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User management and authorization for web applications and subscription-based services.
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README

NAME
    Entities - User management and authorization for web applications and
    subscription-based services.

SYNOPSIS
            use Entities;

            # create a new Entities object, with a MongoDB backend
            my $ent = Entities->new(backend => 'MongoDB');

            # create a new role
            my $role = $ent->new_role(name => 'members');
            $role->grant_action('make_mess')
                 ->inherit_from('limited_members');

            # create a new user
            my $user = $ent->new_user(username => 'someone');
            $user->add_email('someone@someplace.com')
                 ->add_to_role('members');
                 ->grant_action('stuff');

            # check user can do stuff
            if ($user->can_perform('stuff')) {
                    &do_stuff();
            } else {
                    croak "Listen, you just can't do that. C'mon.";
            }

DESCRIPTION
    Entities is a complete system of user management and authorization for
    web applications and subscription-based web services, implementing what
    I call 'ability-based authorization', as defined by Abilities and
    Abilities::Features.

    This is a reference implementation, meant to be both extensive enough to
    be used by web applications, and to serve as an example of how to use
    and create ability-based authorization systems.

  ENTITIES?
    Ability-based authorization deals with six types of "entities":

    *   Customers (represented by Entities::Customer)

        A customer is an abstract entity that merely serves to unify the
        people who are actually using your app (see "users"). It can either
        be a person, a company, an organization or whatever. Basically, the
        customer is the "body" that signed up for your service and possibly
        is paying for it. A customer can have 1 or more users.

    *   Users (represented by Entities::User)

        A user is a person that belongs to a certain customer and has
        received access to your app. They are the actual entities that are
        interacting with your application, not their parent customer
        entities. Users have the ability to perform actions (see later),
        probably only within their parent entity's scope and maybe to a
        certain limit (see "SCOPING AND LIMITING").

    *   Plans (represented by Entities::Plan)

        A plan is a group of features (see below), with certain limits and
        scoping restrictions, that customers subscribe to. You are probably
        familiar with this concept from web services you use (like GitHub,
        Google Apps, etc.).

        A customer can subscribe to one or more plans (plans do not have to
        be related in any way), so that users of that customer can use the
        features provided with those plans.

    *   Features (represented by Entities::Feature)

        A feature is also an abstract entity used to define "something" that
        customers can use on your web service. Perhaps "SSL Encryption" is a
        feature provided with some (but not all) of your plans. Or maybe
        "Opening Blogs" is a feature of all your plans, with different
        limits set on this feature for every plan.

        In other words, features are as they're named: the features of your
        app. It's your decision who gets to use them.

    *   Actions (represented by Entities::Action)

        Actions are the core of 'ability-based authorization'. They define
        the actual activities that users can perform inside your app. For
        example, 'creating a new blog post' is an action that a user can
        perform. Another example would be 'approving comments'. Maybe even
        'creating new users'.

        Actions, therefore, are units of "work" you define in your code.
        Users will be able to perform such a unit of work only if they are
        granted with the 'ability' to perform the action the defines it, and
        only if this action is within the defined 'scope' and 'limit' of the
        parent customer. A certain ability can be bestowed upon a user
        either explicitly, or via roles (see below).

    *   Roles (represented by Entities::Role)

        Roles might be familiar to you from 'role-based authorization'.
        Figuratively speaking, they are 'masks' that users can wear. A role
        is nothing but a group of actions. When a user is assigned a certain
        role, they consume all the actions defined in that role, and
        therefore the user is able to perform them. You will most likely
        find yourself creating roles such as 'admins', 'members', 'guests',
        etc.

        Roles are self-inheriting, i.e. a role can inherit the actions of
        another role.

  SCOPING AND LIMITING
    Scoping is the process of asserting that customers and their users are
    only allowed to perform actions in their own scope. For example, let's
    say your web service is a hosted blogging platform. Customers of your
    service are allowed to create blogs (i.e. they have the 'blogs'
    feature), and their users are allowed to post to these blogs, edit the
    posts and remove them (i.e. they have the 'create_post', 'edit_post' and
    'delete_post' actions). Scoping means ensuring users can only create,
    edit and delete posts in their parent customer's blogs only.

