Bash shell scripts for basic backup management on a LAMP server.
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README.md

README.md

lamp-backup

Bash shell scripts for managing backups on a basic LAMP server.

Overview

These tools are designed to backup a basic Linux/Apache/MySQL/PHP server with a relatively small amount of data. They're intended for cases in which fancy enterprise backup solutions are overkill. The goal is simplicity and ease of use, while providing an acceptable level of fault tolerance and security. Only full backups are performed (not incremental backups), to make it easier to restore data when needed.

Quick start

This section shows how to set up lamp-backup with the default configuration.

By default, your important Apache, PHP, and MySQL files and databases will be backed up nightly into /var/backup, with a second copy stored offsite at Amazon S3. Old backups will be automatically removed. The most recent two weeks of nightly backups will be kept by default, along with twelve months of monthly backups (the backup taken on the first day of the month).

(1) Install the lamp-backup tools by downloading the project files and copying the sbin and etc directories to /usr/local. The following commands will do this and set some important file permissions. (It also avoids overwriting any existing config files, in case you're upgrading.)

INSTALL_DIR=/usr/local;
wget https://github.com/jasongrimes/lamp-backup/archive/master.zip \
    && unzip -q master.zip \
    && cd lamp-backup-master \
    &&   sudo mkdir -p $INSTALL_DIR/etc \
    &&   sudo cp -r sbin $INSTALL_DIR/ \
    &&   for file in $(ls etc); do if [ ! -f "$INSTALL_DIR/etc/$file" ]; then sudo cp etc/$file $INSTALL_DIR/etc/; fi; done \
    &&   cd .. \
    && sudo chown root:root $INSTALL_DIR/etc/mysql-connection.cnf \
    && sudo chmod 0600 $INSTALL_DIR/etc/mysql-connection.cnf \
    && sudo chmod a+x $INSTALL_DIR/sbin/lamp-backup*.sh $INSTALL_DIR/sbin/mysql-backup.sh \
    && rm -rf lamp-backup-master master.zip

(2) Edit /usr/local/etc/mysql-connection.cfg and set the password for your MySQL root user. Make sure this file is readable only by root.

(3) To enable offsite backups to Amazon S3, run the following and enter your AWS access key and secret:

sudo apt-get install s3cmd python-magic
sudo s3cmd --configure -c /root/.s3cfg

Then edit /usr/local/etc/lamp-backup.conf and set the S3_PATH to the S3 URL where you want your backups to be saved.

(4) Set up a cron job for running nightly backups by creating a /etc/cron.d/lamp-backup file with the following contents:

# Run backups nightly
MAILTO=you@example.com
5 0 * * * root /usr/local/sbin/lamp-backup.sh

For more details about customizing your backups, see the information below.

Usage

Typically, you'll want to run the lamp-backup script as root so it has access to all the files. Do it with sudo:

sudo lamp-backup.sh

You can customize the script's behavior with a variety of command-line options. (In most cases it's easier to edit the config file instead, though.)

Usage: lamp-backup.sh [options]

lamp-backup.sh is a simple tool for backing up files and MySQL databases.

Options:
  -o OUTPUT_DIR, --output-dir=OUTPUT_DIR
                         Base directory in which to store backups.
                         (Default: '/var/backup')
  -d DIRS, --dirs=DIRS   Directories to back up.
                         (Default: '/var/www /etc/apache2 /etc/php5 /var/log')
  -e PATTERNS, --exclude=PATTERNS
                         Exclude files matching these patterns.
                         (Default: 'core *~')
  -c FILE, --mysql-conf=FILE
                         A MySQL config file with connection information.
                         (Default: '/usr/local/etc/mysql-connection.cfg')
  -s FILE, -s3-conf=FILE An s3cmd config file with connection info for Amazon S3.
                         (Default: '/root/.s3cfg')
  -p S3_PATH, --s3-path=S3_PATH
                         The Amazon S3 path to copy files to (ex. s3://my-bucket/my-folder/).
  --do-files             Back up and compress files. (Enabled by default.)
  --no-files             Don't back up and compress files.
  --do-mysql             Back up MySQL databases. (Enabled by default.)
  --no-mysql             Don't back up MySQL databases.
  --do-s3                Copy backups to Amazon S3. Enabled by default if S3 is configured.
  --no-s3                Don't copy backups to Amazon S3.
  --do-rotate            Rotate old backups. (Enabled by default.)
  --no-rotate            Don't rotate old backups.
  -q, --quiet            Quiet
  -v, --verbose          Verbose
  --help                 Print this help screen

Configuration

Customizing backup configuration

To customize the backup configuration, edit /usr/local/etc/lamp-backup.conf. This file is optional, and if it doesn't exist, sensible defaults will be used.

See the comments in the config file for details about the options available.

Configuring the MySQL connection

You can supply MySQL login information on the command line, but to run the backup script automatically via cron you'll need to store connection information securely in a config file.

