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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
"""Main IPython class."""
# Copyright (C) 2001 Janko Hauser <>
# Copyright (C) 2001-2007 Fernando Perez. <>
# Copyright (C) 2008-2011 The IPython Development Team
# Distributed under the terms of the BSD License. The full license is in
# the file COPYING, distributed as part of this software.
import abc
import ast
import atexit
import builtins as builtin_mod
import functools
import os
import re
import runpy
import sys
import tempfile
import traceback
import types
import subprocess
import warnings
from io import open as io_open
from pickleshare import PickleShareDB
from traitlets.config.configurable import SingletonConfigurable
from IPython.core import oinspect
from IPython.core import magic
from IPython.core import page
from IPython.core import prefilter
from IPython.core import ultratb
from IPython.core.alias import Alias, AliasManager
from IPython.core.autocall import ExitAutocall
from IPython.core.builtin_trap import BuiltinTrap
from import EventManager, available_events
from IPython.core.compilerop import CachingCompiler, check_linecache_ipython
from IPython.core.debugger import Pdb
from IPython.core.display_trap import DisplayTrap
from IPython.core.displayhook import DisplayHook
from IPython.core.displaypub import DisplayPublisher
from IPython.core.error import InputRejected, UsageError
from IPython.core.extensions import ExtensionManager
from IPython.core.formatters import DisplayFormatter
from IPython.core.history import HistoryManager
from IPython.core.inputsplitter import ESC_MAGIC, ESC_MAGIC2
from IPython.core.logger import Logger
from IPython.core.macro import Macro
from IPython.core.payload import PayloadManager
from IPython.core.prefilter import PrefilterManager
from IPython.core.profiledir import ProfileDir
from IPython.core.usage import default_banner
from IPython.display import display
from IPython.testing.skipdoctest import skip_doctest
from IPython.utils import PyColorize
from IPython.utils import io
from IPython.utils import py3compat
from IPython.utils import openpy
from IPython.utils.decorators import undoc
from import ask_yes_no
from IPython.utils.ipstruct import Struct
from IPython.paths import get_ipython_dir
from IPython.utils.path import get_home_dir, get_py_filename, ensure_dir_exists
from IPython.utils.process import system, getoutput
from IPython.utils.strdispatch import StrDispatch
from IPython.utils.syspathcontext import prepended_to_syspath
from IPython.utils.text import format_screen, LSString, SList, DollarFormatter
from IPython.utils.tempdir import TemporaryDirectory
from traitlets import (
Integer, Bool, CaselessStrEnum, Enum, List, Dict, Unicode, Instance, Type,
observe, default,
from warnings import warn
from logging import error
import IPython.core.hooks
from typing import List as ListType
from ast import AST
# NoOpContext is deprecated, but ipykernel imports it from here.
# See
from IPython.utils.contexts import NoOpContext
import docrepr.sphinxify as sphx
def sphinxify(doc):
with TemporaryDirectory() as dirname:
return {
'text/html': sphx.sphinxify(doc, dirname),
'text/plain': doc
except ImportError:
sphinxify = None
class ProvisionalWarning(DeprecationWarning):
Warning class for unstable features
if sys.version_info > (3,6):
_assign_nodes = (ast.AugAssign, ast.AnnAssign, ast.Assign)
_single_targets_nodes = (ast.AugAssign, ast.AnnAssign)
_assign_nodes = (ast.AugAssign, ast.Assign )
_single_targets_nodes = (ast.AugAssign, )
# Globals
# compiled regexps for autoindent management
dedent_re = re.compile(r'^\s+raise|^\s+return|^\s+pass')
# Utilities
def softspace(file, newvalue):
"""Copied from, to remove the dependency"""
oldvalue = 0
oldvalue = file.softspace
except AttributeError:
file.softspace = newvalue
except (AttributeError, TypeError):
# "attribute-less object" or "read-only attributes"
return oldvalue
def no_op(*a, **kw):
class SpaceInInput(Exception): pass
def get_default_colors():
warn('get_default_color is deprecated since IPython 5.0, and returns `Neutral` on all platforms.',
DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2)
return 'Neutral'
class SeparateUnicode(Unicode):
r"""A Unicode subclass to validate separate_in, separate_out, etc.
This is a Unicode based trait that converts '0'->'' and ``'\\n'->'\n'``.
def validate(self, obj, value):
if value == '0': value = ''
value = value.replace('\\n','\n')
return super(SeparateUnicode, self).validate(obj, value)
class DummyMod(object):
"""A dummy module used for IPython's interactive module when
a namespace must be assigned to the module's __dict__."""
class ExecutionResult(object):
"""The result of a call to :meth:`InteractiveShell.run_cell`
Stores information about what took place.
execution_count = None
error_before_exec = None
error_in_exec = None
result = None
def success(self):
return (self.error_before_exec is None) and (self.error_in_exec is None)
def raise_error(self):
"""Reraises error if `success` is `False`, otherwise does nothing"""
if self.error_before_exec is not None:
raise self.error_before_exec
if self.error_in_exec is not None:
raise self.error_in_exec
def __repr__(self):
name = self.__class__.__qualname__
return '<%s object at %x, execution_count=%s error_before_exec=%s error_in_exec=%s result=%s>' %\
(name, id(self), self.execution_count, self.error_before_exec, self.error_in_exec, repr(self.result))
class InteractiveShell(SingletonConfigurable):
"""An enhanced, interactive shell for Python."""
_instance = None
ast_transformers = List([], help=
A list of ast.NodeTransformer subclass instances, which will be applied
to user input before code is run.
autocall = Enum((0,1,2), default_value=0, help=
Make IPython automatically call any callable object even if you didn't
type explicit parentheses. For example, 'str 43' becomes 'str(43)'
automatically. The value can be '0' to disable the feature, '1' for
'smart' autocall, where it is not applied if there are no more
arguments on the line, and '2' for 'full' autocall, where all callable
objects are automatically called (even if no arguments are present).
# TODO: remove all autoindent logic and put into frontends.
# We can't do this yet because even runlines uses the autoindent.
autoindent = Bool(True, help=
Autoindent IPython code entered interactively.
automagic = Bool(True, help=
Enable magic commands to be called without the leading %.
banner1 = Unicode(default_banner,
help="""The part of the banner to be printed before the profile"""
banner2 = Unicode('',
help="""The part of the banner to be printed after the profile"""
cache_size = Integer(1000, help=
Set the size of the output cache. The default is 1000, you can
change it permanently in your config file. Setting it to 0 completely
disables the caching system, and the minimum value accepted is 3 (if
you provide a value less than 3, it is reset to 0 and a warning is
issued). This limit is defined because otherwise you'll spend more
time re-flushing a too small cache than working
color_info = Bool(True, help=
Use colors for displaying information about objects. Because this
information is passed through a pager (like 'less'), and some pagers
get confused with color codes, this capability can be turned off.
colors = CaselessStrEnum(('Neutral', 'NoColor','LightBG','Linux'),
help="Set the color scheme (NoColor, Neutral, Linux, or LightBG)."
debug = Bool(False).tag(config=True)
disable_failing_post_execute = Bool(False,
help="Don't call post-execute functions that have failed in the past."
display_formatter = Instance(DisplayFormatter, allow_none=True)
displayhook_class = Type(DisplayHook)
display_pub_class = Type(DisplayPublisher)
sphinxify_docstring = Bool(False, help=
Enables rich html representation of docstrings. (This requires the
docrepr module).
def _sphinxify_docstring_changed(self, change):
if change['new']:
warn("`sphinxify_docstring` is provisional since IPython 5.0 and might change in future versions." , ProvisionalWarning)
enable_html_pager = Bool(False, help=
(Provisional API) enables html representation in mime bundles sent
to pagers.
def _enable_html_pager_changed(self, change):
if change['new']:
warn("`enable_html_pager` is provisional since IPython 5.0 and might change in future versions.", ProvisionalWarning)
data_pub_class = None
exit_now = Bool(False)
exiter = Instance(ExitAutocall)
def _exiter_default(self):
return ExitAutocall(self)
# Monotonically increasing execution counter
execution_count = Integer(1)
filename = Unicode("<ipython console>")
ipython_dir= Unicode('').tag(config=True) # Set to get_ipython_dir() in __init__
# Input splitter, to transform input line by line and detect when a block
# is ready to be executed.
input_splitter = Instance('IPython.core.inputsplitter.IPythonInputSplitter',
(), {'line_input_checker': True})
# This InputSplitter instance is used to transform completed cells before
# running them. It allows cell magics to contain blank lines.
input_transformer_manager = Instance('IPython.core.inputsplitter.IPythonInputSplitter',
(), {'line_input_checker': False})
logstart = Bool(False, help=
Start logging to the default log file in overwrite mode.
Use `logappend` to specify a log file to **append** logs to.
logfile = Unicode('', help=
The name of the logfile to use.
logappend = Unicode('', help=
Start logging to the given file in append mode.
Use `logfile` to specify a log file to **overwrite** logs to.
object_info_string_level = Enum((0,1,2), default_value=0,
pdb = Bool(False, help=
Automatically call the pdb debugger after every exception.
display_page = Bool(False,
help="""If True, anything that would be passed to the pager
will be displayed as regular output instead."""
# deprecated prompt traits:
prompt_in1 = Unicode('In [\\#]: ',
help="Deprecated since IPython 4.0 and ignored since 5.0, set TerminalInteractiveShell.prompts object directly."
prompt_in2 = Unicode(' .\\D.: ',
help="Deprecated since IPython 4.0 and ignored since 5.0, set TerminalInteractiveShell.prompts object directly."
prompt_out = Unicode('Out[\\#]: ',
help="Deprecated since IPython 4.0 and ignored since 5.0, set TerminalInteractiveShell.prompts object directly."
prompts_pad_left = Bool(True,
help="Deprecated since IPython 4.0 and ignored since 5.0, set TerminalInteractiveShell.prompts object directly."
@observe('prompt_in1', 'prompt_in2', 'prompt_out', 'prompt_pad_left')
def _prompt_trait_changed(self, change):
name = change['name']
warn("InteractiveShell.{name} is deprecated since IPython 4.0"
" and ignored since 5.0, set TerminalInteractiveShell.prompts"
" object directly.".format(name=name))
# protect against weird cases where self.config may not exist:
show_rewritten_input = Bool(True,
help="Show rewritten input, e.g. for autocall."
quiet = Bool(False).tag(config=True)
history_length = Integer(10000,
help='Total length of command history'
history_load_length = Integer(1000, help=
The number of saved history entries to be loaded
into the history buffer at startup.
ast_node_interactivity = Enum(['all', 'last', 'last_expr', 'none', 'last_expr_or_assign'],
'all', 'last', 'last_expr' or 'none', 'last_expr_or_assign' specifying
which nodes should be run interactively (displaying output from expressions).
