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A GeoDjango app to return Cascadia quake risk and resilience factors based on location
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snugget_load.py Include Spanish captions in image slideshows Aug 29, 2019

README.md

Disaster Preparedness Web Interactive

The project will explore traditional and qualitative scoring assessments of “risk/resiliency factors” associated with regional crisis preparedness and demonstrate how actionable steps in community engagement can create a different portrait of resiliency. It is based on a pioneering project from Oregon but has been generalized to make it easy to clone and tailor to other regions.

Dependencies

  • Django Web Framework (installed automatically as part of setup)
  • GeoDjango (installed automatically as part of setup)
  • PostgresSQL (most package managers will auto-install this as a dependency of either of the following items)
  • PostGIS
  • Postgresql-server-dev-all
  • GDAL (version 2.0.0 or newer)
  • libjpeg-dev
  • Python modules listed in requirements.txt
    • On a Linux machine you may need to install python-dev (through the Linux package manager) as a prerequisite, and if you have trouble getting psycopg2 to install you may have better luck using the package manager's version of that module.
    • GeoDjango has other dependencies, but if you install it from a package manager they will usually be included automatically. See this more complete list of required and optional additions.

Note about Python Command Usage

Commands indicated are always just python but on some systems you might need to use python3 in order to use a specific python version. If so, other commands such as pip have a pip3 equivalent.

Use whichever base command is appropriate for your environment.

Configure Dev Environment

Set up a virtual environment so that you can freely install python modules without worrying about overwriting globally installed versions. It's easy!

  1. Move to the project directory (e.g. /Applications/MAMP/htdocs/disaster-preparedness).
  2. python3 -m venv venv to create a new virtual environment.
  3. Wait for things to happen.
  4. source venv/bin/activate (type deactivate to leave). Remember to reactivate the virtual environment every time you open a terminal window and start running Python commands. Note that on some machines, you'll need to use . venv/bin/activate instead.
  5. pip install -r requirements.txt or pip3 install -r requirements.txt to automatically install the Python dependencies listed in requirements.txt. You may see "Failed building wheel for ..." errors for some of the modules. If so, try repeating the command. If the second run shows "Requirement already satisfied" for every module then you can safely ignore the previous error.

"disasterinfosite" App

While management and data loading files are in this project's root directory, everything else is in /disasterinfosite.

Written using:

  • Postgres version: 9.4
  • Python version: 3.5

File structure

  • /disasterinfosite/data contains the data sources (shapefiles and/or rasters) and text content (snuggets - see Adding New Data below for explanation) that will be loaded.
  • /disasterinfosite/migrations contains Django-generated files that specify how to set the database up. We don't recommend editing these manually.
  • /disasterinfosite/static/css contains all the stylesheets for this site.
  • /disasterinfosite/static/img contains all the static images - if you want to change icons, etc, look here.
  • /disasterinfosite/static/js contains JavaScript libraries that need to be included for various site functions.
  • /disasterinfosite/templates and /disasterinfosite/templatetags contain HTML templates for the site's various pages and subsections, and Python code that processes them. Many of the simpler customizations to this site will involve editing the HTML templates.

Installing App

This assumes python is the command configured to run the correct python version. Depending on your setup you may need to specify python3.

Set up the "secret key" used by Django to secure forms.

Set up the database

  1. Set up Postgres with PostGIS:
  • To install PostGIS on a Mac using Homebrew: brew install postgis. Here are PostGIS install instructions for Ubuntu.
  • The Mac or Ubuntu instructions will also install Postgres if you don't already have that.
  • Run brew info postgres to see options for starting Postgres - you can have it start automatically when your computer starts, or not.
  • Homebrew sets Postgres up with one user to start with, and that user is you. You should probably make a separate user for Django. If you want your user to be named django, do createuser django --password. You will then get a prompt for the password. Use only letters and numbers in the password, because you'll need to use it in a URL later.
  • Linux installers don't necessarily create any users! You may need these instructions and to run the next few Postgres commands as sudo -u postgres
  1. Clone repo.

