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The existed blockchain-related academic papers. All papers are sorted according the conference and publihed year.
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Academic Blockchain Papers

A curated blockchain-related academic papers. All papers are sorted based on the conference name and published year.

Table of Listed Conferences

Key Words: System Design, Consensus(Proof-of-Work, Proof-of-Stake, Proof-of-X, BFT), Off-chain Design(Payment Networks, Sidechain), Crosschain, P2P Network, Privacy Issue, Security, Economics, Smart Contracts, Applications, Cryptograph.


[Consensus-PoS] The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol with Chains of Variable Difficulty. Juan A. Garay and Aggelos Kiayias and Nikos Leonardos. Crypto '17.

[Consensus-PoS] Ouroboros Praos: An adaptively-secure, semi-synchronous proof-of-stake protocol. Bernardo D, Gazi P, Kiayias A, Russell A. Crypto '17.


[Consensus-PoW] The Bitcoin Backbone Protocol: Analysis and Applications. Garay J, Kiayias A, Leonardos N. EUROCRYPT '15.

[Consensus-PoW] Analysis of the Blockchain Protocol in Asynchronous Networks. Pass R, Seeman L, shelat a. EUROCRYPT '17

[Consensus]Consensus through Herding. T-H. Hubert Chan Rafael Pass Elaine Shi. EUROCRYPT '19.

[PoS]Proof-of-Stake Protocols for Privacy-Aware Blockchains. Chaya Ganesh Claudio Orlandi Daniel Tschudi. EUROCRYPT '19.

[Payment Channel]Multi-Party Virtual State Channels. Stefan Dziembowski Lisa Eckey Sebastian Faust Julia Hesse Kristina Hostáková. EUROCRYPT '19.

[System Design]Aggregate Cash Systems: A Cryptographic Investigation of Mimblewimble. Georg Fuchsbauer Michele Orrù Yannick Seurin. EUROCRYPT '19.

IEEE Security and Privacy(S&P)

[Privacy] Zerocoin: Anonymous distributed e-cash from bitcoin. Miers I, Garman C, Green M, Rubin AD. S&P '13.

[Consensus-PoW] Permacoin: Repurposing bitcoin work for data preservation. Miller A, Juels A, Shi E, Parno B, Katz J. Permacoin. S&P '14.

[Privacy] Zerocash: Decentralized anonymous payments from bitcoin. Sasson EB, Chiesa A, Garman C, Green M, Miers I, Tromer E, Virza M. S&P '14.

[Consensus-PoW-Mining]The Miner's Dilemma. Ittay Eyal. S&P '15

[General] SoK: Research Perspectives and Challenges for Bitcoin and Cryptocurrencies. Bonneau J, Miller A, Clark J, Narayanan A, Kroll JA, Felten EW. S&P '15

[Privacy] Hawk: The Blockchain Model of Cryptography and Privacy-Preserving Smart Contracts. Kosba A, Miller A, Shi E, Wen Z, Papamanthou C. S&P '16

[System] OmniLedger: A Secure, Scale-Out, Decentralized Ledger via Sharding. E. Kokoris-Kogias and P. Jovanovic and L. Gasser and N. Gailly and E. Syta and B. Ford. S&P '18

[Sidechain]Proof-of-Stake Sidechains. Peter Gaži, Aggelos Kiayias, Dionysis Zindros. IEEE S&P '19.

[Payment Networks] Perun: Virtual payment hubs over cryptocurrencies Dziembowski S, Eckey L, Faust S, Malinowski D. IEEE S&P '19.

[Consensus-PoW] Lay Down the Common Metrics: Evaluating Proof-of-Work Consensus Protocols’ Security Ren Zhang, Bart Preneel. IEEE S&P '19.

[Consensus]Redactable Blockchain in the Permissionless Setting. Dominic Deuber, Bernardo Magri, Sri Aravinda Krishnan Thyagarajan. IEEE S&P '19.

[Consensus-Privacy]Ouroboros Crypsinous: Privacy-Preserving Proof-of-Stake. Thomas Kerber and Markulf Kohlweiss and Aggelos Kiayias and Vassilis Zikas. IEEE S&P '19.