# TODO: this part of prompt management should be moved to the frontends.
# Use custom TraitTypes that convert '0'->'' and '\\n'->'\n'
separate_in = SeparateUnicode('\n').tag(config=True)
separate_out = SeparateUnicode('').tag(config=True)
separate_out2 = SeparateUnicode('').tag(config=True)
wildcards_case_sensitive = Bool(True).tag(config=True)
xmode = CaselessStrEnum(('Context','Plain', 'Verbose'),
help="Switch modes for the IPython exception handlers."
# Subcomponents of InteractiveShell
alias_manager = Instance('IPython.core.alias.AliasManager', allow_none=True)
prefilter_manager = Instance('IPython.core.prefilter.PrefilterManager', allow_none=True)
builtin_trap = Instance('IPython.core.builtin_trap.BuiltinTrap', allow_none=True)
display_trap = Instance('IPython.core.display_trap.DisplayTrap', allow_none=True)
extension_manager = Instance('IPython.core.extensions.ExtensionManager', allow_none=True)
payload_manager = Instance('IPython.core.payload.PayloadManager', allow_none=True)
history_manager = Instance('IPython.core.history.HistoryAccessorBase', allow_none=True)
magics_manager = Instance('IPython.core.magic.MagicsManager', allow_none=True)
profile_dir = Instance('IPython.core.application.ProfileDir', allow_none=True)
def profile(self):
if self.profile_dir is not None:
name = os.path.basename(self.profile_dir.location)
return name.replace('profile_','')
# Private interface
_post_execute = Dict()
# Tracks any GUI loop loaded for pylab
pylab_gui_select = None
last_execution_succeeded = Bool(True, help='Did last executed command succeeded')
last_execution_result = Instance('IPython.core.interactiveshell.ExecutionResult', help='Result of executing the last command', allow_none=True)
def __init__(self, ipython_dir=None, profile_dir=None,
user_module=None, user_ns=None,
custom_exceptions=((), None), **kwargs):
# This is where traits with a config_key argument are updated
# from the values on config.
super(InteractiveShell, self).__init__(**kwargs)
if 'PromptManager' in self.config:
warn('As of IPython 5.0 `PromptManager` config will have no effect'
' and has been replaced by TerminalInteractiveShell.prompts_class')
self.configurables = [self]
# These are relatively independent and stateless
# Check if we're in a virtualenv, and set up sys.path.
# Create namespaces (user_ns, user_global_ns, etc.)
self.init_create_namespaces(user_module, user_ns)
# This has to be done after init_create_namespaces because it uses
# something in self.user_ns, but before init_sys_modules, which
# is the first thing to modify sys.
# TODO: When we override sys.stdout and sys.stderr before this class
# is created, we are saving the overridden ones here. Not sure if this
# is what we want to do.
# While we're trying to have each part of the code directly access what
# it needs without keeping redundant references to objects, we have too
# much legacy code that expects ip.db to exist.
self.db = PickleShareDB(os.path.join(self.profile_dir.location, 'db'))
# The following was in post_config_initialization
self.raw_input_original = input
# TODO: init_io() needs to happen before init_traceback handlers
# because the traceback handlers hardcode the stdout/stderr streams.
# This logic in in debugger.Pdb and should eventually be changed.
self.hooks.late_startup_hook()'shell_initialized', self)
def get_ipython(self):
"""Return the currently running IPython instance."""
return self
# Trait changed handlers
def _ipython_dir_changed(self, change):
def set_autoindent(self,value=None):
"""Set the autoindent flag.
If called with no arguments, it acts as a toggle."""
if value is None:
self.autoindent = not self.autoindent
self.autoindent = value
# init_* methods called by __init__
def init_ipython_dir(self, ipython_dir):
if ipython_dir is not None:
self.ipython_dir = ipython_dir
self.ipython_dir = get_ipython_dir()
def init_profile_dir(self, profile_dir):
if profile_dir is not None:
self.profile_dir = profile_dir
self.profile_dir =\
ProfileDir.create_profile_dir_by_name(self.ipython_dir, 'default')
def init_instance_attrs(self):
self.more = False
# command compiler
self.compile = CachingCompiler()
# Make an empty namespace, which extension writers can rely on both
# existing and NEVER being used by ipython itself. This gives them a
# convenient location for storing additional information and state
# their extensions may require, without fear of collisions with other
# ipython names that may develop later.
self.meta = Struct()
# Temporary files used for various purposes. Deleted at exit.
self.tempfiles = []
self.tempdirs = []
# keep track of where we started running (mainly for crash post-mortem)
# This is not being used anywhere currently.
self.starting_dir = os.getcwd()
# Indentation management
self.indent_current_nsp = 0
# Dict to track post-execution functions that have been registered
self._post_execute = {}
def init_environment(self):
"""Any changes we need to make to the user's environment."""
def init_encoding(self):
# Get system encoding at startup time. Certain terminals (like Emacs
# under Win32 have it set to None, and we need to have a known valid
# encoding to use in the raw_input() method
self.stdin_encoding = sys.stdin.encoding or 'ascii'
except AttributeError:
self.stdin_encoding = 'ascii'
def init_syntax_highlighting(self, changes=None):
# Python source parser/formatter for syntax highlighting
pyformat = PyColorize.Parser(style=self.colors, parent=self).format
self.pycolorize = lambda src: pyformat(src,'str')
def refresh_style(self):
# No-op here, used in subclass
def init_pushd_popd_magic(self):
# for pushd/popd management
self.home_dir = get_home_dir()
self.dir_stack = []
def init_logger(self):
self.logger = Logger(self.home_dir, logfname='',
def init_logstart(self):
"""Initialize logging in case it was requested at the command line.
if self.logappend:
self.magic('logstart %s append' % self.logappend)
elif self.logfile:
self.magic('logstart %s' % self.logfile)
elif self.logstart:
def init_deprecation_warnings(self):
register default filter for deprecation warning.
This will allow deprecation warning of function used interactively to show
warning to users, and still hide deprecation warning from libraries import.
warnings.filterwarnings("default", category=DeprecationWarning, module=self.user_ns.get("__name__"))
def init_builtins(self):
# A single, static flag that we set to True. Its presence indicates
# that an IPython shell has been created, and we make no attempts at
# removing on exit or representing the existence of more than one
# IPython at a time.
builtin_mod.__dict__['__IPYTHON__'] = True
builtin_mod.__dict__['display'] = display
self.builtin_trap = BuiltinTrap(shell=self)
def init_inspector(self, changes=None):
# Object inspector
self.inspector = oinspect.Inspector(oinspect.InspectColors,
def init_io(self):
# This will just use sys.stdout and sys.stderr. If you want to
# override sys.stdout and sys.stderr themselves, you need to do that
# *before* instantiating this class, because io holds onto
# references to the underlying streams.
# io.std* are deprecated, but don't show our own deprecation warnings
# during initialization of the deprecated API.
with warnings.catch_warnings():
warnings.simplefilter('ignore', DeprecationWarning)
io.stdout = io.IOStream(sys.stdout)
io.stderr = io.IOStream(sys.stderr)
def init_prompts(self):
# Set system prompts, so that scripts can decide if they are running
# interactively.
sys.ps1 = 'In : '
sys.ps2 = '...: '
sys.ps3 = 'Out: '
def init_display_formatter(self):
self.display_formatter = DisplayFormatter(parent=self)
def init_display_pub(self):
self.display_pub = self.display_pub_class(parent=self)
def init_data_pub(self):
if not self.data_pub_class:
self.data_pub = None
self.data_pub = self.data_pub_class(parent=self)
def init_displayhook(self):
# Initialize displayhook, set in/out prompts and printing system
self.displayhook = self.displayhook_class(
# This is a context manager that installs/revmoes the displayhook at
# the appropriate time.
self.display_trap = DisplayTrap(hook=self.displayhook)
def init_virtualenv(self):
"""Add a virtualenv to sys.path so the user can import modules from it.
This isn't perfect: it doesn't use the Python interpreter with which the
virtualenv was built, and it ignores the --no-site-packages option. A
warning will appear suggesting the user installs IPython in the
virtualenv, but for many cases, it probably works well enough.
Adapted from code snippets online.
if 'VIRTUAL_ENV' not in os.environ:
# Not in a virtualenv
# venv detection:
# stdlib venv may symlink sys.executable, so we can't use realpath.
# but others can symlink *to* the venv Python, so we can't just use sys.executable.
# So we just check every item in the symlink tree (generally <= 3)
p = os.path.normcase(sys.executable)
paths = [p]
while os.path.islink(p):
p = os.path.normcase(os.path.join(os.path.dirname(p), os.readlink(p)))
p_venv = os.path.normcase(os.environ['VIRTUAL_ENV'])
# In Cygwin paths like "c:\..." and '\cygdrive\c\...' are possible
if p_venv.startswith('\\cygdrive'):
p_venv = p_venv[11:]
elif p_venv[1] == ':':
p_venv = p_venv[2:]
if any(p_venv in p for p in paths):
# Running properly in the virtualenv, don't need to do anything
warn("Attempting to work in a virtualenv. If you encounter problems, please "
"install IPython inside the virtualenv.")
if sys.platform == "win32":
virtual_env = os.path.join(os.environ['VIRTUAL_ENV'], 'Lib', 'site-packages')
virtual_env = os.path.join(os.environ['VIRTUAL_ENV'], 'lib',
'python%d.%d' % sys.version_info[:2], 'site-packages')
import site
sys.path.insert(0, virtual_env)
# Things related to injections into the sys module
def save_sys_module_state(self):
"""Save the state of hooks in the sys module.
This has to be called after self.user_module is created.
self._orig_sys_module_state = {'stdin': sys.stdin,
'stdout': sys.stdout,
'stderr': sys.stderr,
'excepthook': sys.excepthook}
self._orig_sys_modules_main_name = self.user_module.__name__
self._orig_sys_modules_main_mod = sys.modules.get(self.user_module.__name__)
def restore_sys_module_state(self):
"""Restore the state of the sys module."""
for k, v in self._orig_sys_module_state.items():
setattr(sys, k, v)
except AttributeError:
# Reset what what done in self.init_sys_modules
if self._orig_sys_modules_main_mod is not None:
sys.modules[self._orig_sys_modules_main_name] = self._orig_sys_modules_main_mod
# Things related to the banner
def banner(self):
banner = self.banner1
if self.profile and self.profile != 'default':
banner += '\nIPython profile: %s\n' % self.profile
if self.banner2:
banner += '\n' + self.banner2
return banner
def show_banner(self, banner=None):
if banner is None:
banner = self.banner
# Things related to hooks
def init_hooks(self):
# hooks holds pointers used for user-side customizations
self.hooks = Struct()
self.strdispatchers = {}
# Set all default hooks, defined in the IPython.hooks module.
hooks = IPython.core.hooks
for hook_name in hooks.__all__:
# default hooks have priority 100, i.e. low; user hooks should have
# 0-100 priority
self.set_hook(hook_name,getattr(hooks,hook_name), 100, _warn_deprecated=False)
if self.display_page:
self.set_hook('show_in_pager', page.as_hook(page.display_page), 90)
def set_hook(self,name,hook, priority=50, str_key=None, re_key=None,
"""set_hook(name,hook) -> sets an internal IPython hook.
