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ninjs - News in JSON

ninjs is's standard for describing news content in JSON format.

The ninjs JSON Schema is available in this repository and at

More extensive documentation, created from the source files in the documentation folder in this repository, can be found at


The examples folder contains example files, including some supplied by Business Wire. Examples show how NewsML 1.2 files convert to their equivalents in ninjs.

Two versions of ninjs: ninjs 1.4 and ninjs 2.0

This repository specifies both the 1.4 and 2.0 versions of ninjs.

The 1.x series adds new features to the version of ninjs that started with ninjs 1.0 back in 2013, in a way that is fully backwards compatible. The latest release in this series is 1.4, which includes new fields contentcreated, expires and rightsinfo. The 1.4 version of ninjs was approved by the IPTC Standards Committee on May 18th, 2022.

The 2.x series fixes some issues that made the 1.x series tricky for developers to work with. The main change is that we avoid the use of patternProperties, so all properties now have well-defined names. This work is intended to make ninjs easier for work with binary protocols such as Protocol Buffers and Avro. We also took the opportunity to make property names more consistent with NewsML-G2 and to add some fields to handle rights.

We wanted to issue a new release which fixed these problems, but this meant breaking backwards-compatibility with the 1.x versions of ninjs. This is why we increased the major version number to 2.0.

The 2.0 version of ninjs was approved by the IPTC Standards Committee on October 20th, 2021.

An errata update was made in May 2022 to fix a problem with the way GeoJSON properties were integrated into the "places" object.

Which version should I choose for my project?

If you are starting a green-field project, we recommend using ninjs 2.0. This version should be easiest for developers to work with.

If you are already using a 1.x version of ninjs, we recommend at least upgrading to version 1.4. This should be an easy change, because 1.4 is backwards-compatible with versions 1.0, 1.1, 1.2 and 1.3.

Protocol Buffers demo

In the protobufs folder we have included a demonstration Protocol Buffers schema based on ninjs 2.0.

We also show how a code library can be automatically generated from the protobufs schema and we include an example Python script showing how a ninjs Protobufs document can be written and read via code.

See the protobufs README for details.

Unit tests

To run unit tests in the validation/test_suite folder against each of the ninjs 1.0, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 2.0 schemas, run the following tool in a command/terminal window:

pip install -r validation/python/requirements.txt

We automatically run unit tests on every commit using CircleCI. The badge above the title on this page indicates the current status of the unit tests.

Dev schema

"Development" versions of the 1.4 schema and 2.0 schema are available in the specification folder and at

The dev schema is used to test possible additions to future versions of ninjs. It is not guaranteed to be maintained and is subject to change at any time. Please do not create production projects based on this schema.

ninjs Generator

In the generator folder is the source code to the ninjs generator, a user-facing tool to generate sample ninjs files of either 1.4 or 2.0 version, which is hosted at