Make distributable Python applications using Rust
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PyOxidizer is a collection of Rust crates that facilitate building libraries and binaries containing Python interpreters. PyOxidizer is capable of producing a single file executable - with all dependencies statically linked and all resources (like .pyc files) embedded in the executable.

The over-arching goal of PyOxidizer is to make complex packaging and distribution problems simple so application maintainers can focus on building applications instead of toiling with build systems and packaging tools.

The Oxidizer part of the name comes from Rust: executables produced by PyOxidizer are compiled from Rust and Rust code is responsible for managing the embedded Python interpreter and all its operations.

PyOxidizer is similar in nature to PyInstaller, Shiv, and other tools in this space. What generally sets PyOxidizer apart is that produced executables contain an embedded, statically-linked Python interpreter, have no additional run-time dependency on the target system (e.g. minimal dependencies on shared libraries, container runtimes, or FUSE filesystems), and runs everything from memory (as opposed to e.g. extracting Python modules to a temporary directory and loading them from there).

Quick Start

You need Rust 1.31 and a corresponding Cargo installed.

You will need a TOML configuration file telling us how to embed Python. See docs/config.rst for documentation of this configuration file.


local_path = "/home/gps/src/python-build-standalone/build/cpython-linux64.tar.zst"
sha256 = "5a43b90919672f8cc72a932b19f7627fa59ae66f867346f481ce01685db74fad"

program_name = "myprog"

module_paths = ["/home/gps/src/myapp/venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages"]

You can find available Python distributions at

Then from a clone of this repository, run cargo build with the PYOXIDIZER_CONFIG environment variable pointing to this config file. e.g.

$ PYOXIDIZER_CONFIG=~/src/myapp/pyoxidizer-linux.toml cargo build

This will build a target/debug/pyapp executable containing the configured Python application. You can run it directly or with cargo run.

Status of Project

The project is considered technology preview status. It is not yet viable to use in the wild. There are several missing features, bugs, and other rough edges. Use at your own risk.

How It Works

PyOxidizer ingests a specially produced Python distribution - likely one from the [python-build-standalone]( project). It consumes the libpython static library in its entirely or the object files it was derived from. It also collects Python modules from the standard library.

The Python standard library modules are supplemented with additional .py source files specified by the user. These are all assembled into binary data structures and embedded in a Rust library, where the raw module source and bytecode are exposed to Python via a minimal extension module.

There exists a custom module importer that knows how to load modules from the in-memory data structures exposed via the built-in extension module. This module importer is implemented in pure Python.

This custom module importer is injected into the Python interpreter by compiling custom bytecode for the importlib._bootstrap_external module and replacing its entry in the frozen modules array exposed to Python's C API.

At run-time, Rust code instantiates an embedded Python interpreter with our custom/defined settings.

The end result of this process can be as simple as a single, self-contained executable. When the process is executed, very little work needs to be done to run Python code, as all native code is available in the executable and all .py and .pyc files can be loaded without performing any explicit filesystem I/O.

Known Limitations and Planned Features

Only Python 3.7 is currently supported. Support for older Python 3 releases is possible. But the project author hopes we only need to target the latest/greatest Python release.

There is not yet support for controlling which Python C extensions are linked into the final binary. Not all applications need every Python C extension and removing C extensions could result in smaller binaries. There are also licensing concerns with some extensions (gdbm and readline are GPL version 3).

There is not yet support for filtering which .py and .pyc files make it into the final binary. This is relatively trivial to implement.

The TOML config files and how crates are built needs some work.

There is not yet support for reordering .py and .pyc files in the binary. This feature would facilitate linear read access, which could lead to faster execution.

Binary resources are currently stored as raw data. They could be stored compressed to keep binary size in check (at the cost of run-time memory usage and CPU overhead).

There is not yet support for lazy module importers. Even though importing is faster due to no I/O, a large part of module importing is executing module code on import. So lazy module importing is still beneficial. PyOxidizer will eventually ship a built-in lazy module importer. There are also possibilities for alternate module serialization techniques which are faster than marshal. Some have experimented with serializing the various PyObject types and adjusting pointers at run-time...

The ResourceReader API for loading resources is not yet implemented. This appears to be the recommended way to access non-module data from packages. We will definitely support this API someday.