IPython exposes some of its internal API as user-modifiable hooks. By
adding your function to one of these hooks, you can modify IPython's
behavior to call at runtime your own routines."""
# At some point in the future, this should validate the hook before it
# accepts it. Probably at least check that the hook takes the number
# of args it's supposed to.
f = types.MethodType(hook,self)
# check if the hook is for strdispatcher first
if str_key is not None:
sdp = self.strdispatchers.get(name, StrDispatch())
sdp.add_s(str_key, f, priority )
self.strdispatchers[name] = sdp
if re_key is not None:
sdp = self.strdispatchers.get(name, StrDispatch())
sdp.add_re(re.compile(re_key), f, priority )
self.strdispatchers[name] = sdp
dp = getattr(self.hooks, name, None)
if name not in IPython.core.hooks.__all__:
print("Warning! Hook '%s' is not one of %s" % \
(name, IPython.core.hooks.__all__ ))
if _warn_deprecated and (name in IPython.core.hooks.deprecated):
alternative = IPython.core.hooks.deprecated[name]
warn("Hook {} is deprecated. Use {} instead.".format(name, alternative), stacklevel=2)
if not dp:
dp = IPython.core.hooks.CommandChainDispatcher()
except AttributeError:
# it was not commandchain, plain old func - replace
dp = f
setattr(self.hooks,name, dp)
# Things related to events
def init_events(self): = EventManager(self, available_events)"pre_execute", self._clear_warning_registry)
def register_post_execute(self, func):
"""DEPRECATED: Use'post_run_cell', func)
Register a function for calling after code execution.
warn("ip.register_post_execute is deprecated, use "
"'post_run_cell', func) instead.", stacklevel=2)'post_run_cell', func)
def _clear_warning_registry(self):
# clear the warning registry, so that different code blocks with
# overlapping line number ranges don't cause spurious suppression of
# warnings (see gh-6611 for details)
if "__warningregistry__" in self.user_global_ns:
del self.user_global_ns["__warningregistry__"]
# Things related to the "main" module
def new_main_mod(self, filename, modname):
"""Return a new 'main' module object for user code execution.
``filename`` should be the path of the script which will be run in the
module. Requests with the same filename will get the same module, with
its namespace cleared.
``modname`` should be the module name - normally either '__main__' or
the basename of the file without the extension.
When scripts are executed via %run, we must keep a reference to their
__main__ module around so that Python doesn't
clear it, rendering references to module globals useless.
This method keeps said reference in a private dict, keyed by the
absolute path of the script. This way, for multiple executions of the
same script we only keep one copy of the namespace (the last one),
thus preventing memory leaks from old references while allowing the
objects from the last execution to be accessible.
filename = os.path.abspath(filename)
main_mod = self._main_mod_cache[filename]
except KeyError:
main_mod = self._main_mod_cache[filename] = types.ModuleType(
doc="Module created for script run in IPython")
main_mod.__name__ = modname
main_mod.__file__ = filename
# It seems pydoc (and perhaps others) needs any module instance to
# implement a __nonzero__ method
main_mod.__nonzero__ = lambda : True
return main_mod
def clear_main_mod_cache(self):
"""Clear the cache of main modules.
Mainly for use by utilities like %reset.
In [15]: import IPython
In [16]: m = _ip.new_main_mod(IPython.__file__, 'IPython')
In [17]: len(_ip._main_mod_cache) > 0
Out[17]: True
In [18]: _ip.clear_main_mod_cache()
In [19]: len(_ip._main_mod_cache) == 0
Out[19]: True
# Things related to debugging
def init_pdb(self):
# Set calling of pdb on exceptions
# self.call_pdb is a property
self.call_pdb = self.pdb
def _get_call_pdb(self):
return self._call_pdb
def _set_call_pdb(self,val):
if val not in (0,1,False,True):
raise ValueError('new call_pdb value must be boolean')
# store value in instance
self._call_pdb = val
# notify the actual exception handlers
self.InteractiveTB.call_pdb = val
call_pdb = property(_get_call_pdb,_set_call_pdb,None,
'Control auto-activation of pdb at exceptions')
def debugger(self,force=False):
"""Call the pdb debugger.
- force(False): by default, this routine checks the instance call_pdb
flag and does not actually invoke the debugger if the flag is false.
The 'force' option forces the debugger to activate even if the flag
is false.
if not (force or self.call_pdb):
if not hasattr(sys,'last_traceback'):
error('No traceback has been produced, nothing to debug.')
# Things related to IPython's various namespaces
default_user_namespaces = True
def init_create_namespaces(self, user_module=None, user_ns=None):
# Create the namespace where the user will operate. user_ns is
# normally the only one used, and it is passed to the exec calls as
# the locals argument. But we do carry a user_global_ns namespace
# given as the exec 'globals' argument, This is useful in embedding
# situations where the ipython shell opens in a context where the
# distinction between locals and globals is meaningful. For
# non-embedded contexts, it is just the same object as the user_ns dict.
# FIXME. For some strange reason, __builtins__ is showing up at user
# level as a dict instead of a module. This is a manual fix, but I
# should really track down where the problem is coming from. Alex
# Schmolck reported this problem first.
# A useful post by Alex Martelli on this topic:
# Re: inconsistent value from __builtins__
# Von: Alex Martelli <>
# Datum: Freitag 01 Oktober 2004 04:45:34 nachmittags/abends
# Gruppen: comp.lang.python
# Michael Hohn <> wrote:
# > >>> print type(builtin_check.get_global_binding('__builtins__'))
# > <type 'dict'>
# > >>> print type(__builtins__)
# > <type 'module'>
# > Is this difference in return value intentional?
# Well, it's documented that '__builtins__' can be either a dictionary
# or a module, and it's been that way for a long time. Whether it's
# intentional (or sensible), I don't know. In any case, the idea is
# that if you need to access the built-in namespace directly, you
# should start with "import __builtin__" (note, no 's') which will
# definitely give you a module. Yeah, it's somewhat confusing:-(.
# These routines return a properly built module and dict as needed by
# the rest of the code, and can also be used by extension writers to
# generate properly initialized namespaces.
if (user_ns is not None) or (user_module is not None):
self.default_user_namespaces = False
self.user_module, self.user_ns = self.prepare_user_module(user_module, user_ns)
# A record of hidden variables we have added to the user namespace, so
# we can list later only variables defined in actual interactive use.
self.user_ns_hidden = {}
# Now that FakeModule produces a real module, we've run into a nasty
# problem: after script execution (via %run), the module where the user
# code ran is deleted. Now that this object is a true module (needed
# so doctest and other tools work correctly), the Python module
# teardown mechanism runs over it, and sets to None every variable
# present in that module. Top-level references to objects from the
# script survive, because the user_ns is updated with them. However,
# calling functions defined in the script that use other things from
# the script will fail, because the function's closure had references
# to the original objects, which are now all None. So we must protect
# these modules from deletion by keeping a cache.
# To avoid keeping stale modules around (we only need the one from the
# last run), we use a dict keyed with the full path to the script, so
# only the last version of the module is held in the cache. Note,
# however, that we must cache the module *namespace contents* (their
# __dict__). Because if we try to cache the actual modules, old ones
# (uncached) could be destroyed while still holding references (such as
# those held by GUI objects that tend to be long-lived)>
# The %reset command will flush this cache. See the cache_main_mod()
# and clear_main_mod_cache() methods for details on use.
# This is the cache used for 'main' namespaces
self._main_mod_cache = {}
# A table holding all the namespaces IPython deals with, so that
# introspection facilities can search easily.
self.ns_table = {'user_global':self.user_module.__dict__,
def user_global_ns(self):
return self.user_module.__dict__
def prepare_user_module(self, user_module=None, user_ns=None):
"""Prepare the module and namespace in which user code will be run.
When IPython is started normally, both parameters are None: a new module
is created automatically, and its __dict__ used as the namespace.
If only user_module is provided, its __dict__ is used as the namespace.
If only user_ns is provided, a dummy module is created, and user_ns
becomes the global namespace. If both are provided (as they may be
when embedding), user_ns is the local namespace, and user_module
provides the global namespace.
user_module : module, optional
The current user module in which IPython is being run. If None,
a clean module will be created.
user_ns : dict, optional
A namespace in which to run interactive commands.
A tuple of user_module and user_ns, each properly initialised.
if user_module is None and user_ns is not None:
user_ns.setdefault("__name__", "__main__")
user_module = DummyMod()
user_module.__dict__ = user_ns
if user_module is None:
user_module = types.ModuleType("__main__",
doc="Automatically created module for IPython interactive environment")
# We must ensure that __builtin__ (without the final 's') is always
# available and pointing to the __builtin__ *module*. For more details:
user_module.__dict__.setdefault('__builtin__', builtin_mod)
user_module.__dict__.setdefault('__builtins__', builtin_mod)
if user_ns is None:
user_ns = user_module.__dict__
return user_module, user_ns
def init_sys_modules(self):
# We need to insert into sys.modules something that looks like a
# module but which accesses the IPython namespace, for shelve and
# pickle to work interactively. Normally they rely on getting
# everything out of __main__, but for embedding purposes each IPython
# instance has its own private namespace, so we can't go shoving
# everything into __main__.
# note, however, that we should only do this for non-embedded
# ipythons, which really mimic the __main__.__dict__ with their own
# namespace. Embedded instances, on the other hand, should not do
# this because they need to manage the user local/global namespaces
# only, but they live within a 'normal' __main__ (meaning, they
# shouldn't overtake the execution environment of the script they're
# embedded in).
# This is overridden in the InteractiveShellEmbed subclass to a no-op.
main_name = self.user_module.__name__
sys.modules[main_name] = self.user_module
def init_user_ns(self):
"""Initialize all user-visible namespaces to their minimum defaults.
Certain history lists are also initialized here, as they effectively
act as user namespaces.
