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Hamcrest in Ruby
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Ramcrest: a Ruby port of Hamcrest Build Status

Hamcrest is a powerful set of classes and functions that allow building up complicated matching expressions. The matchers provide useful descriptions of what they are trying to match, as well as a description of why a particular object is not matched (a mismatch description).

The tests for the various matchers should provide great examples of usage because each matcher is actually tested using the Ramcrest framework.

There are integrations into MiniTest via assert_that(actual, matcher) and into RSpec 2.11 via expect(actual).that matcher.

How do I use this?

In your tests you need to

require 'ramcrest'

which will bring in all of the base Ramcrest matchers and give you a new assert_that(subject, matcher) assertion for your MiniTest tests. Once you have loaded the matchers you can now include them in your tests and start matching away!

describe My::Funky::Class do
  include Ramcrest::HasAttribute
  include Ramcrest::IncludesExactly

  it "only knows the funky chicken by default" do
    assert_that, has_attribute(:dances, includes_exactly(:funky_chicken))

This matches an object that has an attribute (actually just a no arg method) called dances where the result of calling that method is an Enumerable that includes only the symbol :funky_chicken.

What matchers are included?

This is the list of current matchers. This list will grow over time and some names might change in order to allow for integration into various testing frameworks.

  • Ramcrest::Aint - Logical negation.
assert_that 1, aint(2)
assert_that [2], aint(includes_exactly(1))
  • Ramcrest::Anything - Everything's OK!
assert_that "a value", anything
  • Ramcrest::Comparable - Matchers for ordering comparisons.
assert_that 1, greater_than(0)
assert_that 2, less_than(3)
assert_that 3, greater_or_equal_to(3)
assert_that 4, less_or_equal_to(4)
  • Ramcrest::EqualTo - Equality (via ==).
assert_that "my value", equal_to("my value")
  • Ramcrest::HasAttribute - Object attribute matching.
dance =
assert_that dance, has_attribute(:funk) # the attribute exits
assert_that dance, has_attribute(:funk, equal_to(2)) # the attribute exists with a value
  • Ramcrest::HasSize - Collection size.
assert_that [1, 2], has_size(2)
assert_that { :a => 1 }, has_size(less_or_equal_to(3))
  • Ramcrest::Includes - Enumerable inclusion.
assert_that [1, 2, 3], includes(2, 3)
assert_that [6, 7, 2], includes(6, greater_than(6))
  • Ramcrest::IncludesExactly - Enumerable equality.
assert_that [1, 2, 3], includes_exactly(1, 2, 3)
assert_that [3, 2, 1], aint(includes_exactly(1, 2, 3))
assert_that [1], aint(includes_exactly(1, 2))
  • Ramcrest::IncludesInAnyOrderExactly - Enumerable set equality.
assert_that [2, 1, 3], includes_in_any_order_exactly(1, 2, 3)
assert_that [1, 3, 4], aint(includes_in_any_order_exactly(1, 3))
  • Ramcrest::Is - Syntactic sugar for equality.
assert_that 1, is(1)
assert_that 2, is(greater_than(1))
  • Ramcrest::SuchThat - Ad hoc matchers.
assert_that "my string", such_that do |value| 
  value =~ /string/ ? success : mismatch("didn't contain 'string'")

Writing your own matchers

The simplest way to get started writing your own own matchers is to just make ad-hoc matchers using such_that and chained match results. For example to put together a matcher for a certain type that has two properties you can simply do:

def a_token(with_attributes)
  name = has_attribute(:name, equal_to(with_attributes[:named]))
  string = has_attribute(:string, equal_to(with_attributes[:string]))
  description = "a token named <#{with_attributes[:named]}> with string <#{with_attributes[:string]}>"

  such_that(description) do |actual|
    name.matches?(actual).and_also { string.matches?(actual) }

Using such_that should be able to allow you to write any matcher that you want in a simple and straight-forward way. If you outgrow these kinds of matchers and want to move onto much larger possiblities, then you just need to implement a class with two methods: matches?(actual) and descriptionf. The matches? method needs to return either success or mismatch(description).

class AToken
  include Ramcrest::Matcher

  def initialize(name)
    @matchers = [Ramcrest::HasAttribute.has_attribute(:name, equal_to(name))]

  def with_string(string)
    @matchers << Ramcrest::HasAttribute.has_attribute(:string, equal_to(string))

  def matches?(actual)
      collect { |matcher| matcher.matches?(actual) }.
      find(method(:success)) { |result| !result.matched? }

  def description
    "a token that #{@matchers.collect(&:description).join(' and ')}"

def a_token_named(name)

assert_that something, is(a_token_named("foo").with_string("bar"))
assert_that something_else, is(a_token_named("baz"))
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