAttending)
      }}
      disabled={isLoading}
    />
  )}
</Async>

Server-side rendering

This uses initialValue to enable server-side rendering with Next.js.

static async getInitialProps() {
  // Resolve the promise server-side
  const customers = await loadCustomers()
  return { customers }
}

render() {
  const { customers } = this.props // injected by getInitialProps
  return (
    <Async promiseFn={loadCustomers} initialValue={customers}>
      {({ data, error, isLoading, initialValue }) => { // initialValue is passed along for convenience
        if (isLoading) {
          return <div>Loading...</div>
        }
        if (error) {
          return <p>{error.toString()}</p>
        }
        if (data) {
          return <pre>{JSON.stringify(data, null, 2)}</pre>
        }
        return null
      }}
    </Async>
  )
}

Who's using React Async?

Xebia Intergamma

Your organization here? Let us know you're using React Async!

Acknowledgements

Versions 1.x and 2.x of react-async on npm are from a different project abandoned years ago. The original author was kind enough to transfer ownership so the react-async package name could be repurposed. The first version of this project is v3.0.0. Many thanks to Andrey Popp for handing over ownership of react-async on npm.

You can’t perform that action at this time.