  2. Create a Postgres database on the Postgres server, and install PostGIS to it.

    createdb [DBNAME]
    psql -d [DBNAME] -c "CREATE EXTENSION postgis;"
  3. In order to run unit tests, your user will need to be able to create and delete databases, since the test framework creates (and destroys) a new test DB for each test run. You can accomplish this using psql -d [DBNAME] -c "ALTER USER [USERNAME] SUPERUSER;" detailed instructions for reference

  4. Set up an environment variable DATABASE_URL that will be used by the Django Database URL app to load our database.

  • example on Mac/Linux: export DATABASE_URL="postgres://USER:PASSWORD@HOST:PORT/DBNAME" where the USER & PASSWORD are the django account you created above in postgres, and the default HOST:PORT is localhost:5432 .
  1. source venv/bin/activate or . venv/bin/activate if you haven't already activated the virtualenv this session.
  2. Run python manage.py migrate to initialize the database's structure.

Add API Keys

disasterinfosite/templates/index.html loads the Mapquest API with its own API key. This is fine for initial testing, but you should get your own key before deployment. Go to https://developer.mapquest.com/ to do so, and then edit these two lines.

Load some data

  1. source venv/bin/activate or . venv/bin/activate if you haven't already activated the virtualenv this session.
  2. Unzip data.zip inside disasterinfosite, so that the data is in disasterinfosite/data. This data includes some sample shapefiles and related data for Missoula County, Montana, USA, to get you started. See below for instructions on replacing this with your own data.
  3. python import.py to process the data and update some Django code to fit. For each data source, the script will prompt you for two things:
    • Which field to use to look up snuggets (see Adding New Data below for definition). If there is a field named lookup_val, that will be used by default. If you use the example data.zip provided in this project, use the field name FEMADES for Flood_FEMA_DFRIM_2015.
    • Whether you want to group the content from this data source in a tab with content from any others. If you want a dataset to have its own unique tab, just press return at this prompt. If you want to group 2 or more datasets together under 1 tab (e.g. if you have a shapefile for wildfire probability and another with historical wildfire information), just enter the same group name for both at this prompt. Note that these group names are only used in the code--headings displayed to the user come from the "snugget" file loaded in step 6 below--and should contain only letters, no spaces or punctuation.
  4. python manage.py makemigrations - this and the next 2 steps combined load the new data into the database.
  5. python manage.py migrate
  6. python manage.py shell
    1. [inside the shell that this opens] from disasterinfosite import load
    2. load.run()
    3. import snugget_load
    4. snugget_load.run()
    5. import prepare_load
    6. prepare_load.run()
    7. exit() [to go back to the normal command line] The parts that have snugget_load and prepare_load are to import text that will be displayed in the site. See Adding New Data below for an explanation of "snuggets" and the format of this file.
  7. If this is your first time through, or you emptied the database before loading new data: python manage.py createsuperuser and follow the instructions to add a Django admin user
  8. If you don't already have web hosting set up, you can test your work on localhost:8000 with python manage.py runserver

This instance of Hazard Ready uses Webpack to bundle its static files. For that reason, you need these additional steps to set it up:

  1. Make sure that you have Node and NPM installed
  2. In the same directory that contains package.json, run npm install
  3. Run npm run webpack

Environmental Variable Permanence

On Linux/Mac, as soon as you close your shell you lose those nice complicated database urls. Save them to your .bash_profile or equivalent.

Create a user and visit the admin screen to verify

  1. python manage.py createsuperuser
  2. python manage.py runserver to run a development server on localhost:8000 or see below for how to deploy via Apache.
  3. Visit http://server.ip/admin and log in with new user.
  4. You should see two lists: Authentication and Authorization and Disasterinfosite. The first one contains information about the Django superuser, as well as users who sign up for this site.
  5. If you have a problem loading the site while logged in as a superuser, it may be because the app is looking for additional information that it usually stores when it creates a user - but Hazard Ready didn't create that user, Django did. To fix that, go to http://server.ip/admin/auth/user/ and select that user, then click 'Save'. You don't have to change anything.
  6. Disasterinfosite has content that you can and should edit! They are bits of text and other information that show up on this site, as well as information about how to display certain things on the site. See the Django Admin Settings section for more details.

