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README.md

Table of Contents

go-carbon Build Status

Golang implementation of Graphite/Carbon server with classic architecture: Agent -> Cache -> Persister

Architecture

Features

  • Receive metrics from TCP and UDP (plaintext protocol)
  • Receive metrics with Pickle protocol (TCP only)
  • Receive metrics from HTTP
  • Receive metrics from Apache Kafka
  • storage-schemas.conf
  • storage-aggregation.conf
  • Carbonlink (requests to cache from graphite-web)
  • Carbonlink-like GRPC api
  • Logging with rotation support (reopen log if it moves)
  • Many persister workers (using many cpu cores)
  • Run as daemon
  • Optional dump/restore restart on USR2 signal (config dump section): stop persister, start write new data to file, dump cache to file, stop all (and restore from files after next start)
  • Reload some config options without restart (HUP signal):
    • whisper section of main config, storage-schemas.conf and storage-aggregation.conf
    • graph-prefix, metric-interval, metric-endpoint, max-cpu from common section
    • dump section

Performance

Faster than default carbon. In all conditions :) How much faster depends on server hardware, storage-schemas, etc.

The result of replacing "carbon" to "go-carbon" on a server with a load up to 900 thousand metric per minute:

Success story

There were some efforts to find out maximum possible performance of go-carbon on a hardware (2xE5-2620v3, 128GB RAM, local SSDs).

The result of that effort (in points per second):

Performance

Stable performance was around 950k points per second with short-term peak performance of 1.2M points/sec.

Efficient metric namespace patterns for trie index

Putting the most common namespaces at the beginning of the metric name could be beneficial for scaling. This doesn't affect the performance of trigram index. But when you decide to switch to trie index for serving higher number metrics in a single go-carbon instance, your query would be more efficient. At the same time, this naming pattern could lead to better metric namespace hierarchy.

For example: querying sys.cpu.loadavg.app.host-0001 would be faster than querying sys.app.host-0001.cpu.loadavg using trie index. Especially when you have tens of thousands hosts (host-0001, ..., host-9999), they all share the same prefix of sys.cpu.loadavg.app.host- in trie index, and they are compared only once during query. So this patterns leads to better memory usage and query performance when using trie+nfa/dfa index.

More details could be found in this blog: To glob 10M metrics: Trie * DFA = Tree² for Go-Carbon.

Installation

Use binary packages from releases page or build manually (requires golang 1.8+):

# build binary
git clone https://github.com/go-graphite/go-carbon.git
cd go-carbon
make

Configuration

$ go-carbon --help
Usage of go-carbon:
  -check-config=false: Check config and exit
  -config="": Filename of config
  -config-print-default=false: Print default config
  -daemon=false: Run in background
  -pidfile="": Pidfile path (only for daemon)
  -version=false: Print version
[common]
# Run as user. Works only in daemon mode
user = "carbon"
# Prefix for store all internal go-carbon graphs. Supported macroses: {host}
graph-prefix = "carbon.agents.{host}"
# Endpoint fo
# r store internal carbon metrics. Valid values: "" or "local", "tcp://host:port", "udp://host:port"
metric-endpoint = "local"
# Interval of storing internal metrics. Like CARBON_METRIC_INTERVAL
metric-interval = "1m0s"
# Increase for configuration with multi persister workers
max-cpu = 4

[whisper]
data-dir = "/var/lib/graphite/whisper"
# http://graphite.readthedocs.org/en/latest/config-carbon.html#storage-schemas-conf. Required
schemas-file = "/etc/go-carbon/storage-schemas.conf"
# http://graphite.readthedocs.org/en/latest/config-carbon.html#storage-aggregation-conf. Optional
aggregation-file = "/etc/go-carbon/storage-aggregation.conf"
# Worker threads count. Metrics sharded by "crc32(metricName) % workers"
workers = 8
# Limits the number of whisper update_many() calls per second. 0 - no limit
max-updates-per-second = 0
# Softly limits the number of whisper files that get created each second. 0 - no limit
max-creates-per-second = 0
# Make max-creates-per-second a hard limit. Extra new metrics are dropped. A hard throttle of 0 drops all new metrics.
hard-max-creates-per-second = false
# Sparse file creation
sparse-create = false
# use flock on every file call (ensures consistency if there are concurrent read/writes to the same file)
flock = true
enabled = true
# Use hashed filenames for tagged metrics instead of human readable
# https://github.com/go-graphite/go-carbon/pull/225
hash-filenames = true
# specify to enable/disable compressed format (EXPERIMENTAL)
# See details and limitations in https://github.com/go-graphite/go-whisper#compressed-format
# IMPORTANT: Only one process/thread could write to compressed whisper files at a time, especially when you are
# rebalancing graphite clusters (with buckytools, for example), flock needs to be enabled both in go-carbon and your tooling.
compressed = false
# automatically delete empty whisper file caused by edge cases like server reboot
remove-empty-file = false