[Scalaility]XCLAIM: Decentralized, Interoperable, Cryptocurrency-Backed Assets. Alexei Zamyatin, Dominik Harz, Joshua Lind, Panayiotis Panayiotou, Arthur Gervais, William J. Knottenbelt. IEEE S&P '19.

USENIX Security

[Network] Eclipse Attacks on Bitcoin's Peer-to-Peer Network. Heilman E, Kendler A, Zohar A, Goldberg S. USENIX '15 Security Symposium.

[Consensus] Enhancing Bitcoin Security and Performance with Strong Consistency via Collective Signing. Kogias EK, Jovanovic P, Gailly N, Khoffi I, Gasser L, Ford B. USENIX '16 Security Symposium.

[Mining]SmartPool: Practical Decentralized Pooled Mining. Loi Luu, Yaron Velner, Jason Teutsch, TrueBit Foundation; Prateek Saxena.USENIX '17 Security Symposium.

[Mining]REM: Resource-Efficient Mining for Blockchains. Fan Zhang and Ittay Eyal and Robert Escriva and Ari Juels and Robbert van Renesse. USENIX '17 Security Symposium.

[Smart contract]teEther: Gnawing at Ethereum to Automatically Exploit Smart Contracts.Johannes Krupp and Christian Rossow. USENIX '18 Security Symposium.

[Anonymity Privacy]An Empirical Analysis of Anonymity in Zcash. George Kappos, Haaroon Yousaf, Mary Maller, and Sarah Meiklejohn. USENIX '18 Security Symposium.

[Smart contract]Arbitrum: Scalable, private smart contracts. Harry Kalodner, Steven Goldfeder, Xiaoqi Chen, S. Matthew Weinberg, and Edward W. Felten. USENIX '18 Security Symposium.

[Smart contract]FastKitten: Practical Smart Contracts on Bitcoin. Poulami Das, Lisa Eckey, Tommaso Frassetto, David Gens, Kristina Hostáková, Patrick Jauernig, Sebastian Faust, and Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi. USENIX '18 Security Symposium.

[Transaction Analysis]Tracing Transactions Across Cryptocurrency Ledgers. Haaroon Yousaf, George Kappos, and Sarah Meiklejohn. USENIX '19 Security Symposium.

[Consensus]StrongChain: Transparent and Collaborative Proof-of-Work Consensus. Pawel Szalachowski, Daniël Reijsbergen, and Ivan Homoliak, Siwei Sun. USENIX '19 Security Symposium.

[Privacy]BITE: Bitcoin Lightweight Client Privacy using Trusted Execution. Sinisa Matetic, Karl Wüst, Moritz Schneider, and Kari Kostiainen, Ghassan Karame, Srdjan Capkun. USENIX '19 Security Symposium.

[Smart Contract]FastKitten: Practical Smart Contracts on Bitcoin. Poulami Das, Lisa Eckey, Tommaso Frassetto, David Gens, Kristina Hostáková, Patrick Jauernig, Sebastian Faust, and Ahmad-Reza Sadeghi. USENIX '19 Security Symposium.

Network and Distributed System Security (NDSS)

[Economic-Smart Contracts] "Zeus": Analyzing Safety of Smart Contracts. Kalra S, Goel S, Dhawan M, Sharma S. NDSS '18.

[System Design]Chainspace: A Sharded Smart Contracts Platform. Mustafa Al-Bassam, Alberto Sonnino, Shehar Bano, Dave Hrycyszyn, and George Danezis. NDSS '18.

[off-chain]Settling Payments Fast and Private: Efficient Decentralized Routing for Path-Based Transactions. Stefanie Roos, Pedro Moreno-Sanchez, Aniket Kate, and Ian Goldberg. NDSS '18.

[Network]SABRE: Protecting Bitcoin against Routing Attacks. Maria Apostolaki, Gian Marti, Jan Müller, and Laurent Vanbever. NDSS '19.

[Smart Contract]Seth: Protecting Existing Smart Contracts Against Re-Entrancy Attacks. Michael Rodler, Wenting Li and Ghassan Karame, Lucas Davi. NDSS '19.