All data structures here are only filled in, they are NOT reset by this
method. If they were not empty before, data will simply be added to
# This function works in two parts: first we put a few things in
# user_ns, and we sync that contents into user_ns_hidden so that these
# initial variables aren't shown by %who. After the sync, we add the
# rest of what we *do* want the user to see with %who even on a new
# session (probably nothing, so they really only see their own stuff)
# The user dict must *always* have a __builtin__ reference to the
# Python standard __builtin__ namespace, which must be imported.
# This is so that certain operations in prompt evaluation can be
# reliably executed with builtins. Note that we can NOT use
# __builtins__ (note the 's'), because that can either be a dict or a
# module, and can even mutate at runtime, depending on the context
# (Python makes no guarantees on it). In contrast, __builtin__ is
# always a module object, though it must be explicitly imported.
# For more details:
ns = {}
# make global variables for user access to the histories
ns['_ih'] = self.history_manager.input_hist_parsed
ns['_oh'] = self.history_manager.output_hist
ns['_dh'] = self.history_manager.dir_hist
# user aliases to input and output histories. These shouldn't show up
# in %who, as they can have very large reprs.
ns['In'] = self.history_manager.input_hist_parsed
ns['Out'] = self.history_manager.output_hist
# Store myself as the public api!!!
ns['get_ipython'] = self.get_ipython
ns['exit'] = self.exiter
ns['quit'] = self.exiter
# Sync what we've added so far to user_ns_hidden so these aren't seen
# by %who
# Anything put into ns now would show up in %who. Think twice before
# putting anything here, as we really want %who to show the user their
# stuff, not our variables.
# Finally, update the real user's namespace
def all_ns_refs(self):
"""Get a list of references to all the namespace dictionaries in which
IPython might store a user-created object.
Note that this does not include the displayhook, which also caches
objects from the output."""
return [self.user_ns, self.user_global_ns, self.user_ns_hidden] + \
[m.__dict__ for m in self._main_mod_cache.values()]
def reset(self, new_session=True):
"""Clear all internal namespaces, and attempt to release references to
user objects.
If new_session is True, a new history session will be opened.
# Clear histories
# Reset counter used to index all histories
if new_session:
self.execution_count = 1
# Reset last execution result
self.last_execution_succeeded = True
self.last_execution_result = None
# Flush cached output items
if self.displayhook.do_full_cache:
# The main execution namespaces must be cleared very carefully,
# skipping the deletion of the builtin-related keys, because doing so
# would cause errors in many object's __del__ methods.
if self.user_ns is not self.user_global_ns:
ns = self.user_global_ns
drop_keys = set(ns.keys())
for k in drop_keys:
del ns[k]
# Restore the user namespaces to minimal usability
# Restore the default and user aliases
# Flush the private list of module references kept for script
# execution protection
def del_var(self, varname, by_name=False):
"""Delete a variable from the various namespaces, so that, as
far as possible, we're not keeping any hidden references to it.
varname : str
The name of the variable to delete.
by_name : bool
If True, delete variables with the given name in each
namespace. If False (default), find the variable in the user
namespace, and delete references to it.
if varname in ('__builtin__', '__builtins__'):
raise ValueError("Refusing to delete %s" % varname)
ns_refs = self.all_ns_refs
if by_name: # Delete by name
for ns in ns_refs:
del ns[varname]
except KeyError:
else: # Delete by object
obj = self.user_ns[varname]
except KeyError:
raise NameError("name '%s' is not defined" % varname)
# Also check in output history
for ns in ns_refs:
to_delete = [n for n, o in ns.items() if o is obj]
for name in to_delete:
del ns[name]
# Ensure it is removed from the last execution result
if self.last_execution_result.result is obj:
self.last_execution_result = None
# displayhook keeps extra references, but not in a dictionary
for name in ('_', '__', '___'):
if getattr(self.displayhook, name) is obj:
setattr(self.displayhook, name, None)
def reset_selective(self, regex=None):
"""Clear selective variables from internal namespaces based on a
specified regular expression.
regex : string or compiled pattern, optional
A regular expression pattern that will be used in searching
variable names in the users namespaces.
if regex is not None:
m = re.compile(regex)
except TypeError:
raise TypeError('regex must be a string or compiled pattern')
# Search for keys in each namespace that match the given regex
# If a match is found, delete the key/value pair.
for ns in self.all_ns_refs:
for var in ns:
del ns[var]
def push(self, variables, interactive=True):
"""Inject a group of variables into the IPython user namespace.
variables : dict, str or list/tuple of str
The variables to inject into the user's namespace. If a dict, a
simple update is done. If a str, the string is assumed to have
variable names separated by spaces. A list/tuple of str can also
be used to give the variable names. If just the variable names are
give (list/tuple/str) then the variable values looked up in the
callers frame.
interactive : bool
If True (default), the variables will be listed with the ``who``
vdict = None
# We need a dict of name/value pairs to do namespace updates.
if isinstance(variables, dict):
vdict = variables
elif isinstance(variables, (str, list, tuple)):
if isinstance(variables, str):
vlist = variables.split()
vlist = variables
vdict = {}
cf = sys._getframe(1)
for name in vlist:
vdict[name] = eval(name, cf.f_globals, cf.f_locals)
print('Could not get variable %s from %s' %
raise ValueError('variables must be a dict/str/list/tuple')
# Propagate variables to user namespace
# And configure interactive visibility
user_ns_hidden = self.user_ns_hidden
if interactive:
for name in vdict:
user_ns_hidden.pop(name, None)
def drop_by_id(self, variables):
"""Remove a dict of variables from the user namespace, if they are the
same as the values in the dictionary.
This is intended for use by extensions: variables that they've added can
be taken back out if they are unloaded, without removing any that the
user has overwritten.
variables : dict
A dictionary mapping object names (as strings) to the objects.
for name, obj in variables.items():
if name in self.user_ns and self.user_ns[name] is obj:
del self.user_ns[name]
self.user_ns_hidden.pop(name, None)
# Things related to object introspection
def _ofind(self, oname, namespaces=None):
"""Find an object in the available namespaces.
self._ofind(oname) -> dict with keys: found,obj,ospace,ismagic
Has special code to detect magic functions.
oname = oname.strip()
if not oname.startswith(ESC_MAGIC) and \
not oname.startswith(ESC_MAGIC2) and \
not all(a.isidentifier() for a in oname.split(".")):
return {'found': False}
if namespaces is None:
# Namespaces to search in:
# Put them in a list. The order is important so that we
# find things in the same order that Python finds them.
namespaces = [ ('Interactive', self.user_ns),
('Interactive (global)', self.user_global_ns),
('Python builtin', builtin_mod.__dict__),
ismagic = False
isalias = False
found = False
ospace = None
parent = None
obj = None
# Look for the given name by splitting it in parts. If the head is
# found, then we look for all the remaining parts as members, and only
# declare success if we can find them all.
oname_parts = oname.split('.')
oname_head, oname_rest = oname_parts[0],oname_parts[1:]
for nsname,ns in namespaces:
obj = ns[oname_head]
except KeyError:
for idx, part in enumerate(oname_rest):
parent = obj
# The last part is looked up in a special way to avoid
# descriptor invocation as it may raise or have side
# effects.
if idx == len(oname_rest) - 1:
obj = self._getattr_property(obj, part)
obj = getattr(obj, part)
# Blanket except b/c some badly implemented objects
# allow __getattr__ to raise exceptions other than
# AttributeError, which then crashes IPython.
# If we finish the for loop (no break), we got all members
found = True
ospace = nsname
break # namespace loop
# Try to see if it's magic
if not found:
obj = None
if oname.startswith(ESC_MAGIC2):
oname = oname.lstrip(ESC_MAGIC2)
obj = self.find_cell_magic(oname)
elif oname.startswith(ESC_MAGIC):
oname = oname.lstrip(ESC_MAGIC)
obj = self.find_line_magic(oname)
# search without prefix, so run? will find %run?
obj = self.find_line_magic(oname)
if obj is None:
obj = self.find_cell_magic(oname)
if obj is not None:
found = True
ospace = 'IPython internal'
ismagic = True
isalias = isinstance(obj, Alias)
# Last try: special-case some literals like '', [], {}, etc:
if not found and oname_head in ["''",'""','[]','{}','()']:
obj = eval(oname_head)
found = True
ospace = 'Interactive'
return {
def _getattr_property(obj, attrname):
"""Property-aware getattr to use in object finding.
If attrname represents a property, return it unevaluated (in case it has
side effects or raises an error.
if not isinstance(obj, type):
# `getattr(type(obj), attrname)` is not guaranteed to return
# `obj`, but does so for property:
# property.__get__(self, None, cls) -> self
# The universal alternative is to traverse the mro manually
# searching for attrname in class dicts.
attr = getattr(type(obj), attrname)
except AttributeError:
# This relies on the fact that data descriptors (with both
# __get__ & __set__ magic methods) take precedence over
# instance-level attributes:
# class A(object):
# @property
# def foobar(self): return 123
# a = A()
# a.__dict__['foobar'] = 345
# a.foobar # == 123
# So, a property may be returned right away.
if isinstance(attr, property):
return attr
# Nothing helped, fall back.
return getattr(obj, attrname)
def _object_find(self, oname, namespaces=None):
"""Find an object and return a struct with info about it."""
return Struct(self._ofind(oname, namespaces))
def _inspect(self, meth, oname, namespaces=None, **kw):
"""Generic interface to the inspector system.
This function is meant to be called by pdef, pdoc & friends.
info = self._object_find(oname, namespaces)
docformat = sphinxify if self.sphinxify_docstring else None
if info.found:
pmethod = getattr(self.inspector, meth)
# TODO: only apply format_screen to the plain/text repr of the mime
# bundle.
formatter = format_screen if info.ismagic else docformat
if meth == 'pdoc':
pmethod(info.obj, oname, formatter)
elif meth == 'pinfo':
pmethod(info.obj, oname, formatter, info,
enable_html_pager=self.enable_html_pager, **kw)
pmethod(info.obj, oname)
print('Object `%s` not found.' % oname)
return 'not found' # so callers can take other action
def object_inspect(self, oname, detail_level=0):
"""Get object info about oname"""
with self.builtin_trap:
info = self._object_find(oname)
if info.found:
return, oname, info=info,
return oinspect.object_info(name=oname, found=False)
def object_inspect_text(self, oname, detail_level=0):
"""Get object info as formatted text"""
return self.object_inspect_mime(oname, detail_level)['text/plain']
def object_inspect_mime(self, oname, detail_level=0):
"""Get object info as a mimebundle of formatted representations.
A mimebundle is a dictionary, keyed by mime-type.
It must always have the key `'text/plain'`.
with self.builtin_trap:
info = self._object_find(oname)
if info.found:
return self.inspector._get_info(info.obj, oname, info=info,
raise KeyError(oname)
# Things related to history management
def init_history(self):
"""Sets up the command history, and starts regular autosaves."""
self.history_manager = HistoryManager(shell=self, parent=self)
# Things related to exception handling and tracebacks (not debugging)
debugger_cls = Pdb
def init_traceback_handlers(self, custom_exceptions):
# Syntax error handler.
self.SyntaxTB = ultratb.SyntaxTB(color_scheme='NoColor', parent=self)
# The interactive one is initialized with an offset, meaning we always
# want to remove the topmost item in the traceback, which is our own
# internal code. Valid modes: ['Plain','Context','Verbose']
self.InteractiveTB = ultratb.AutoFormattedTB(mode = 'Plain',
tb_offset = 1,
debugger_cls=self.debugger_cls, parent=self)
# The instance will store a pointer to the system-wide exception hook,
# so that runtime code (such as magics) can access it. This is because
# during the read-eval loop, it may get temporarily overwritten.
self.sys_excepthook = sys.excepthook
# and add any custom exception handlers the user may have specified
# Set the exception mode
def set_custom_exc(self, exc_tuple, handler):
"""set_custom_exc(exc_tuple, handler)
Set a custom exception handler, which will be called if any of the
exceptions in exc_tuple occur in the mainloop (specifically, in the
run_code() method).
exc_tuple : tuple of exception classes
A *tuple* of exception classes, for which to call the defined
handler. It is very important that you use a tuple, and NOT A
LIST here, because of the way Python's except statement works. If
you only want to trap a single exception, use a singleton tuple::
exc_tuple == (MyCustomException,)
handler : callable
handler must have the following signature::
def my_handler(self, etype, value, tb, tb_offset=None):
return structured_traceback
Your handler must return a structured traceback (a list of strings),
or None.