[cache]
# Limit of in-memory stored points (not metrics)
max-size = 1000000
# Capacity of queue between receivers and cache
# Strategy to persist metrics. Values: "max","sorted","noop"
#   "max" - write metrics with most unwritten datapoints first
#   "sorted" - sort by timestamp of first unwritten datapoint.
#   "noop" - pick metrics to write in unspecified order,
#            requires least CPU and improves cache responsiveness
write-strategy = "max"

[udp]
listen = ":2003"
enabled = true
# Optional internal queue between receiver and cache
buffer-size = 0

[tcp]
listen = ":2003"
enabled = true
# Optional internal queue between receiver and cache
buffer-size = 0

[pickle]
listen = ":2004"
# Limit message size for prevent memory overflow
max-message-size = 67108864
enabled = true
# Optional internal queue between receiver and cache
buffer-size = 0

# You can define unlimited count of additional receivers
# Common definition scheme:
# [receiver.<any receiver name>]
# protocol = "<any supported protocol>"
# <protocol specific options>
#
# All available protocols:
#
# [receiver.udp2]
# protocol = "udp"
# listen = ":2003"
# # Enable optional logging of incomplete messages (chunked by max UDP packet size)
# log-incomplete = false
#
# [receiver.tcp2]
# protocol = "tcp"
# listen = ":2003"
#
# [receiver.pickle2]
# protocol = "pickle"
# listen = ":2004"
# # Limit message size for prevent memory overflow
# max-message-size = 67108864
#
# [receiver.protobuf]
# protocol = "protobuf"
# # Same framing protocol as pickle, but message encoded in protobuf format
# # See https://github.com/go-graphite/go-carbon/blob/master/helper/carbonpb/carbon.proto
# listen = ":2005"
# # Limit message size for prevent memory overflow
# max-message-size = 67108864
#
# [receiver.http]
# protocol = "http"
# # This receiver receives data from POST requests body.
# # Data can be encoded in plain text format (default),
# # protobuf (with Content-Type: application/protobuf header) or
# # pickle (with Content-Type: application/python-pickle header).
# listen = ":2007"
# max-message-size = 67108864
#
# [receiver.kafka]
# protocol = "kafka
# # This receiver receives data from kafka
# # You can use Partitions and Topics to do sharding
# # State is saved in local file to avoid problems with multiple consumers
#
# # Encoding of messages
# # Available options: "plain" (default), "protobuf", "pickle"
# #   Please note that for "plain" you must pass metrics with leading "\n".
# #   e.x.
# #    echo "test.metric $(date +%s) $(date +%s)" | kafkacat -D $'\0' -z snappy -T -b localhost:9092 -t graphite
# parse-protocol = "protobuf"
# # Kafka connection parameters
# brokers = [ "host1:9092", "host2:9092" ]
# topic = "graphite"
# partition = 0
#
# # Specify how often receiver will try to connect to kafka in case of network problems
# reconnect-interval = "5m"
# # How often receiver will ask Kafka for new data (in case there was no messages available to read)
# fetch-interval = "200ms"
#
# # Path to saved kafka state. Used for restarts
# state-file = "/var/lib/graphite/kafka.state"
# # Initial offset, if there is no saved state. Can be relative time or "newest" or "oldest".
# # In case offset is unavailable (in future, etc) fallback is "oldest"
# initial-offset = "-30m"
#
# # Specify kafka feature level (default: 0.11.0.0).
# # Please note that some features (consuming lz4 compressed streams) requires kafka >0.11
# # You must specify version in full. E.x. '0.11.0.0' - ok, but '0.11' is not.
# # Supported version (as of 22 Jan 2018):
# #   0.8.2.0
# #   0.8.2.1
# #   0.8.2.2
# #   0.9.0.0
# #   0.9.0.1
# #   0.10.0.0
# #   0.10.0.1
# #   0.10.1.0
# #   0.10.2.0
# #   0.11.0.0
# #   1.0.0
# kafka-version = "0.11.0.0"
#
# [receiver.pubsub]
# # This receiver receives data from Google PubSub
# # - Authentication is managed through APPLICATION_DEFAULT_CREDENTIALS:
# #   - https://cloud.google.com/docs/authentication/production#providing_credentials_to_your_application
# # - Currently the subscription must exist before running go-carbon.
# # - The "receiver_*" settings are optional and directly map to the google pubsub
# #   libraries ReceiveSettings (https://godoc.org/cloud.google.com/go/pubsub#ReceiveSettings)
# #   - How to think about the "receiver_*" settings: In an attempt to maximize throughput the
# #     pubsub library will spawn 'receiver_go_routines' to fetch messages from the server.
# #     These goroutines simply buffer them into memory until 'receiver_max_messages' or 'receiver_max_bytes'
# #     have been read. This does not affect the actual handling of these messages which are processed by other goroutines.
# protocol = "pubsub"
# project = "project-name"
# subscription = "subscription-name"
# receiver_go_routines = 4
# receiver_max_messages = 1000
# receiver_max_bytes = 500000000 # default 500MB