Deploying to the web via Apache

  1. Install a version of mod_wsgi that is compiled for Python 3. On Debian/Ubuntu you can do this with aptitude install libapache2-mod-wsgi-py3. On other systems it may be easier to use pip as per these instructions.
  2. Use these instructions to configure Apache. Note in particular:
    1. You'll need WSGIScriptAlias to point to disasterinfosite/wsgi.py
    2. You'll need to apply the "Using a virtualenv" addition.
    3. You'll need to set up a /static/ alias pointing to disasterinfosite/static
    4. Depending on your server configuration, you may also need to set up a redirect rule to add trailing slashes to URLs, to get the static files (CSS, images etc) included.
    5. You may also need to alter the STATIC_URL constant in settings.py based on your server setup.
  3. Set up the environment values from above (DJANGO_SECRET_KEY and DATABASE_URL) for all users by putting their declarations in /etc/apache2/envvars and restarting Apache.
  4. Don't forget to run python manage.py collectstatic to get your static files where we expect them to be!
  5. There should be directories called 'photos' and 'data' in disasterinfosite/staticfiles/img. This is where images go when you upload them via Django Admin, under 'Photos of Past Events' and 'Data Overview Images'. In order for that upload to work, you need to create them if they aren't present, and change the owner (chown) those directories to whatever user Apache is running as (www-data, perhaps).

Use foreman to run the server Heroku-style

Not tested by the current maintainers

  • foreman start
    • Any errors that pop up are probably from missing modules or missing environmental variables. Read the errors!

Adding new data

What you need

  1. At least one shapefile or raster, meeting the requirements listed below.
  2. Some text content to display when a user chooses a location in one or more of your shapefiles. In this project, the text content is referred to as snuggets, from "story nuggets".

Requirements for a shapefile

  1. Each shapefile's attribute table must contain a column with a unique identifier for each set of text to display (e.g. all the areas for which you want to display "Expected ground shaking: severe" have one ID, and all the areas for which you want to display "Expected ground shaking: moderate" have another). This column will be used to look up text when a user selects a location.
  2. That column's name must comply with the Django field name restrictions, including not being one of the Python 3 reserved words. For example, if the column is called id, object, map, property or type, you'll have to rename it.
  3. It doesn't matter which coordinate reference system the shapefile has been saved with, but if you're making them yourself then we recommend using EPSG:4326, because the import pipeline will reproject it to that anyway.
  4. If you have multiple shapefiles, clip them all to cover the same area. Otherwise, if users click on a location that is covered by some shapefiles but not others they will see partial data without a clear explanation that there is missing data.
  5. Multiple shapes may overlap, but each shape may only have one value for the lookup field. If you have multiple shapes with the same lookup value, the import process will combine them.

Requirements for a raster file

  1. The format must be GeoTIFF, with a .tif file extension.
  2. Band 0 must contain a unique identifier for each set of text to display. If the file contains multiple bands, all but the first will be ignored.
  3. Band 0 must contain unsigned integers no larger than 254 (they'll be stored as a single byte, real numbers will be rounded off to the nearest integer, and 255 is reserved for NODATA).
  4. The values in Band 0 must be higher for more serious warnings. This is because the file will be reprojected to EPSG:4326 during import, and values are rounded up in the reprojection. As long as higher values are the more serious warnings, this will not create a risk of people seeing an inappropriate "all clear" message for their location.
  5. Each data source must be one single .tif file. Large files will be tiled automatically during the load but the data import pipeline does not currently have the ability to combine rasters.

Fully automated pipeline

If the structure of your text content is simple enough, you can import shapefiles/rasters, snuggets and preparedness actions automatically without having to do much manual work. We recommend using this pathway if possible, because it makes moving the site to a new server significantly easier.

Importing snuggets

To do this, you will need a snuggets.xlsx file with the same columns as the example one we've included in data.zip. The columns can be in any order, but the headings must be exactly as typed here:

  • heading : A human-readable heading that describes the content of this shapefile or raster, to be displayed on the page. This will correspond to the shapefile group.
  • section : A section name that will be displayed on the page (must not be empty)
  • shapefile : The file name for the shapefile or raster file this row corresponds to, without the extension. For example: EQ_GroundShaking_MostLike for text that relates to the content of EQ_GroundShaking_MostLike.shp. (must not be empty; must correspond exactly to the available files)

-txt_location : The order in which this text will appear within its section.

