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Searching: getElement* and querySelector*

DOM navigation properties are great when elements are close to each other. What if they are not? How to get an arbitrary element of the page?

There are additional searching methods for that.

document.getElementById or just id

If an element has the id attribute, then there's a global variable by the name from that id.

We can use it to access the element, like this:

<div id="*!*elem*/!*">
  <div id="*!*elem-content*/!*">Element</div>
</div>

<script>
  alert(elem); // DOM-element with id="elem"
  alert(window.elem); // accessing global variable like this also works

  // for elem-content things are a bit more complex
  // that has a dash inside, so it can't be a variable name
  alert(window['elem-content']); // ...but accessible using square brackets [...]
</script>

That's unless we declare the same-named variable by our own:

<div id="elem"></div>

<script>
  let elem = 5;

  alert(elem); // the variable overrides the element
</script>

The behavior is described in the specification, but it is supported mainly for compatibility. The browser tries to help us by mixing namespaces of JS and DOM. Good for very simple scripts, but there may be name conflicts. Also, when we look in JS and don't have HTML in view, it's not obvious where the variable comes from.

The better alternative is to use a special method document.getElementById(id).

For instance:

<div id="elem">
  <div id="elem-content">Element</div>
</div>

<script>
*!*
  let elem = document.getElementById('elem');
*/!*

  elem.style.background = 'red';
</script>

Here in the tutorial we'll often use id to directly reference an element, but that's only to keep things short. In real life document.getElementById is the preferred method.

The `id` must be unique. There can be only one element in the document with the given `id`.

If there are multiple elements with the same `id`, then the behavior of corresponding methods is unpredictable. The browser may return any of them at random. So please stick to the rule and keep `id` unique.

```warn header="Only document.getElementById, not `anyNode.getElementById`" The method `getElementById` that can be called only on `document` object. It looks for the given `id` in the whole document.


## getElementsBy*

There are also other methods to look for nodes:

- `elem.getElementsByTagName(tag)` looks for elements with the given tag and returns the collection of them. The `tag` parameter can also be a star `"*"` for "any tags".

For instance:
```js
// get all divs in the document
let divs = document.getElementsByTagName('div');

This method is callable in the context of any DOM element.

Let's find all input tags inside the table:

<table id="table">
  <tr>
    <td>Your age:</td>

    <td>
      <label>
        <input type="radio" name="age" value="young" checked> less than 18
      </label>
      <label>
        <input type="radio" name="age" value="mature"> from 18 to 50
      </label>
      <label>
        <input type="radio" name="age" value="senior"> more than 60
      </label>
    </td>
  </tr>
</table>

<script>
*!*
  let inputs = table.getElementsByTagName('input');
*/!*

  for (let input of inputs) {
    alert( input.value + ': ' + input.checked );
  }
</script>

```warn header="Don't forget the \"s\" letter!" Novice developers sometimes forget the letter `"s"`. That is, they try to call `getElementByTagName` instead of getElementsByTagName.

The "s" letter is absent in getElementById, because it returns a single element. But getElementsByTagName returns a collection of elements, so there's "s" inside.


````warn header="It returns a collection, not an element!"
Another widespread novice mistake is to write:

```js
// doesn't work
document.getElementsByTagName('input').value = 5;

That won't work, because it takes a collection of inputs and assigns the value to it rather than to elements inside it.

We should either iterate over the collection or get an element by its index, and then assign, like this:

// should work (if there's an input)
document.getElementsByTagName('input')[0].value = 5;

There are also other rarely used methods of this kind:

- `elem.getElementsByClassName(className)` returns elements that have the given CSS class. Elements may have other classes too.
- `document.getElementsByName(name)` returns elements with the given `name` attribute, document-wide. Exists for historical reasons, very rarely used, we mention it here only for completeness.

For instance:

```html run height=50
<form name="my-form">
  <div class="article">Article</div>
  <div class="long article">Long article</div>
</form>

<script>
  // find by name attribute
  let form = document.getElementsByName('my-form')[0];

  // find by class inside the form
  let articles = form.getElementsByClassName('article');
  alert(articles.length); // 2, found two elements with class "article"
</script>
```

## querySelectorAll [#querySelectorAll]

Now goes the heavy artillery.

The call to `elem.querySelectorAll(css)` returns all elements inside `elem` matching the given CSS selector. That's the most often used and powerful method.

Here we look for all `<li>` elements that are last children:

```html run
<ul>
  <li>The</li>
  <li>test</li>
</ul>
<ul>
  <li>has</li>
  <li>passed</li>
</ul>
<script>
*!*
  let elements = document.querySelectorAll('ul > li:last-child');
*/!*

  for (let elem of elements) {
    alert(elem.innerHTML); // "test", "passed"
  }
</script>
```

This method is indeed powerful, because any CSS selector can be used.