Add the connection information for the MySQL user that will perform the backup in /usr/local/etc/mysq-connection.cnf. Make sure this file is readable only by root to prevent exposing your secret login information.

cd /usr/local/etc
sudo chown root:root mysql-connection.cnf
sudo chmod 0600 mysql-connection.cnf
sudo vim mysql-connection.cnf

Example mysql-connection.cnf file:

[client]
host = localhost
user = root
password = MySuPeRsEcReTrOoTpAsSwOrD

Configuring Amazon S3

It's possible to configure lamp-backup to store a copy of the backups on Amazon S3.

First, install the s3cmd package and its dependencies. On Ubuntu or Debian, do it like this:

sudo apt-get install s3cmd python-magic

Configure s3cmd, providing it with your access keys. Make sure to run this with sudo, to ensure that the generated config file is protected with suitable permissions (it should be readable only by root).

sudo s3cmd --configure -c /root/.s3cfg

Enter your AWS key and secret when prompted. Accept defaults for the other values.

Then specify the S3 path to store your backups in. Edit the following value in /usr/local/etc/lamp-backup.conf:

S3_PATH=s3://my-bucket/my-folder/

Make sure the path ends with a slash (/).

Setting up a cron job to run nightly backups

Run backups nightly by setting up a cron job like the following.

sudo vim /etc/cron.d/lamp-backup

Sample cron file to run backups nightly at 5 minutes after midnight, and send an email report to you@example.com:

# Run backups nightly
MAILTO=you@example.com
5 0 * * * root /usr/local/sbin/lamp-backup.sh

Backup rotation

lamp-backup automatically deletes old backups, to prevent filling up disk space.

Default rotation

By default, the most recent two weeks of daily backups are kept.

Twelve monthly backups (the backup taken on the first day of the month) are kept locally, and monthly backups are kept forever on Amazon S3.

Only one backup is kept for each day (the most recent one).

Configuring backup rotation

The default rotation schedule can be changed by editing /usr/local/etc/lamp-backup.conf.

There are separate config options for locally stored backups and backups stored on Amazon S3.

Set KEEP_NUM_RECENT to the number of recent backups to keep on the local system. Typically this will be the number of days of recent backups to keep, unless you set KEEP_ONE_PER_DAY to 0. Set KEEP_NUM_RECENT=-1 to keep all (i.e. never delete old backups).

Set KEEP_NUM_MONTHLIES to the number of monthly backups to keep on the local system. A monthly backup is just a backup taken on the first day of the month. This allows you to keep historical snapshots over a long period of time, without using a ton of disk space. Set KEEP_NUM_MONTHLIES=-1 to keep all monthly backups.

Backup rotation on Amazon S3 is configured the same way, but the option names start with S3_, ex. S3_KEEP_NUM_RECENT and S3_KEEP_NUM_MONTHLIES.

Disk space considerations

Backup rotation should be configured in such a way that you have enough backups around to recover anything you might need, but that you never keep so many backups you risk running out of disk space.

To estimate the amount of disk space that will be needed, first determine the size of a single backup. The following command shows the size of each backup in the /var/backup directory:

du -sh /var/backup/*

If all future backups are the same size as your latest backup, calculating the amount of disk space required by your rotation strategy is as simple as this:

(BACKUP_SIZE * KEEP_NUM_RECENT) + (BACKUP_SIZE * KEEP_NUM_MONTHLY)

If the required disk space won't leave you with a comfortable amount of free space, adjust your configuration accordingly. Keep in mind that the size of your backups is likely to grow over time.

A summary of disk usage is shown at the end of the report each time a backup is run. Check this periodically to make sure that disk space won't become an issue.

Rotating backups independently

While backup rotation is typically done automatically when lamp-backup.sh is run, you can also do a backup rotation independently by running /usr/local/sbin/lamp-backup-rotate.sh.

When run independently, lamp-backup-rotate.sh prompts you for confirmation before deleting anything, showing you a list of what would be deleted and what would be kept. You can disable this prompt with the --force argument. Run lamp-backup-rotate.sh --help for a complete list of arguments.

Restoring from backups

Backups are stored as tar/gzip archives, with one for each backed up directory, and one for the MySQL dumps. File permissions are set so that backups are only readable by the user who ran the backup script (typically root).

To see the contents of an archive:

sudo tar tzvf $BACKUPDIR/etc_php5.tgz

To extract the archive:

sudo tar xzvf $BACKUPDIR/etc_php5.tgz

To extract a single file from an archive (ex. php.ini):

sudo tar xzvf $BACKUPDIR/etc_php5.tgz ./etc/php5/apache2/php.ini

The MySQL databases are stored in SQL files created by mysqldump, with one file per database. All of these files are zipped up into a single mysqldump.tgz archive.

To restore a database named "mydb":

sudo tar xzvf $BACKUPDIR/mysqldump.tgz
cd mysqldump
mysqladmin -uroot -p create mydb
mysql -uroot -p mydb < mydb.sql

You could also restore the tables from the "mydb" database into a temporary database (ex. "mydbtemp"), for review or manipulation before overwriting any existing data.

mysqladmin -uroot -p create mydbtemp
mysql -uroot -p mydbtemp < mydb.sql