This will be made into an instance method (via types.MethodType)
of IPython itself, and it will be called if any of the exceptions
listed in the exc_tuple are caught. If the handler is None, an
internal basic one is used, which just prints basic info.
To protect IPython from crashes, if your handler ever raises an
exception or returns an invalid result, it will be immediately
WARNING: by putting in your own exception handler into IPython's main
execution loop, you run a very good chance of nasty crashes. This
facility should only be used if you really know what you are doing."""
if not isinstance(exc_tuple, tuple):
raise TypeError("The custom exceptions must be given as a tuple.")
def dummy_handler(self, etype, value, tb, tb_offset=None):
print('*** Simple custom exception handler ***')
print('Exception type :', etype)
print('Exception value:', value)
print('Traceback :', tb)
def validate_stb(stb):
"""validate structured traceback return type
return type of CustomTB *should* be a list of strings, but allow
single strings or None, which are harmless.
This function will *always* return a list of strings,
and will raise a TypeError if stb is inappropriate.
msg = "CustomTB must return list of strings, not %r" % stb
if stb is None:
return []
elif isinstance(stb, str):
return [stb]
elif not isinstance(stb, list):
raise TypeError(msg)
# it's a list
for line in stb:
# check every element
if not isinstance(line, str):
raise TypeError(msg)
return stb
if handler is None:
wrapped = dummy_handler
def wrapped(self,etype,value,tb,tb_offset=None):
"""wrap CustomTB handler, to protect IPython from user code
This makes it harder (but not impossible) for custom exception
handlers to crash IPython.
stb = handler(self,etype,value,tb,tb_offset=tb_offset)
return validate_stb(stb)
# clear custom handler immediately
self.set_custom_exc((), None)
print("Custom TB Handler failed, unregistering", file=sys.stderr)
# show the exception in handler first
stb = self.InteractiveTB.structured_traceback(*sys.exc_info())
print("The original exception:")
stb = self.InteractiveTB.structured_traceback(
(etype,value,tb), tb_offset=tb_offset
return stb
self.CustomTB = types.MethodType(wrapped,self)
self.custom_exceptions = exc_tuple
def excepthook(self, etype, value, tb):
"""One more defense for GUI apps that call sys.excepthook.
GUI frameworks like wxPython trap exceptions and call
sys.excepthook themselves. I guess this is a feature that
enables them to keep running after exceptions that would
otherwise kill their mainloop. This is a bother for IPython
which excepts to catch all of the program exceptions with a try:
except: statement.
Normally, IPython sets sys.excepthook to a CrashHandler instance, so if
any app directly invokes sys.excepthook, it will look to the user like
IPython crashed. In order to work around this, we can disable the
CrashHandler and replace it with this excepthook instead, which prints a
regular traceback using our InteractiveTB. In this fashion, apps which
call sys.excepthook will generate a regular-looking exception from
IPython, and the CrashHandler will only be triggered by real IPython
This hook should be used sparingly, only in places which are not likely
to be true IPython errors.
self.showtraceback((etype, value, tb), tb_offset=0)
def _get_exc_info(self, exc_tuple=None):
"""get exc_info from a given tuple, sys.exc_info() or sys.last_type etc.
Ensures sys.last_type,value,traceback hold the exc_info we found,
from whichever source.
raises ValueError if none of these contain any information
if exc_tuple is None:
etype, value, tb = sys.exc_info()
etype, value, tb = exc_tuple
if etype is None:
if hasattr(sys, 'last_type'):
etype, value, tb = sys.last_type, sys.last_value, \
if etype is None:
raise ValueError("No exception to find")
# Now store the exception info in sys.last_type etc.
# WARNING: these variables are somewhat deprecated and not
# necessarily safe to use in a threaded environment, but tools
# like pdb depend on their existence, so let's set them. If we
# find problems in the field, we'll need to revisit their use.
sys.last_type = etype
sys.last_value = value
sys.last_traceback = tb
return etype, value, tb
def show_usage_error(self, exc):
"""Show a short message for UsageErrors
These are special exceptions that shouldn't show a traceback.
print("UsageError: %s" % exc, file=sys.stderr)
def get_exception_only(self, exc_tuple=None):
Return as a string (ending with a newline) the exception that
just occurred, without any traceback.
etype, value, tb = self._get_exc_info(exc_tuple)
msg = traceback.format_exception_only(etype, value)
return ''.join(msg)
def showtraceback(self, exc_tuple=None, filename=None, tb_offset=None,
exception_only=False, running_compiled_code=False):
"""Display the exception that just occurred.
If nothing is known about the exception, this is the method which
should be used throughout the code for presenting user tracebacks,
rather than directly invoking the InteractiveTB object.
A specific showsyntaxerror() also exists, but this method can take
care of calling it if needed, so unless you are explicitly catching a
SyntaxError exception, don't try to analyze the stack manually and
simply call this method."""
etype, value, tb = self._get_exc_info(exc_tuple)
except ValueError:
print('No traceback available to show.', file=sys.stderr)
if issubclass(etype, SyntaxError):
# Though this won't be called by syntax errors in the input
# line, there may be SyntaxError cases with imported code.
self.showsyntaxerror(filename, running_compiled_code)
elif etype is UsageError:
if exception_only:
stb = ['An exception has occurred, use %tb to see '
'the full traceback.\n']
# Exception classes can customise their traceback - we
# use this in IPython.parallel for exceptions occurring
# in the engines. This should return a list of strings.
stb = value._render_traceback_()
except Exception:
stb = self.InteractiveTB.structured_traceback(etype,
value, tb, tb_offset=tb_offset)
self._showtraceback(etype, value, stb)
if self.call_pdb:
# drop into debugger
# Actually show the traceback
self._showtraceback(etype, value, stb)
except KeyboardInterrupt:
print('\n' + self.get_exception_only(), file=sys.stderr)
def _showtraceback(self, etype, evalue, stb):
"""Actually show a traceback.
Subclasses may override this method to put the traceback on a different
place, like a side channel.
def showsyntaxerror(self, filename=None, running_compiled_code=False):
"""Display the syntax error that just occurred.
This doesn't display a stack trace because there isn't one.
If a filename is given, it is stuffed in the exception instead
of what was there before (because Python's parser always uses
"<string>" when reading from a string).
If the syntax error occurred when running a compiled code (i.e. running_compile_code=True),
longer stack trace will be displayed.
etype, value, last_traceback = self._get_exc_info()
if filename and issubclass(etype, SyntaxError):
value.filename = filename
# Not the format we expect; leave it alone
# If the error occured when executing compiled code, we should provide full stacktrace.
elist = traceback.extract_tb(last_traceback) if running_compiled_code else []
stb = self.SyntaxTB.structured_traceback(etype, value, elist)
self._showtraceback(etype, value, stb)
# This is overridden in TerminalInteractiveShell to show a message about
# the %paste magic.
def showindentationerror(self):
"""Called by run_cell when there's an IndentationError in code entered
at the prompt.
This is overridden in TerminalInteractiveShell to show a message about
the %paste magic."""
# Things related to readline
def init_readline(self):
Moved to terminal subclass, here only to simplify the init logic."""
# Set a number of methods that depend on readline to be no-op
warnings.warn('`init_readline` is no-op since IPython 5.0 and is Deprecated',
DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2)
self.set_custom_completer = no_op
def set_next_input(self, s, replace=False):
""" Sets the 'default' input string for the next command line.
In [1]: _ip.set_next_input("Hello Word")
In [2]: Hello Word_ # cursor is here
self.rl_next_input = s
def _indent_current_str(self):
"""return the current level of indentation as a string"""
return self.input_splitter.indent_spaces * ' '
# Things related to text completion
def init_completer(self):
"""Initialize the completion machinery.
This creates completion machinery that can be used by client code,
either interactively in-process (typically triggered by the readline
library), programmatically (such as in test suites) or out-of-process
(typically over the network by remote frontends).
from IPython.core.completer import IPCompleter
from IPython.core.completerlib import (module_completer,
magic_run_completer, cd_completer, reset_completer)
self.Completer = IPCompleter(shell=self,
# Add custom completers to the basic ones built into IPCompleter
sdisp = self.strdispatchers.get('complete_command', StrDispatch())
self.strdispatchers['complete_command'] = sdisp
self.Completer.custom_completers = sdisp
self.set_hook('complete_command', module_completer, str_key = 'import')
self.set_hook('complete_command', module_completer, str_key = 'from')
self.set_hook('complete_command', module_completer, str_key = '%aimport')
self.set_hook('complete_command', magic_run_completer, str_key = '%run')
self.set_hook('complete_command', cd_completer, str_key = '%cd')
self.set_hook('complete_command', reset_completer, str_key = '%reset')
def complete(self, text, line=None, cursor_pos=None):
"""Return the completed text and a list of completions.
text : string
A string of text to be completed on. It can be given as empty and
instead a line/position pair are given. In this case, the
completer itself will split the line like readline does.
line : string, optional
The complete line that text is part of.
cursor_pos : int, optional
The position of the cursor on the input line.
text : string
The actual text that was completed.
matches : list
A sorted list with all possible completions.
The optional arguments allow the completion to take more context into
account, and are part of the low-level completion API.
This is a wrapper around the completion mechanism, similar to what
readline does at the command line when the TAB key is hit. By
exposing it as a method, it can be used by other non-readline
environments (such as GUIs) for text completion.
Simple usage example:
In [1]: x = 'hello'
In [2]: _ip.complete('x.l')
Out[2]: ('x.l', ['x.ljust', 'x.lower', 'x.lstrip'])
# Inject names into __builtin__ so we can complete on the added names.
with self.builtin_trap:
return self.Completer.complete(text, line, cursor_pos)
def set_custom_completer(self, completer, pos=0):
"""Adds a new custom completer function.
