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Haw-Shiuan Chang
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Distributional Inclusion Vector Embedding (DIVE)


Python 2.7

Tensorflow (To train)

IPython notebook (To visualize)

You might need to install some other python packages if you find code needs them but you haven't installed it.

Pre-trained embedding and visualization

The pretrained embeddings are stored in ./model/word-emb.json (without POS) and in ./model/word-emb_POS.json (with POS).

You can visualize it by running ipython notebook code embedding_visualization.ipynb

We also visualize the DIVE embedding and corresponding contexts of top 1% words in material science papers:

To train DIVE:

Input data

The code assumes the tokenization has already been done and each token in input corpus should be splitted by space. To reproduce our results, please use WaCkypedia_EN. The input corpus could either be raw text (e.g., anarchism be a political philosophy...) or append the POS after each token (e.g., anarchism|NN be|VB a|DT political|JJ philosophy|NN...). If your input data are compressed by gz and with extension .gz, you can directly run the code without decompressing it.

Running the training code

Let CORPUS_LOC in point to your corpus file. Run ./ If your input corpus contains POS, remember to add -p "$delimiter" when the script runs python

When the script runs, you might see the loss becomes inf after several epochs. There might not be anything wrong. Backpropagtion could still work properly when the loss function become inf.

Notice that the main code is written by tensorflow, so you can try different objective function easily. However, the current implementation is not optimized for speed and only can take the input where all sentences have the same length. If you would like to share a implementation which is more flexible, faster, or more scalable, please send an email to the first author of the paper.

Evaluation of unsupervised hypernym detection:

Evaluation Datasets preparation

  • Downlaod BLESS, EVALution, LenciBenotto, and Weeds from here. Concatenate *.val and *.test together to become *.all, and put them into ./eval_datasets.
  • Downlaod levy2014, kotlerman2010, turney2014, and baroni2012 from here. Run awk -F $'\t' 'BEGIN {OFS = FS} {if($3 == "True") {print $1,$2,$3,"hyper"} else {print $1,$2,$3,"random"}}' $INPUT_DIR/$INPUT_FILE_NAME > ./eval_datasets/$INPUT_FILE_NAME where $INPUT_DIR/$INPUT_FILE_NAME are the locations of these dataset files. Remove the header line (i.e. word1 word2 label random) on each file.
  • Downlaod HypeNet from here. Uncompress datasets.rar, and run mkdir -p ./eval_datasets/HypeNET/dataset_rnd; tr ' ' ',' < $INPUT_DIR/dataset_rnd/test.tsv | awk -F $'\t' 'BEGIN {OFS = FS} {if($3 == "True") {print $1,$2,$3,"hyper"} else {print $1,$2,$3,"random"}}' > ./eval_datasets/HypeNET/dataset_rnd/test.tsv where $INPUT_DIR is the locations of the dataset.
  • Downlaod HyperLex from here and put hyperlex-all.txt it into ./eval_datasets.
  • For the wordnet dataset from order embedding, the preprocessing step is more complicated, so we directly put the dataset wordnet_test.txt into ./eval_datasets.

Running the evaluation code

Train skip gram model using gensim for evaluation. You can see an example in In, set $POS_WORD2VEC (with POS) and $WORD2VEC (without POS) to be the path of the skip gram models and modify the path in $POS_INPUT_FILE and $INPUT_FILE to be the path of your output embeddings.

Results meaning

The output files will look like following.

summation, 0.73103199394, 0.749850641585, 0.729241877256, 0.851263537906, 0.855368882396
summation_word2vec, 0.866852640254, 0.777838259814, 0.789891696751

It means dS has AP@all = 73.1%, F1 = 75.0%, and accuracy = 72.9%. When predicting which one is more general in the hypernymy pairs, the accuracy is 85.1% (on all pairs), and 85.5% (not including the case when the scores tie).


If you use the code, please cite our paper.

Haw-Shiuan Chang, ZiYun Wang, Luke Vilnis, and Andrew McCallum, 
Distributional Inclusion Vector Embedding for Unsupervised Hypernymy Detection, 
Human Language Technology Conference of the North American Chapter of the 
Association of Computational Linguistics (HLT/NAACL), 2018