    Limiting is the process of, well, limiting the amount of times a
    customer can use a certain feature. Returning to our hosted blog
    example, the customer's plan might limit the number of blogs the
    customer can own to a certain number, let's say six. When a user of that
    customer attempts to create a new blog, a check must be made that the
    customer has yet to reach the maximum amount of blogs. Users, in
    themselves, are common features in many plan-based web services. A
    customer might be able to create, for example, up to five users in a
    certain plan. Limiting is, therefore, an important part of plan-based
    web services.

    Obviously, the Entities system cannot do scoping and limiting for you,
    so you have to do this yourself. However, I do have plans to provide
    some simple features in upcoming releases to make these processes
    easier.

ATTRIBUTES
  backend
    Holds the storage backend object. This will be an object that "does" the
    role Entities::Backend.

CONSTRUCTOR
  new( backend => $backend )
    Creates a new instance of the Entities module. Requires a backend object
    to be used for storage (see Entities::Backend for more information and a
    list of currently available backends).

OBJECT METHODS
  new_role( name => 'somerole', [ description => 'Just some role',
is_super => 0, roles => [], actions => [], created => $dt_obj,
modified => $other_dt_obj, parent => $entities_obj, id => 123 ] )
    Creates a new Entities::Role object, stores it in the backend and
    returns it.

  new_user( username => 'someguy', passphrase => 's3cr3t', [ realname => 'Some Guy',
is_super => 0, roles => [], actions => [], customer => $customer_obj, id => 123,
emails => [], created => $dt_obj, modified => $other_dt_obj, parent => $entities_obj ] )
    Creates a new Entities::User object, stores it in the backend and
    returns it.

  new_action( name => 'someaction', [ description => 'Just some action',
parent => $entities_obj, id => 123 ] )
    Creates a new Entities::Action object, stores it in the backend and
    returns it.

  new_plan( name => 'someplan', [ description => 'Just some plan',
features => [], plans => [], created => $dt_obj, modified => $other_dt_obj,
parent => $entities_obj, id => 123 ] )
    Creates a new Entities::Plan object, stores it in the backend and
    returns it.

  new_feature( name => 'somefeature', [ description => 'Just some feature',
parent => $entities_obj, id => 123 ] )
    Creates a new Entities::Feature object, stores it in the backend and
    returns it.

  new_customer( name => 'somecustomer', email_address => 'customer@customer.com',
[ features => [], plans => [], created => $dt_obj, modified => $other_dt_obj,
parent => $entities_obj, id => 123 ] )
    Creates a new Entities::Customer object, stores it in the backend and
    returns it.

SEE ALSO
    Abilities, Abilities::Features, Catalyst::Authentication::Abilities.

AUTHOR
    Ido Perlmuter, "<ido at ido50 dot net>"

BUGS
    Please report any bugs or feature requests to "bug-entities at
    rt.cpan.org", or through the web interface at
    <http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/ReportBug.html?Queue=Entities>. I will be
    notified, and then you'll automatically be notified of progress on your
    bug as I make changes.

SUPPORT
    You can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.

        perldoc Entities

    You can also look for information at:

    *   RT: CPAN's request tracker

        <http://rt.cpan.org/NoAuth/Bugs.html?Dist=Entities>

    *   AnnoCPAN: Annotated CPAN documentation

        <http://annocpan.org/dist/Entities>

    *   CPAN Ratings

        <http://cpanratings.perl.org/d/Entities>

    *   Search CPAN

        <http://search.cpan.org/dist/Entities/>

LICENSE AND COPYRIGHT
    Copyright 2010-2013 Ido Perlmuter.

    This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it
    under the terms of either: the GNU General Public License as published
    by the Free Software Foundation; or the Artistic License.

    See http://dev.perl.org/licenses/ for more information.

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