The position argument (defaults to 0) is the index in the completers
list where you want the completer to be inserted."""
newcomp = types.MethodType(completer,self.Completer)
def set_completer_frame(self, frame=None):
"""Set the frame of the completer."""
if frame:
self.Completer.namespace = frame.f_locals
self.Completer.global_namespace = frame.f_globals
self.Completer.namespace = self.user_ns
self.Completer.global_namespace = self.user_global_ns
# Things related to magics
def init_magics(self):
from IPython.core import magics as m
self.magics_manager = magic.MagicsManager(shell=self,
# Expose as public API from the magics manager
self.register_magics = self.magics_manager.register
self.register_magics(m.AutoMagics, m.BasicMagics, m.CodeMagics,
m.ConfigMagics, m.DisplayMagics, m.ExecutionMagics,
m.ExtensionMagics, m.HistoryMagics, m.LoggingMagics,
m.NamespaceMagics, m.OSMagics, m.PylabMagics, m.ScriptMagics,
# Register Magic Aliases
mman = self.magics_manager
# FIXME: magic aliases should be defined by the Magics classes
# or in MagicsManager, not here
mman.register_alias('ed', 'edit')
mman.register_alias('hist', 'history')
mman.register_alias('rep', 'recall')
mman.register_alias('SVG', 'svg', 'cell')
mman.register_alias('HTML', 'html', 'cell')
mman.register_alias('file', 'writefile', 'cell')
# FIXME: Move the color initialization to the DisplayHook, which
# should be split into a prompt manager and displayhook. We probably
# even need a centralize colors management object.
self.run_line_magic('colors', self.colors)
# Defined here so that it's included in the documentation
def register_magic_function(self, func, magic_kind='line', magic_name=None):
magic_kind=magic_kind, magic_name=magic_name)
def run_line_magic(self, magic_name, line, _stack_depth=1):
"""Execute the given line magic.
magic_name : str
Name of the desired magic function, without '%' prefix.
line : str
The rest of the input line as a single string.
_stack_depth : int
If run_line_magic() is called from magic() then _stack_depth=2.
This is added to ensure backward compatibility for use of 'get_ipython().magic()'
fn = self.find_line_magic(magic_name)
if fn is None:
cm = self.find_cell_magic(magic_name)
etpl = "Line magic function `%%%s` not found%s."
extra = '' if cm is None else (' (But cell magic `%%%%%s` exists, '
'did you mean that instead?)' % magic_name )
raise UsageError(etpl % (magic_name, extra))
# Note: this is the distance in the stack to the user's frame.
# This will need to be updated if the internal calling logic gets
# refactored, or else we'll be expanding the wrong variables.
# Determine stack_depth depending on where run_line_magic() has been called
stack_depth = _stack_depth
magic_arg_s = self.var_expand(line, stack_depth)
# Put magic args in a list so we can call with f(*a) syntax
args = [magic_arg_s]
kwargs = {}
# Grab local namespace if we need it:
if getattr(fn, "needs_local_scope", False):
kwargs['local_ns'] = sys._getframe(stack_depth).f_locals
with self.builtin_trap:
result = fn(*args,**kwargs)
return result
def run_cell_magic(self, magic_name, line, cell):
"""Execute the given cell magic.
magic_name : str
Name of the desired magic function, without '%' prefix.
line : str
The rest of the first input line as a single string.
cell : str
The body of the cell as a (possibly multiline) string.
fn = self.find_cell_magic(magic_name)
if fn is None:
lm = self.find_line_magic(magic_name)
etpl = "Cell magic `%%{0}` not found{1}."
extra = '' if lm is None else (' (But line magic `%{0}` exists, '
'did you mean that instead?)'.format(magic_name))
raise UsageError(etpl.format(magic_name, extra))
elif cell == '':
message = '%%{0} is a cell magic, but the cell body is empty.'.format(magic_name)
if self.find_line_magic(magic_name) is not None:
message += ' Did you mean the line magic %{0} (single %)?'.format(magic_name)
raise UsageError(message)
# Note: this is the distance in the stack to the user's frame.
# This will need to be updated if the internal calling logic gets
# refactored, or else we'll be expanding the wrong variables.
stack_depth = 2
magic_arg_s = self.var_expand(line, stack_depth)
with self.builtin_trap:
result = fn(magic_arg_s, cell)
return result
def find_line_magic(self, magic_name):
"""Find and return a line magic by name.
Returns None if the magic isn't found."""
return self.magics_manager.magics['line'].get(magic_name)
def find_cell_magic(self, magic_name):
"""Find and return a cell magic by name.
Returns None if the magic isn't found."""
return self.magics_manager.magics['cell'].get(magic_name)
def find_magic(self, magic_name, magic_kind='line'):
"""Find and return a magic of the given type by name.
Returns None if the magic isn't found."""
return self.magics_manager.magics[magic_kind].get(magic_name)
def magic(self, arg_s):
"""DEPRECATED. Use run_line_magic() instead.
Call a magic function by name.
Input: a string containing the name of the magic function to call and
any additional arguments to be passed to the magic.
magic('name -opt foo bar') is equivalent to typing at the ipython
In[1]: %name -opt foo bar
To call a magic without arguments, simply use magic('name').
This provides a proper Python function to call IPython's magics in any
valid Python code you can type at the interpreter, including loops and
compound statements.
# TODO: should we issue a loud deprecation warning here?
magic_name, _, magic_arg_s = arg_s.partition(' ')
magic_name = magic_name.lstrip(prefilter.ESC_MAGIC)
return self.run_line_magic(magic_name, magic_arg_s, _stack_depth=2)
# Things related to macros
def define_macro(self, name, themacro):
"""Define a new macro
name : str
The name of the macro.
themacro : str or Macro
The action to do upon invoking the macro. If a string, a new
Macro object is created by passing the string to it.
from IPython.core import macro
if isinstance(themacro, str):
themacro = macro.Macro(themacro)
if not isinstance(themacro, macro.Macro):
raise ValueError('A macro must be a string or a Macro instance.')
self.user_ns[name] = themacro
# Things related to the running of system commands
def system_piped(self, cmd):
"""Call the given cmd in a subprocess, piping stdout/err
cmd : str
Command to execute (can not end in '&', as background processes are
not supported. Should not be a command that expects input
other than simple text.
if cmd.rstrip().endswith('&'):
# this is *far* from a rigorous test
# We do not support backgrounding processes because we either use
# pexpect or pipes to read from. Users can always just call
# os.system() or use ip.system=ip.system_raw
# if they really want a background process.
raise OSError("Background processes not supported.")
# we explicitly do NOT return the subprocess status code, because
# a non-None value would trigger :func:`sys.displayhook` calls.
# Instead, we store the exit_code in user_ns.
self.user_ns['_exit_code'] = system(self.var_expand(cmd, depth=1))
def system_raw(self, cmd):
"""Call the given cmd in a subprocess using os.system on Windows or using the system shell on other platforms.
cmd : str
Command to execute.
cmd = self.var_expand(cmd, depth=1)
# protect os.system from UNC paths on Windows, which it can't handle:
if sys.platform == 'win32':
from IPython.utils._process_win32 import AvoidUNCPath
with AvoidUNCPath() as path:
if path is not None:
cmd = '"pushd %s &&"%s' % (path, cmd)
ec = os.system(cmd)
except KeyboardInterrupt:
print('\n' + self.get_exception_only(), file=sys.stderr)
ec = -2
# For posix the result of the below is an exit
# code, which by convention is zero for success, positive for
# program failure. Exit codes above 128 are reserved for signals,
# and the formula for converting a signal to an exit code is usually
# signal_number+128. To more easily differentiate between exit
# codes and signals, ipython uses negative numbers. For instance
# since control-c is signal 2 but exit code 130, ipython's
# _exit_code variable will read -2. Note that some shells like
# csh and fish don't follow sh/bash conventions for exit codes.
executable = os.environ.get('SHELL', None)
# Use env shell instead of default /bin/sh
ec =, shell=True, executable=executable)
except KeyboardInterrupt:
# intercept control-C; a long traceback is not useful here
print('\n' + self.get_exception_only(), file=sys.stderr)
ec = 130
if ec > 128:
ec = -(ec - 128)
# We explicitly do NOT return the subprocess status code, because
# a non-None value would trigger :func:`sys.displayhook` calls.
# Instead, we store the exit_code in user_ns. Note the semantics
# of _exit_code: for control-c, _exit_code == -signal.SIGNIT,
# but raising SystemExit(_exit_code) will give status 254!
self.user_ns['_exit_code'] = ec
# use piped system by default, because it is better behaved
system = system_piped
def getoutput(self, cmd, split=True, depth=0):
"""Get output (possibly including stderr) from a subprocess.
cmd : str
Command to execute (can not end in '&', as background processes are
not supported.
split : bool, optional
If True, split the output into an IPython SList. Otherwise, an
IPython LSString is returned. These are objects similar to normal
lists and strings, with a few convenience attributes for easier
manipulation of line-based output. You can use '?' on them for
depth : int, optional
How many frames above the caller are the local variables which should
be expanded in the command string? The default (0) assumes that the
expansion variables are in the stack frame calling this function.
if cmd.rstrip().endswith('&'):
# this is *far* from a rigorous test
raise OSError("Background processes not supported.")
out = getoutput(self.var_expand(cmd, depth=depth+1))
if split:
out = SList(out.splitlines())
out = LSString(out)
return out
# Things related to aliases
def init_alias(self):
self.alias_manager = AliasManager(shell=self, parent=self)
# Things related to extensions
def init_extension_manager(self):
self.extension_manager = ExtensionManager(shell=self, parent=self)
# Things related to payloads
def init_payload(self):
self.payload_manager = PayloadManager(parent=self)
# Things related to the prefilter
def init_prefilter(self):
self.prefilter_manager = PrefilterManager(shell=self, parent=self)
# Ultimately this will be refactored in the new interpreter code, but
# for now, we should expose the main prefilter method (there's legacy
# code out there that may rely on this).
self.prefilter = self.prefilter_manager.prefilter_lines
def auto_rewrite_input(self, cmd):
"""Print to the screen the rewritten form of the user's command.
This shows visual feedback by rewriting input lines that cause
automatic calling to kick in, like::
/f x
------> f(x)
after the user's input prompt. This helps the user understand that the
input line was transformed automatically by IPython.
if not self.show_rewritten_input:
# This is overridden in TerminalInteractiveShell to use fancy prompts
print("------> " + cmd)
# Things related to extracting values/expressions from kernel and user_ns
def _user_obj_error(self):
"""return simple exception dict
for use in user_expressions
etype, evalue, tb = self._get_exc_info()
stb = self.InteractiveTB.get_exception_only(etype, evalue)
exc_info = {
u'status' : 'error',
u'traceback' : stb,
u'ename' : etype.__name__,
u'evalue' : py3compat.safe_unicode(evalue),
return exc_info
def _format_user_obj(self, obj):
"""format a user object to display dict
for use in user_expressions
data, md = self.display_formatter.format(obj)
value = {
'status' : 'ok',
'data' : data,
'metadata' : md,
return value
def user_expressions(self, expressions):
"""Evaluate a dict of expressions in the user's namespace.
expressions : dict
A dict with string keys and string values. The expression values
should be valid Python expressions, each of which will be evaluated
in the user namespace.