-pop_out_image : An auxiliary sidebar image to display with this snugget, as an aside.

-pop_out_link : A link to go with this snugget, as an auxiliary aside.

-pop_alt_txt : The alt text for pop_out_image

-pop_out_txt : Text to go in the auxiliary sidebar for this snugget.

-lookup_value : The value of the unique identifier in the shapefile (e.g. an intensity value or a hazard classification), or the pixel value of a raster that corresponds to this. This field can be empty; if it is then the rest of this row will be applied to every available value. If this field contains a value that is not present in the data, the load script will find that, warn you, and skip loading it.

-intensity : Relative severity scaled from 0-100, to display graphically on the page. If this is empty, or if a value is provided for image, it will simply not be displayed.

-intensity_txt : Explanatory text for the intensity value.

-text : The explanatory text to be displayed in the relevant section and subsection when the user chooses a location that matches this row's criteria. If you put a url in the snugget text, like http://www.github.com, we'll automatically make it into a link for you.

-image_slideshow_folder : If this is present, the snugget loader will look for a folder inside an images folder at the same level as snuggets.xlsx (example: if snuggets.xlsx is in data and you set this value to earthquake_photos, the loader will look for images in data\images\earthquake_photos). The loader expects to find two things in that folder: images, and a file called slideshow.csv.

slideshow.csv should have two columns: image and caption. image is the filename of the image, and caption is whatever you would like the caption for that image to be.

-video is the url of a YouTube video that you would like to embed in this snugget.

You can have any number of sections, but every row must be a unique combination of shapefile, section, and lookup_value. If you define more than one row for the same permutation, only the last one in the file will actually be used. Note that this allows you to create a default value for a given section, subsection and shapefile, by having a row with lookup_value blank (so it applies to all values present in the data source), followed by rows with specified lookup_values which will overwrite the default for that value only.

Blank rows or additional columns won't cause problems. Any row that is missing any of the required fields will be skipped and a warning will be printed.

Once snuggets.xlsx is ready, simply put it and the relevant data files in disasterinfosite/data (and remove any other files or subdirectories from there), and follow the instructions in Load Some Data above.

Importing Preparedness Actions

This is the content that shows up on the Prepare page. The concept is similar to loading the snuggets - you need a prepare.xlsx file with the same columns as the example one we've included in data.zip. The columns can be in any order, but the headings must be exactly as typed here:

  • section the title of the section, like 'Learn your hazards'
  • cost An value representing how much it costs to take the action. Your options are:
    • 0: Free!
    • 1: $1 - $30
    • 2: $31 - $100
    • 3: $101 - $300
    • 4: more than $301
  • image The filename of an image to associate with the text of this preparedness action. The prepare loader will look for these files inside images\prepare at the same level as this file. So if this file is in data, the loader will look for your images in data\images\prepare.
  • happy A sentence or two about how this action can reduce physical or emotional harm after an event.
  • useful A sentence or two about how this action can be useful for other situations
  • property A sentence or two about how this action can help protect your property
  • text Explanatory content about this action. HTML is allowed in this field.
  • external_link A link to visit for more information
  • external_text The text to display for the link
  • external_icon An icon or image to display for the link

Updating existing data

If you make changes to snuggets.xlsx you should only need to re-run python snugget_load.py and restart your web server.

If you make changes to the shapefiles/rasters, or change which field from the shapefiles you want to use as the ID, then before running python import.py you will also need to remove the disasterinfosite/data/reprojected and word/data/simplified directories that the importer had created. It uses these to avoid having to repeat the time-consuming reprojection and simplification of the shapefiles or reprojection of the rasters every time it is run, but that means changes to the files themselves won't be picked up unless they are removed.

If you have existing data that needs to be removed—perhaps because you are replacing our sample data, or retiring a dataset you previously used—you may have to clear the database first. To do this:

  1. psql -d [DBNAME] -c "DROP SCHEMA public CASCADE; CREATE SCHEMA public; CREATE EXTENSION postgis;"
  2. python manage.py migrate - if this step throws errors, delete all the .py files in disasterinfosite/migrations except __init__.py and 0001_initial.py, and try again.