[carbonlink]
listen = "127.0.0.1:7002"
enabled = true
# Close inactive connections after "read-timeout"
read-timeout = "30s"

# grpc api
# protocol: https://github.com/go-graphite/go-carbon/blob/master/helper/carbonpb/carbon.proto
# samples: https://github.com/go-graphite/go-carbon/tree/master/api/sample
[grpc]
listen = "127.0.0.1:7003"
enabled = true

# http://graphite.readthedocs.io/en/latest/tags.html
[tags]
enabled = false
# TagDB url. It should support /tags/tagMultiSeries endpoint
tagdb-url = "http://127.0.0.1:8000"
tagdb-chunk-size = 32
tagdb-update-interval = 100
# Directory for send queue (based on leveldb)
local-dir = "/var/lib/graphite/tagging/"
# POST timeout
tagdb-timeout = "1s"

[carbonserver]
# Please NOTE: carbonserver is not intended to fully replace graphite-web
# It acts as a "REMOTE_STORAGE" for graphite-web or carbonzipper/carbonapi
listen = "127.0.0.1:8080"
# Carbonserver support is still experimental and may contain bugs
# Or be incompatible with github.com/grobian/carbonserver
enabled = false
# Buckets to track response times
buckets = 10
# carbonserver-specific metrics will be sent as counters
# For compatibility with grobian/carbonserver
metrics-as-counters = false
# Read and Write timeouts for HTTP server
read-timeout = "60s"
write-timeout = "60s"
# Enable /render cache, it will cache the result for 1 minute
query-cache-enabled = true
# 0 for unlimited
query-cache-size-mb = 0
# Enable /metrics/find cache, it will cache the result for 5 minutes
find-cache-enabled = true
# Control trigram index
#  This index is used to speed-up /find requests
#  However, it will lead to increased memory consumption
#  Estimated memory consumption is approx. 500 bytes per each metric on disk
#  Another drawback is that it will recreate index every scan-frequency interval
#  All new/deleted metrics will still be searchable until index is recreated
trigram-index = true
# carbonserver keeps track of all available whisper files
# in memory. This determines how often it will check FS
# for new or deleted metrics.
scan-frequency = "5m0s"
# Control trie index (EXPERIMENTAL)
#  This index is built as an alternative to trigram index, with shorter indexing
#  time and less memory usage (around 2 - 5 times). For most of the queries,
#  trie is faster than trigram. For queries with keyword wrap around by widcards
#  (like ns1.ns2.*keywork*.metric), trigram index performs better. Trie index
#  could be speeded up by enabling adding trigrams to trie, at the some costs of
#  memory usage (by setting both trie-index and trigram-index to true).
trie-index = false

# Cache file list scan data in the specified path. This option speeds
# up index building after reboot by reading the last scan result in file
# system instead of scanning the whole data dir, which could takes up
# most of the indexing time if it contains a high number of metrics (10
# - 40 millions). go-carbon only reads the cached file list once after
# reboot and the cache result is updated after every scan. (EXPERIMENTAL)
file-list-cache = ""

# Enable concurrently building index without maintaining a new copy
# index structure. More memory efficient.
# Currently only trie-index is supported. (EXPERIMENTAL)
concurrent-index = false

# Set to larger than 0 to enable realtime indexing of new metrics,
# The value controls how many new metrics could be buffered at once. Suitable to
# adjust it higher if there are high number of new metrics being produced.
# Currently only trie-index is supported. (EXPERIMENTAL)
realtime-index = 0

# This provides the ability to query for new metrics without any wsp files
# i.e query for metrics present only in cache. Does a cache-scan and
# populates index with metrics with or without corresponding wsp files,
# but will lead to increased memory consumption. Disabled by default.
# (EXPERIMENTAL)
cache-scan = false