A dict, keyed like the input expressions dict, with the rich mime-typed
display_data of each value.
out = {}
user_ns = self.user_ns
global_ns = self.user_global_ns
for key, expr in expressions.items():
value = self._format_user_obj(eval(expr, global_ns, user_ns))
value = self._user_obj_error()
out[key] = value
return out
# Things related to the running of code
def ex(self, cmd):
"""Execute a normal python statement in user namespace."""
with self.builtin_trap:
exec(cmd, self.user_global_ns, self.user_ns)
def ev(self, expr):
"""Evaluate python expression expr in user namespace.
Returns the result of evaluation
with self.builtin_trap:
return eval(expr, self.user_global_ns, self.user_ns)
def safe_execfile(self, fname, *where, exit_ignore=False, raise_exceptions=False, shell_futures=False):
"""A safe version of the builtin execfile().
This version will never throw an exception, but instead print
helpful error messages to the screen. This only works on pure
Python files with the .py extension.
fname : string
The name of the file to be executed.
where : tuple
One or two namespaces, passed to execfile() as (globals,locals).
If only one is given, it is passed as both.
exit_ignore : bool (False)
If True, then silence SystemExit for non-zero status (it is always
silenced for zero status, as it is so common).
raise_exceptions : bool (False)
If True raise exceptions everywhere. Meant for testing.
shell_futures : bool (False)
If True, the code will share future statements with the interactive
shell. It will both be affected by previous __future__ imports, and
any __future__ imports in the code will affect the shell. If False,
__future__ imports are not shared in either direction.
fname = os.path.abspath(os.path.expanduser(fname))
# Make sure we can open the file
with open(fname):
warn('Could not open file <%s> for safe execution.' % fname)
# Find things also in current directory. This is needed to mimic the
# behavior of running a script from the system command line, where
# Python inserts the script's directory into sys.path
dname = os.path.dirname(fname)
with prepended_to_syspath(dname), self.builtin_trap:
glob, loc = (where + (None, ))[:2]
fname, glob, loc,
self.compile if shell_futures else None)
except SystemExit as status:
# If the call was made with 0 or None exit status (sys.exit(0)
# or sys.exit() ), don't bother showing a traceback, as both of
# these are considered normal by the OS:
# > python -c'import sys;sys.exit(0)'; echo $?
# 0
# > python -c'import sys;sys.exit()'; echo $?
# 0
# For other exit status, we show the exception unless
# explicitly silenced, but only in short form.
if status.code:
if raise_exceptions:
if not exit_ignore:
if raise_exceptions:
# tb offset is 2 because we wrap execfile
def safe_execfile_ipy(self, fname, shell_futures=False, raise_exceptions=False):
"""Like safe_execfile, but for .ipy or .ipynb files with IPython syntax.
fname : str
The name of the file to execute. The filename must have a
.ipy or .ipynb extension.
shell_futures : bool (False)
If True, the code will share future statements with the interactive
shell. It will both be affected by previous __future__ imports, and
any __future__ imports in the code will affect the shell. If False,
__future__ imports are not shared in either direction.
raise_exceptions : bool (False)
If True raise exceptions everywhere. Meant for testing.
fname = os.path.abspath(os.path.expanduser(fname))
# Make sure we can open the file
with open(fname):
warn('Could not open file <%s> for safe execution.' % fname)
# Find things also in current directory. This is needed to mimic the
# behavior of running a script from the system command line, where
# Python inserts the script's directory into sys.path
dname = os.path.dirname(fname)
def get_cells():
"""generator for sequence of code blocks to run"""
if fname.endswith('.ipynb'):
from nbformat import read
nb = read(fname, as_version=4)
if not nb.cells:
for cell in nb.cells:
if cell.cell_type == 'code':
yield cell.source
with open(fname) as f:
with prepended_to_syspath(dname):
for cell in get_cells():
result = self.run_cell(cell, silent=True, shell_futures=shell_futures)
if raise_exceptions:
elif not result.success:
if raise_exceptions:
warn('Unknown failure executing file: <%s>' % fname)
def safe_run_module(self, mod_name, where):
"""A safe version of runpy.run_module().
This version will never throw an exception, but instead print
helpful error messages to the screen.
`SystemExit` exceptions with status code 0 or None are ignored.
mod_name : string
The name of the module to be executed.
where : dict
The globals namespace.
runpy.run_module(str(mod_name), run_name="__main__",
except SystemExit as status:
if status.code:
warn('Unknown failure executing module: <%s>' % mod_name)
def run_cell(self, raw_cell, store_history=False, silent=False, shell_futures=True):
"""Run a complete IPython cell.
raw_cell : str
The code (including IPython code such as %magic functions) to run.
store_history : bool
If True, the raw and translated cell will be stored in IPython's
history. For user code calling back into IPython's machinery, this
should be set to False.
silent : bool
If True, avoid side-effects, such as implicit displayhooks and
and logging. silent=True forces store_history=False.
shell_futures : bool
If True, the code will share future statements with the interactive
shell. It will both be affected by previous __future__ imports, and
any __future__ imports in the code will affect the shell. If False,
__future__ imports are not shared in either direction.
result : :class:`ExecutionResult`
result = ExecutionResult()
if (not raw_cell) or raw_cell.isspace():
self.last_execution_succeeded = True
self.last_execution_result = result
return result
if silent:
store_history = False
if store_history:
result.execution_count = self.execution_count
def error_before_exec(value):
result.error_before_exec = value
self.last_execution_succeeded = False
self.last_execution_result = result
return result'pre_execute')
if not silent:'pre_run_cell')
# If any of our input transformation (input_transformer_manager or
# prefilter_manager) raises an exception, we store it in this variable
# so that we can display the error after logging the input and storing
# it in the history.
preprocessing_exc_tuple = None
# Static input transformations
cell = self.input_transformer_manager.transform_cell(raw_cell)
except SyntaxError:
preprocessing_exc_tuple = sys.exc_info()
cell = raw_cell # cell has to exist so it can be stored/logged
if len(cell.splitlines()) == 1:
# Dynamic transformations - only applied for single line commands
with self.builtin_trap:
# use prefilter_lines to handle trailing newlines
# restore trailing newline for ast.parse
cell = self.prefilter_manager.prefilter_lines(cell) + '\n'
except Exception:
# don't allow prefilter errors to crash IPython
preprocessing_exc_tuple = sys.exc_info()
# Store raw and processed history
if store_history:
cell, raw_cell)
if not silent:
self.logger.log(cell, raw_cell)
# Display the exception if input processing failed.
if preprocessing_exc_tuple is not None:
if store_history:
self.execution_count += 1
return error_before_exec(preprocessing_exc_tuple[2])
# Our own compiler remembers the __future__ environment. If we want to
# run code with a separate __future__ environment, use the default
# compiler
compiler = self.compile if shell_futures else CachingCompiler()
with self.builtin_trap:
cell_name = self.compile.cache(cell, self.execution_count)
with self.display_trap:
# Compile to bytecode
code_ast = compiler.ast_parse(cell, filename=cell_name)
except self.custom_exceptions as e:
etype, value, tb = sys.exc_info()
self.CustomTB(etype, value, tb)
return error_before_exec(e)
except IndentationError as e:
if store_history:
self.execution_count += 1
return error_before_exec(e)
except (OverflowError, SyntaxError, ValueError, TypeError,
MemoryError) as e:
if store_history:
self.execution_count += 1
return error_before_exec(e)
# Apply AST transformations
code_ast = self.transform_ast(code_ast)
except InputRejected as e:
if store_history:
self.execution_count += 1
return error_before_exec(e)
# Give the displayhook a reference to our ExecutionResult so it
# can fill in the output value.
self.displayhook.exec_result = result
# Execute the user code
interactivity = "none" if silent else self.ast_node_interactivity
has_raised = self.run_ast_nodes(code_ast.body, cell_name,
interactivity=interactivity, compiler=compiler, result=result)
self.last_execution_succeeded = not has_raised
self.last_execution_result = result
# Reset this so later displayed values do not modify the
# ExecutionResult
self.displayhook.exec_result = None'post_execute')
if not silent:'post_run_cell')
if store_history:
# Write output to the database. Does nothing unless
# history output logging is enabled.
# Each cell is a *single* input, regardless of how many lines it has
self.execution_count += 1
return result
def transform_ast(self, node):
"""Apply the AST transformations from self.ast_transformers
node : ast.Node
The root node to be transformed. Typically called with the ast.Module
produced by parsing user input.
An ast.Node corresponding to the node it was called with. Note that it
may also modify the passed object, so don't rely on references to the
original AST.
for transformer in self.ast_transformers:
node = transformer.visit(node)
except InputRejected:
# User-supplied AST transformers can reject an input by raising
# an InputRejected. Short-circuit in this case so that we
# don't unregister the transform.
except Exception:
warn("AST transformer %r threw an error. It will be unregistered." % transformer)
if self.ast_transformers:
return node
def run_ast_nodes(self, nodelist:ListType[AST], cell_name:str, interactivity='last_expr',
compiler=compile, result=None):
"""Run a sequence of AST nodes. The execution mode depends on the
interactivity parameter.
nodelist : list
A sequence of AST nodes to run.
cell_name : str
Will be passed to the compiler as the filename of the cell. Typically
the value returned by ip.compile.cache(cell).
interactivity : str
'all', 'last', 'last_expr' , 'last_expr_or_assign' or 'none',
specifying which nodes should be run interactively (displaying output
from expressions). 'last_expr' will run the last node interactively
only if it is an expression (i.e. expressions in loops or other blocks
are not displayed) 'last_expr_or_assign' will run the last expression
or the last assignment. Other values for this parameter will raise a
compiler : callable
A function with the same interface as the built-in compile(), to turn
the AST nodes into code objects. Default is the built-in compile().
result : ExecutionResult, optional
An object to store exceptions that occur during execution.
True if an exception occurred while running code, False if it finished
if not nodelist:
if interactivity == 'last_expr_or_assign':
if isinstance(nodelist[-1], _assign_nodes):
asg = nodelist[-1]
if isinstance(asg, ast.Assign) and len(asg.targets) == 1:
target = asg.targets[0]
elif isinstance(asg, _single_targets_nodes):
target =
target = None
if isinstance(target, ast.Name):
nnode = ast.Expr(ast.Name(, ast.Load()))
interactivity = 'last_expr'
if interactivity == 'last_expr':
if isinstance(nodelist[-1], ast.Expr):
interactivity = "last"
interactivity = "none"
if interactivity == 'none':
to_run_exec, to_run_interactive = nodelist, []
elif interactivity == 'last':
to_run_exec, to_run_interactive = nodelist[:-1], nodelist[-1:]
elif interactivity == 'all':
to_run_exec, to_run_interactive = [], nodelist
raise ValueError("Interactivity was %r" % interactivity)
for i, node in enumerate(to_run_exec):
mod = ast.Module([node])
code = compiler(mod, cell_name, "exec")
if self.run_code(code, result):
return True
for i, node in enumerate(to_run_interactive):
mod = ast.Interactive([node])
code = compiler(mod, cell_name, "single")
if self.run_code(code, result):
return True
# Flush softspace
if softspace(sys.stdout, 0):
# It's possible to have exceptions raised here, typically by
# compilation of odd code (such as a naked 'return' outside a
# function) that did parse but isn't valid. Typically the exception
# is a SyntaxError, but it's safest just to catch anything and show
# the user a traceback.
# We do only one try/except outside the loop to minimize the impact
# on runtime, and also because if any node in the node list is
# broken, we should stop execution completely.
if result:
result.error_before_exec = sys.exc_info()[1]
return True
return False
def run_code(self, code_obj, result=None):
"""Execute a code object.