There is not yet support for integrating custom extension modules (compiled Python extensions). This should be doable, assuming those extensions are compiled with the same toolchain used to produce the embedded Python interpreter. We make that toolchain available for download and can likely automate the building of custom extension modules.

Windows currently requires a Nightly Rust to build (you can set the environment variable RUSTC_BOOTSTRAP=1 to work around this) because the static-nobundle library type is required. tracks making this feature stable. It might be possible to work around this by adding an __imp_ prefixed symbol in the right place or by producing a empty import library to satisfy requirements of the static linkage kind. See for more.

Repository Structure

The pyrepackager directory contains a Rust crate with the build-time code used for ingesting a Python distribution and emitting artifacts and other configurations needed to produce an embeddable Python interpreter. Because this is a build-time crate and doesn't contain code for run-time, most of the logic for PyOxidizer lives in this crate.

The pyembed directory defines a library Rust crate for interfacing with an embedded Python interpreter. When built, this crate emits resources for embedding a Python interpreter (custom module importer, modules data structures, etc) and embeds them within the Rust library.

The pyapp directory defines a simple Rust crate which defines a binary that uses the pyembed crate to instatiate and run an embedded Python interpreter. This crate demonstrates how simple it is to integrate and use a Python interpreter in an existing Rust project.

Licensing Considerations

Python and its various dependencies are governed by a handful of licenses. These licenses have various requirements and restrictions.

Currently, binaries produced with PyOxidizer contain statically linked code covered by various licenses. This includes GPL 3.0 licensed code (libreadline and libgdbm). This has significant implications!

In the future, PyOxidizer will allow stripping components of the Python distribution that have undesirable licenses and may allow distributing specific components as standalone libraries to skirt around some licensing restrictions.

Frequently Asked Questions

Can Python 2.7 Be Supported?

In theory, yes. However, it is considerable more effort than Python 3. And since Python 2.7 is being deprecated in 2020, in the project author's opinion it isn't worth the effort.

Why Rust?

PyOxidizer requires a driver application to interface with the Python C API and that driver application needs to compile to native code. In the author's opinion, the only appropriate languages for this were C, C++, and Rust.

Of those 3, the project's author prefers to write new projects in Rust because it is a superior systems programming language that has built on lessons learned from decades working with its predecessors.The author prefers technologies that can detect and eliminate entire classes of bugs (like buffer overflow and use-after-free) at compile time.

Why is the Rust Code... Not Great?

This is the project author's first real Rust project. Suggestions to improve the Rust code would be very much appreciated!

Keep in mind that the pyrepackager crate is a build-time only crate and arguably doesn't need to live up to quality standards as crates containing run-time code. Things like aggressive .unwrap() usage are arguably tolerable.

What is the Magic Sauce That Makes PyOxidizer Special?

There are 2 technical achievements that make PyOxidizer special.

First, PyOxidizer consumes Python distributions that were specially built with the aim of being used for standalone/distributable applications. These custom-built Python distributions are compiled in such a way that the resulting binaries have very few external dependencies and run on nearly every target system. Other tools that produce standalone Python binaries often rely on an existing Python distribution, which often doesn't have these characteristics.

Second is the ability to import .py/.pyc files from memory. Most other self-contained Python applications rely on Python's zipimporter or do work at run-time to extract the standard library to a filesystem (typically a temporary directory or a FUSE filesystem like SquashFS). What PyOxidizer does is expose the .py/.pyc modules data to the Python interpreter via a Python extension module built-in to the binary. In addition, the importlib._bootstrap_external module (which is frozen into libpython) is replaced by a modified version that defines a custom module importer capable of loading Python modules from the in-memory data structures exposed from the built-in extension module.

The custom importlib_bootstrap_external frozen module trick is probably the most novel technical achievement of PyOxidizer. Other Python distribution tools are encouraged to steal this idea!

Can Applications Import Python Modules from the Filesystem?

Yes. While the default is to import all Python modules from in-memory data structures linked into the binary, it is possible to configure sys.path to allow importing from additional filesystem paths. Support for importing compiled extension modules is also possible.

What are the Implications of Static Linking?