```smart header="Can use pseudo-classes as well"
Pseudo-classes in the CSS selector like `:hover` and `:active` are also supported. For instance, `document.querySelectorAll(':hover')` will return the collection with elements that the pointer is  over now (in nesting order: from the outermost `<html>` to the most nested one).
```


## querySelector [#querySelector]

The call to `elem.querySelector(css)` returns the first element for the given CSS selector.

In other words, the result is the same as `elem.querySelectorAll(css)[0]`, but the latter is looking for *all* elements and picking one, while `elem.querySelector` just looks for one. So it's faster and shorter to write.

## matches

Previous methods were searching the DOM.

The [elem.matches(css)](http://dom.spec.whatwg.org/#dom-element-matches) does not look for anything, it merely checks if `elem` matches the given CSS-selector. It returns `true` or `false`.

The method comes handy when we are iterating over elements (like in array or something) and trying to filter those that interest us.

For instance:

```html run
<a href="http://example.com/file.zip">...</a>
<a href="http://ya.ru">...</a>

<script>
  // can be any collection instead of document.body.children
  for (let elem of document.body.children) {
*!*
    if (elem.matches('a[href$="zip"]')) {
*/!*
      alert("The archive reference: " + elem.href );
    }
  }
</script>
```

## closest

All elements that are directly above the given one are called its *ancestors*.

In other words, ancestors are: parent, the parent of parent, its parent and so on. The ancestors together form the chain of parents from the element to the top.

The method `elem.closest(css)` looks the nearest ancestor that matches the CSS-selector. The `elem` itself is also included in the search.

In other words, the method `closest` goes up from the element and checks each of parents. If it matches the selector, then the search stops, and the ancestor is returned.

For instance:

```html run
<h1>Contents</h1>

<div class="contents">
  <ul class="book">
    <li class="chapter">Chapter 1</li>
    <li class="chapter">Chapter 1</li>
  </ul>
</div>

<script>
  let chapter = document.querySelector('.chapter'); // LI

  alert(chapter.closest('.book')); // UL
  alert(chapter.closest('.contents')); // DIV

  alert(chapter.closest('h1')); // null (because h1 is not an ancestor)
</script>
```

## Live collections

All methods `"getElementsBy*"` return a *live* collection. Such collections always reflect the current state of the document and "auto-update" when it changes.

In the example below, there are two scripts.

1. The first one creates a reference to the collection of `<div>`. As of now, it's length is `1`.
2. The second scripts runs after the browser meets one more `<div>`, so it's length is `2`.

```html run
<div>First div</div>

<script>
  let divs = document.getElementsByTagName('div');
  alert(divs.length); // 1
</script>

<div>Second div</div>

<script>
*!*
  alert(divs.length); // 2
*/!*
</script>
```

In contrast, `querySelectorAll` returns a *static* collection. It's like a fixed array of elements.

If we use it instead, then both scripts output `1`:


```html run
<div>First div</div>

<script>
  let divs = document.querySelectorAll('div');
  alert(divs.length); // 1
</script>

<div>Second div</div>

<script>
*!*
  alert(divs.length); // 1
*/!*
</script>
```

Now we can easily see the difference. The static collection did not increase after the appearance of a new `div` in the document.

Here we used separate scripts to illustrate how the element addition affects the collection, but any DOM manipulations affect them. Soon we'll see more of them.

## Summary

There are 6 main methods to search for nodes in DOM:

<table>
<thead>
<tr>
<td>Method</td>
<td>Searches by...</td>
<td>Can call on an element?</td>
<td>Live?</td>
</tr>
</thead>
<tbody>
<tr>
<td><code>getElementById</code></td>
<td><code>id</code></td>
<td>-</td>
<td>-</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code>getElementsByName</code></td>
<td><code>name</code></td>
<td>-</td>
<td>✔</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code>getElementsByTagName</code></td>
<td>tag or <code>'*'</code></td>
<td>✔</td>
<td>✔</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code>getElementsByClassName</code></td>
<td>class</td>
<td>✔</td>
<td>✔</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code>querySelector</code></td>
<td>CSS-selector</td>
<td>✔</td>
<td>-</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td><code>querySelectorAll</code></td>
<td>CSS-selector</td>
<td>✔</td>
<td>-</td>
</tr>
</tbody>
</table>

Please note that methods `getElementById` and `getElementsByName` can only be called in the context of the document: `document.getElementById(...)`. But not on an element: `elem.getElementById(...)` would cause an error.

Other methods can be called on elements too. For instance `elem.querySelectorAll(...)` will search inside `elem` (in the DOM subtree).

Besides that:

- There is `elem.matches(css)` to check if `elem` matches the given CSS selector.
- There is `elem.closest(css)` to look for the nearest ancestor that matches the given CSS-selector. The `elem` itself is also checked.

And let's mention one more method here to check for the child-parent relationship:
-  `elemA.contains(elemB)` returns true if `elemB` is inside `elemA` (a descendant of `elemA`) or when `elemA==elemB`.