When an exception occurs, self.showtraceback() is called to display a
code_obj : code object
A compiled code object, to be executed
result : ExecutionResult, optional
An object to store exceptions that occur during execution.
False : successful execution.
True : an error occurred.
# Set our own excepthook in case the user code tries to call it
# directly, so that the IPython crash handler doesn't get triggered
old_excepthook, sys.excepthook = sys.excepthook, self.excepthook
# we save the original sys.excepthook in the instance, in case config
# code (such as magics) needs access to it.
self.sys_excepthook = old_excepthook
outflag = True # happens in more places, so it's easier as default
#rprint('Running code', repr(code_obj)) # dbg
exec(code_obj, self.user_global_ns, self.user_ns)
# Reset our crash handler in place
sys.excepthook = old_excepthook
except SystemExit as e:
if result is not None:
result.error_in_exec = e
warn("To exit: use 'exit', 'quit', or Ctrl-D.", stacklevel=1)
except self.custom_exceptions:
etype, value, tb = sys.exc_info()
if result is not None:
result.error_in_exec = value
self.CustomTB(etype, value, tb)
if result is not None:
result.error_in_exec = sys.exc_info()[1]
outflag = False
return outflag
# For backwards compatibility
runcode = run_code
# Things related to GUI support and pylab
active_eventloop = None
def enable_gui(self, gui=None):
raise NotImplementedError('Implement enable_gui in a subclass')
def enable_matplotlib(self, gui=None):
"""Enable interactive matplotlib and inline figure support.
This takes the following steps:
1. select the appropriate eventloop and matplotlib backend
2. set up matplotlib for interactive use with that backend
3. configure formatters for inline figure display
4. enable the selected gui eventloop
gui : optional, string
If given, dictates the choice of matplotlib GUI backend to use
(should be one of IPython's supported backends, 'qt', 'osx', 'tk',
'gtk', 'wx' or 'inline'), otherwise we use the default chosen by
matplotlib (as dictated by the matplotlib build-time options plus the
user's matplotlibrc configuration file). Note that not all backends
make sense in all contexts, for example a terminal ipython can't
display figures inline.
from IPython.core import pylabtools as pt
gui, backend = pt.find_gui_and_backend(gui, self.pylab_gui_select)
if gui != 'inline':
# If we have our first gui selection, store it
if self.pylab_gui_select is None:
self.pylab_gui_select = gui
# Otherwise if they are different
elif gui != self.pylab_gui_select:
print('Warning: Cannot change to a different GUI toolkit: %s.'
' Using %s instead.' % (gui, self.pylab_gui_select))
gui, backend = pt.find_gui_and_backend(self.pylab_gui_select)
pt.configure_inline_support(self, backend)
# Now we must activate the gui pylab wants to use, and fix %run to take
# plot updates into account
self.magics_manager.registry['ExecutionMagics'].default_runner = \
return gui, backend
def enable_pylab(self, gui=None, import_all=True, welcome_message=False):
"""Activate pylab support at runtime.
This turns on support for matplotlib, preloads into the interactive
namespace all of numpy and pylab, and configures IPython to correctly
interact with the GUI event loop. The GUI backend to be used can be
optionally selected with the optional ``gui`` argument.
This method only adds preloading the namespace to InteractiveShell.enable_matplotlib.
gui : optional, string
If given, dictates the choice of matplotlib GUI backend to use
(should be one of IPython's supported backends, 'qt', 'osx', 'tk',
'gtk', 'wx' or 'inline'), otherwise we use the default chosen by
matplotlib (as dictated by the matplotlib build-time options plus the
user's matplotlibrc configuration file). Note that not all backends
make sense in all contexts, for example a terminal ipython can't
display figures inline.
import_all : optional, bool, default: True
Whether to do `from numpy import *` and `from pylab import *`
in addition to module imports.
welcome_message : deprecated
This argument is ignored, no welcome message will be displayed.
from IPython.core.pylabtools import import_pylab
gui, backend = self.enable_matplotlib(gui)
# We want to prevent the loading of pylab to pollute the user's
# namespace as shown by the %who* magics, so we execute the activation
# code in an empty namespace, and we update *both* user_ns and
# user_ns_hidden with this information.
ns = {}
import_pylab(ns, import_all)
# warn about clobbered names
ignored = {"__builtins__"}
both = set(ns).intersection(self.user_ns).difference(ignored)
clobbered = [ name for name in both if self.user_ns[name] is not ns[name] ]
return gui, backend, clobbered
# Utilities
def var_expand(self, cmd, depth=0, formatter=DollarFormatter()):
"""Expand python variables in a string.
The depth argument indicates how many frames above the caller should
be walked to look for the local namespace where to expand variables.
The global namespace for expansion is always the user's interactive
ns = self.user_ns.copy()
frame = sys._getframe(depth+1)
except ValueError:
# This is thrown if there aren't that many frames on the stack,
# e.g. if a script called run_line_magic() directly.
# We have to use .vformat() here, because 'self' is a valid and common
# name, and expanding **ns for .format() would make it collide with
# the 'self' argument of the method.
cmd = formatter.vformat(cmd, args=[], kwargs=ns)
except Exception:
# if formatter couldn't format, just let it go untransformed
return cmd
def mktempfile(self, data=None, prefix='ipython_edit_'):
"""Make a new tempfile and return its filename.
This makes a call to tempfile.mkstemp (created in a tempfile.mkdtemp),
but it registers the created filename internally so ipython cleans it up
at exit time.
Optional inputs:
- data(None): if data is given, it gets written out to the temp file
immediately, and the file is closed again."""
dirname = tempfile.mkdtemp(prefix=prefix)
handle, filename = tempfile.mkstemp('.py', prefix, dir=dirname)
os.close(handle) # On Windows, there can only be one open handle on a file
if data:
tmp_file = open(filename,'w')
return filename
def write(self,data):
"""DEPRECATED: Write a string to the default output"""
warn('InteractiveShell.write() is deprecated, use sys.stdout instead',
DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2)
def write_err(self,data):
"""DEPRECATED: Write a string to the default error output"""
warn('InteractiveShell.write_err() is deprecated, use sys.stderr instead',
DeprecationWarning, stacklevel=2)
def ask_yes_no(self, prompt, default=None, interrupt=None):
if self.quiet:
return True
return ask_yes_no(prompt,default,interrupt)
def show_usage(self):
"""Show a usage message"""
def extract_input_lines(self, range_str, raw=False):
"""Return as a string a set of input history slices.
range_str : string
The set of slices is given as a string, like "~5/6-~4/2 4:8 9",
since this function is for use by magic functions which get their
arguments as strings. The number before the / is the session
number: ~n goes n back from the current session.
raw : bool, optional
By default, the processed input is used. If this is true, the raw
input history is used instead.
Slices can be described with two notations:
* ``N:M`` -> standard python form, means including items N...(M-1).
* ``N-M`` -> include items N..M (closed endpoint).
lines = self.history_manager.get_range_by_str(range_str, raw=raw)
return "\n".join(x for _, _, x in lines)
def find_user_code(self, target, raw=True, py_only=False, skip_encoding_cookie=True, search_ns=False):
"""Get a code string from history, file, url, or a string or macro.
This is mainly used by magic functions.
target : str
A string specifying code to retrieve. This will be tried respectively
as: ranges of input history (see %history for syntax), url,
corresponding .py file, filename, or an expression evaluating to a
string or Macro in the user namespace.
raw : bool
If true (default), retrieve raw history. Has no effect on the other
retrieval mechanisms.
py_only : bool (default False)
Only try to fetch python code, do not try alternative methods to decode file
if unicode fails.
A string of code.
ValueError is raised if nothing is found, and TypeError if it evaluates
to an object of another type. In each case, .args[0] is a printable
code = self.extract_input_lines(target, raw=raw) # Grab history
if code:
return code
if target.startswith(('http://', 'https://')):
return openpy.read_py_url(target, skip_encoding_cookie=skip_encoding_cookie)
except UnicodeDecodeError:
if not py_only :
# Deferred import
from urllib.request import urlopen
response = urlopen(target)
raise ValueError(("'%s' seem to be unreadable.") % target)
potential_target = [target]
try :
except IOError:
for tgt in potential_target :
if os.path.isfile(tgt): # Read file
try :
return openpy.read_py_file(tgt, skip_encoding_cookie=skip_encoding_cookie)
except UnicodeDecodeError :
if not py_only :
with io_open(tgt,'r', encoding='latin1') as f :
raise ValueError(("'%s' seem to be unreadable.") % target)
elif os.path.isdir(os.path.expanduser(tgt)):
raise ValueError("'%s' is a directory, not a regular file." % target)
if search_ns:
# Inspect namespace to load object source
object_info = self.object_inspect(target, detail_level=1)
if object_info['found'] and object_info['source']:
return object_info['source']
try: # User namespace
codeobj = eval(target, self.user_ns)
except Exception:
raise ValueError(("'%s' was not found in history, as a file, url, "
"nor in the user namespace.") % target)
if isinstance(codeobj, str):
return codeobj
elif isinstance(codeobj, Macro):
return codeobj.value
raise TypeError("%s is neither a string nor a macro." % target,
# Things related to IPython exiting
def atexit_operations(self):
"""This will be executed at the time of exit.
Cleanup operations and saving of persistent data that is done
unconditionally by IPython should be performed here.
For things that may depend on startup flags or platform specifics (such
as having readline or not), register a separate atexit function in the
code that has the appropriate information, rather than trying to
# Close the history session (this stores the end time and line count)
# this must be *before* the tempfile cleanup, in case of temporary
# history db
# Cleanup all tempfiles and folders left around
for tfile in self.tempfiles:
except OSError:
for tdir in self.tempdirs:
except OSError:
# Clear all user namespaces to release all references cleanly.
# Run user hooks
def cleanup(self):
# Overridden in terminal subclass to change prompts
def switch_doctest_mode(self, mode):
class InteractiveShellABC(metaclass=abc.ABCMeta):
"""An abstract base class for InteractiveShell."""