Most Python distributions rely heavily on dynamic linking. In addition to python frequently loading a dynamic libpython, many C extensions are compiled as standalone shared libraries. This includes the modules _ctypes, _json, _sqlite3, _ssl, and _uuid, which provide the native code interfaces for the respective non-_ prefixed modules which you may be familiar with.

These C extensions frequently link to other libraries, such as libffi1, libsqlite3, libssl, and libcrypto. And more often than not, that linking is dynamic. And the libraries being linked to are provided by the system/environment Python runs in. As a concrete example, on Linux, the _ssl module can be provided by, which can have a shared library dependency against and, which can be located in /usr/lib/x86_64-linux-gnu or a similar location under /usr.

When Python extensions are statically linked into a binary, the Python extension code is part of the binary instead of in a standalone file.

If the extension code is linked against a static library, then the code for that dependency library is part of the extension/binary instead of dynamically loaded from a standalone file.

When PyOxidizer produces a fully statically linked binary, the code for these 3rd party libraries is part of the produced binary and not loaded from external files at load/import time.

There are a few important implications to this.

One is related to security and bug fixes. When 3rd party libraries are provided by an external source (typically the operating system) and are dynamically loaded, once the external library is updated, your binary can use the latest version of the code. When that external library is statically linked, you need to rebuild your binary to pick up the latest version of that 3rd party library. So if e.g. there is an important security update to OpenSSL, you would need to ship a new version of your application with the new OpenSSL in order for users of your application to be secure.

Another implication is code compatibility. If multiple consumers try to use different versions of the same library... TODO

How is This Different From PyInstaller?

PyInstaller - like PyOxidizer - can produce a self-container executable file containing your application. However, at run-time, PyInstaller will extract Python source/bytecode files to a temporary directory then import modules from the filesystem. PyOxidizer skips this step and loads modules directly from memory.

How is This Different From py2exe?


How is This Different From Shiv?

Shiv is a packager for zip file based Python applications. The Python interpreter has built-in support for running self-contained Python applications that are distributed as zip files.

Shiv requires the target system to have a Python executable and for the target to support shebangs in executable files. This is acceptable for controlled *NIX environments. It isn't acceptable for Windows (which doesn't support shebangs) nor for environments where you can't guarantee an appropriate Python executable is available.

Also, by distributing our own Python interpreter with the application, we have stronger guarantees about the run-time environment. For example, you can aggressively target the latest Python version. Another benefit of distributing our own Python interpreter is we can run a Python interpreter with various optimizations, such as profile-guided optimization (PGO) and link-time optimization (LTO). We can also easily configure custom memory allocators or tweak memory allocators for optimal performance.

How is This Different From PEX?

PEX is a packager for zip file based Python applications. For purposes of comparison, PEX and Shiv have the same properties.

How is This Different From XAR?

XAR requires the use of SquashFS. SquashFS requires Linux.

PyOxidizer is a target native executable and doesn't require any special filesystems or other properties to run.

How is This Different From Docker / Running a Container

It is increasingly popular to distribute applications as self-contained container environments. e.g. Docker images. This distribution mechanism is effective for Linux users.

PyOxidizer will likely produce a smaller distribution than container-based applications. This is because many container-based applications contain a lot of extra content that isn't needed by the processes within.

PyOxidizer also doesn't require a container execution environment. Not every user has the capability to run certain container formats. However, nearly every user can run a self-contained executable.

How is This Different From Nuitka?

Nuitka can compile Python programs to single executables. And the emphasis is on compile: Nuitka actually converts Python to C and compiles that. Nuitka is effectively an alternate Python interpreter.

Nuitka is a cool project and purports to produce significant speed-ups compared to CPython.

Since Nuitka is effectively a new Python interpreter, there are risks to running Python in this environment. Some code has dependencies on CPython behaviors. There may be subtle bugs are lacking features from Nuitka. However, Nuitka supposedly supports every Python construct, so many applications should just work.

Given the performance benefits of Nuitka, it is a compelling alternative to PyOxidizer.

How is This Different From PyRun?

PyRun can produce single file executables. The author isn't sure how it works. PyRun doesn't appear to support modern Python versions. And it appears to require shared libraries (like bzip2) on the target system. PyOxidizer supports the latest Python and doesn't require shared libraries that aren't in nearly every environment.