# Maximum amount of globs in a single metric in index
# This value is used to speed-up /find requests with
# a lot of globs, but will lead to increased memory consumption
max-globs = 100
# Fail if amount of globs more than max-globs
fail-on-max-globs = false

# Maximum metrics could be returned by glob/wildcard in find request (currently
# works only for trie index)
max-metrics-globbed  = 30000
# Maximum metrics could be returned in render request (works both all types of
# indexes)
max-metrics-rendered = 1000

# graphite-web-10-mode
# Use Graphite-web 1.0 native structs for pickle response
# This mode will break compatibility with graphite-web 0.9.x
# If false, carbonserver won't send graphite-web 1.0 specific structs
# That might degrade performance of the cluster
# But will be compatible with both graphite-web 1.0 and 0.9.x
graphite-web-10-strict-mode = true
# Allows to keep track for "last time readed" between restarts, leave empty to disable
internal-stats-dir = ""
# Calculate /render request time percentiles for the bucket, '95' means calculate 95th Percentile. To disable this feature, leave the list blank
stats-percentiles = [99, 98, 95, 75, 50]

[dump]
# Enable dump/restore function on USR2 signal
enabled = false
# Directory for store dump data. Should be writeable for carbon
path = "/var/lib/graphite/dump/"
# Restore speed. 0 - unlimited
restore-per-second = 0

[pprof]
listen = "localhost:7007"
enabled = false

#[prometheus]
#enabled = true

#[prometheus.labels]
#foo = "test"
#bar = "baz"

# Default logger
[[logging]]
# logger name
# available loggers:
# * "" - default logger for all messages without configured special logger
# @TODO
logger = ""
# Log output: filename, "stderr", "stdout", "none", "" (same as "stderr")
file = "/var/log/go-carbon/go-carbon.log"
# Log level: "debug", "info", "warn", "error", "dpanic", "panic", and "fatal"
level = "info"
# Log format: "json", "console", "mixed"
encoding = "mixed"
# Log time format: "millis", "nanos", "epoch", "iso8601"
encoding-time = "iso8601"
# Log duration format: "seconds", "nanos", "string"
encoding-duration = "seconds"

# You can define multiply loggers:

# Copy errors to stderr for systemd
# [[logging]]
# logger = ""
# file = "stderr"
# level = "error"
# encoding = "mixed"
# encoding-time = "iso8601"
# encoding-duration = "seconds"

OS tuning

It is crucial for performance to ensure that your OS tuned so that go-carbon is never blocked on writes, usually that involves adjusting following sysctl params on Linux systems:

# percentage of your RAM which can be left unwritten to disk. MUST be much more than
# your write rate, which is usually one FS block size (4KB) per metric.
sysctl -w vm.dirty_ratio=80

# percentage of yout RAM when background writer have to kick in and
# start writes to disk. Make it way above the value you see in `/proc/meminfo|grep Dirty`
# so that it doesn't interefere with dirty_expire_centisecs explained below
sysctl -w vm.dirty_background_ratio=50

# allow page to be left dirty no longer than 10 mins
# if unwritten page stays longer than time set here,
# kernel starts writing it out
sysctl -w vm.dirty_expire_centisecs=$(( 10*60*100 ))

Net effect of these 3 params is that with dirty_*_ratio params set high enough multiple updates to a metric don't trigger disk activity. Multiple datapoint writes are coalesced into single disk write which kernel then writes to disk in a background.

With settings above applied, best write-strategy to use is "noop"

Reported stats

metric description
cache.maxSize Maximum number of datapoints stored in cache before overflow
cache.metrics Total number of unique metrics stored in cache
cache.size Total number of datapoints stored in cache
cache.queueWriteoutTime Time in seconds to make a full cycle writing all metrics
carbonserver.cache_partial_hit Requests that was partially served from cache
carbonserver.cache_miss Total cache misses
carbonserver.cache_only_hit Requests fully served from the cache
carbonserver.cache_wait_time_overhead_ns Time spent getting copy of the cache
carbonserver.cache_wait_time_ns Time spent waiting for cache, including overhead
carbonserver.cache_requests Total metrics we've tried to fetch from cache
carbonserver.disk_wait_time_ns Time spent reading data from disk
carbonserver.disk_requests Amount of metrics we've tried to fetch from disk
carbonserver.points_returned Datapoints returned by carbonserver
carbonserver.metrics_returned Metrics returned by carbonserver
persister.maxUpdatesPerSecond
persister.workers
runtime.GOMAXPROCS
runtime.NumGoroutine

Changelog

You can look for changes in CHANGELOG

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Golang implementation of Graphite/Carbon server with classic architecture: Agent -> Cache -> Persister

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