Then continue with the instructions in Load Some Data above.

Working with more complex text templates

You may want to use multiple fields from a shapefile to fill in blanks from a template, such as "In year [YEAR] the [FIRENAME] fire burned [AREA] acres here". The automated import pipeline is not sophisticated enough to do this for you, so you have two options:

If you can edit the shapefile

Using QGIS or ArcGIS, add two columns to the shapefile: one with a lookup value composed of all the variables you're using (e.g. [FIRENAME]_[YEAR]_[AREA]), and one with the complete text. You can create both of these using calculdated fields in either program. Then copy-paste the attribute table into Excel or an equivalent, and use the complete texts to populate the text column of snuggets.xlsx and the lookup values for the lookup_value column. With this, you can use the automated pipeline to do the rest.

If you can't edit the shapefile, or are more comfortable editing code

Take a look at disasterinfosite/models.py, disasterinfosite/load.py and disasterinfosite/admin.py after running the automated pipeline on some sample data, and write appropriate equivalents for all of the generated code (marked by prominent comments) that fit your data and text model. You may also need to edit disasterinfosite/templates/found_content.html which is the page template to be displayed when there is at least one snugget available for a location. Then run just the manage.py parts of the Load Some Data, and use the Django admin panel to enter snuggets by hand.

If you have some data that fits that automated import model and some that does not, you can combine the two. Just watch for three things:

  1. You'll have to reproject the shapefiles that aren't going through the import pipeline to EPSG:4326 yourself.
  2. Put the shapefiles that aren't being manually imported somewhere other than disasterinfosite/data to keep them out of the automated pipeline.
  3. Be very careful to avoid putting any of your manually edited code between the # GENERATED CODE GOES HERE and # END OF GENERATED CODE BLOCK comment pairs in the Python files, because that part gets overwritten by import.py each time.

Django Admin settings and what they mean

Past Events Photos

Upload photos to show in a photo gallery in the search results, under Past Events. Make sure that the heading you enter here matches the heading that the photos will appear under.

Data Overview Images

In the box at the bottom of every page, there's a section called 'Quick Data Overview'. That's where these will show up, as links that open in a new tab or window. The link_text field is what the link says, like 'Earthquakes: Distance from a Fault', and you can upload the appropriate image here.

Shapefile Groups

When you imported data, you were asked for a group name for your shapefiles, so that you can present, say, all your earthquake data togther, all your volcano data together, and so on. This is the place where you can choose display names for those groups that show up on the site, and configure the order in which they will appear on the page with all the content. You can also add a note at the top of the section that they appear in.

Site Settings

Basic information about this site and who created it. This stuff shows up in the page headers and footers, as well as in the introductory text on the landing page. The about text and 'who made this' sections especially deserve lots of details, and the Data Download link is if you'd like to share the data that you used to create this site. The site title is the big text at the top.

Snugget Sections

Inside shapefile groups, snuggets are also in groups by section name. Here, you can choose a display name for those sections, an order in which it will appear inside the shapefile group, and whether it is always shown, or collapsed into a header that just shows the display name.

Supporting multiple languages

The app

To support a multi-language site, you need to provide message files for the Django views, by the usual means of makemessages and compilemessages. In addition, there are many bits of text that are configurable through Django Admin. To translate those, uncomment the relevant lines in settings.py, admin.py and translation.py. Then run makemigrations and migrate. You should then have fields for multiple languages exposed in Django Admin. For more information, see the Django-ModelTranslation docs

Snuggets and Preparedness Actions

When you uncommented the relevant lines of code in the previous section, you enabled translating snuggets and preparedness actions. That means that if you put some specially named columns in your snugget and prepare spreadsheets, Hazard Ready will read in those translations as well during the load process. To translate a column, make another column with the same name, -, and then the relevant language code. So the Spanish translations for the text column in the snuggets.xlsx will be text-es, and it will be automatically associated with the correct snugget. You can have as many languages as you want for each column.

The following columns will be automatically translated in this way:

  • snuggets.xlsx

    • text
    • pop_out_txt
  • prepare.xlsx

    • section
    • text
    • happy
    • useful
    • property
    • external_text
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