Sandbox escape using WinHTTP Web Proxy Auto-Discovery Service
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WpadEscape
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README.md
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README.md

WPAD Sandbox Escape

This project is used as the sandbox escape vector using WinHTTP Web Proxy Auto-Discovery Service (WinHttpAutoProxySvc).

One way to trigger WPAD call is using WinHttpOpen and finally calling WinHttpGetProxyForUrl. However, these APIs are blocked due to sandbox restrictions.

Only Internet Explorer's Enhanced Protected Mode allows these APIs to be called. You can not trigger these APIs from Chrome or other sandboxes.

Software Layers

WinHTTP layer is exposed from winhttp.dll, Remote Procedure Call (RPC) layer is exposed from rpcrt4.dll and Advanced Local Procedure Call (ALPC) is directly handled in Windows Kernel.

+----------------------------------------+
|               WinHTTP                  |
+----------------------------------------+
|      Remote Procedure Call (RPC)       |
+----------------------------------------+
|  Advanced Local Procedure Call (ALPC)  |
+----------------------------------------+

The checks happen in WinHTTP layer which disallows these calls to be successful from other sandboxes. Of-course, there are checks in other layers too. But those checks are passed due to nature of the sandbox.

Bypass

The bypass is very simple. However, it requires a lot of reverse engineering efforts. One of the simple bypass is instead of relying on WinHTTP layer, we directly use Remote Procedure Calls (RPC) layer to invoke functionality in WPAD service.

Sandboxes Bypassed

  • Protected Mode Sandbox
  • Enhanced Protected Mode Sandbox
  • Edge Sandbox
  • Chrome GPU Sandbox
  • Adobe Reader Sandbox
  • Firefox Sandbox

Sandbox Not Bypassed

  • Chrome Renderer Sandbox

Demonstration Video

WPAD Sandbox Escape

Usage Instructions

To gain Local Privilege Escalation (LPE) using this vector, we use a WPAD bug. We assume that we already have an Remote Code Execution (RCE) in the target sandbox environment.

To simulate an RCE, we are using DLL injection. Due to recent advancements in Windows security, now a days process can opt for DLL Signature Verification, i.e the DLL needs to be signed by Microsoft for it to get loaded in the address space for the process who has opted this security.

This security can circumvented by setting _EPROCESS.SignatureLevel and _EPROCESS.SectionSignatureLevel to NULL. We have provided a simple pykd script to automate this process.

To use this pykd script we need to install pykd and then enable to local kernel debugging.

PyKd

pip install pykd

PyKd Bootstrapper

Download https://githomelab.ru/pykd/pykd/uploads/f24e6c41ed38c5ea4bd8804b8e69373b/PYKD_BOOTSTRAPPER_2.0.0.16.zip

Copy pykd.dll to C:\Program Files\Windows Kits\10\Debuggers\x64\winext

Kernel Debugging

bcdedit /debug on

Disable Signature Verification

  1. Open WinDbg with Local Kernel Debugging
  2. !load pykd
  3. !py C:\Scripts\disable-singature-verification.py <PID>

Inject DLL

  1. Open CMD.EXE as Administrator
  2. python inject-dll.py --pid <PID> --dll C:\Scripts\Compiled\x64\WpadEscape.dll

Note: WPAD PAC file URL is hard-coded in the DLL as http://localhost:8000/wpad.dat. Before injecting the DLL run python -m SimpleHTTPServer in the directory where you are hosting wpad.dat


http://hacksys.vfreaks.com

HackSys Team