[Smart Contract]YODA: Enabling computationally intensive contracts on blockchains with Byzantine and Selfish nodes. Sourav Das, Vinay Joseph Ribeiro, and Abhijeet Anand. NDSS '19.

[Cryptograph]Fine-Grained and Controlled Rewriting in Blockchains: Chameleon-Hashing Gone Attribute-Based. David Derler, Kai Samelin, Daniel Slamanig and Christoph Striecks. NDSS '19.

[off-Chain]Privacy-preserving Multi-hop Locks for Blockchain Scalability and Interoperability. Giulio Malavolta, Pedro Moreno Sanchez, Clara Schneidewind and Matteo Maffei, Aniket Kate. NDSS '19.

ACM Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC)

[Consensus-PoW] FruitChains: A Fair Blockchain.Rafael Pass, Elaine Shi. PODC'17

[Sidechain] Atomic Cross-Chain Swaps. Maurice Herlihy. PODC'18

[Consessus] Brief Announcement: Sustainable Blockchains through Proof of eXercise. Ali Shoker. PODC'18

[Consensus]The Consensus Number of a Cryptocurrency. R. Guerraoui, P. Kuznetsov, M. Monti, M. Pavlovic, D. Seredinschi. PODC'19

[Consensus-BFT]Communication Complexity of Byzantine Agreement, Revisited. I. Abraham, T. Chan, D. Dolev, K. Nayak, R. Pass, L. Ren, E. Shi. PODC'19

[Consensus-BFT]Exact Byzantine Consensus on Undirected Graphs under Local Broadcast Model. M. Khan, S. Naqvi, N. Vaidya. PODC'19

[Consensus-BFT]Asymptotically Optimal Validated Asynchronous Byzantine Agreement. I. Abraham, D. Malkhi, A. Spiegelman. PODC'19

[Consensus-BFT]HotStuff: BFT Consensus with Linearity and Responsiveness. M. Yin, I. Abraham, G. Gueta, D. Malkhi, M. Reiter. PODC'19

ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS)

[Consensus-PoW-Mining]Double-Spending Fast Payments in Bitcoin. Karame, Ghassan O. and Androulaki, Elli and Capkun, Srdjan. CCS '12.

[Privacy] Deanonymisation of Clients in Bitcoin P2P Network. Biryukov A, Khovratovich D, Pustogarov I. CCS '14.

[Privacy] Provisions: Privacy-preserving proofs of solvency for Bitcoin exchanges. Dagher GG, Bünz B, Bonneau J, Clark J, Boneh D. CCS '15

[Economic]Demystifying incentives in the consensus computer. Loi Luu, Jason Teutsch, Raghav Kulkarni and Prateek Saxena. CCS '15

[PoW-Network]Tampering with the Delivery of Blocks and Transactions in Bitcoin.Gervais, Arthur and Ritzdorf, Hubert and Karame, Ghassan O. and Capkun, Srdjan. CCS '15

[Consensus-PoW-Mining]Non-outsourceable Scratch-Off Puzzles to Discourage Bitcoin Mining Coalitions. Andrew Miller, Elaine Shi, Ahmed Kosba, and Jonathan Katz. CCS '15

[System] The Honey Badger of BFT Protocols. Miller A, Xia Y, Croman K, Shi E, Song D. CCS '16.

[Smart Contracts] Making Smart Contracts Smarter. Luu L, Chu DH, Olickel H, Saxena P, Hobor A. CCS '16.

[Economic] On the instability of Bitcoin without the block reward. Carlsten M, Kalodner H, Weinberg SM, Narayanan A. CCS '16.

[Smart Contracts] Town crier: An authenticated data feed for smart contracts. Zhang F, Cecchetti E, Croman K, Juels A, Shi E. CCS '16.

[Privacy]On the Security and Performance of Proof of Work Blockchains. Gervais A, Karame GO, Karl Wüst, Glykantzis V, Ritzdorf H, Capkun S. CCS '16.

[System]A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains. Loi Luu, Viswesh Narayanan, Chaodong Zheng, Kunal Baweja, Seth Gilbert, Prateek Saxena. CCS '16.

[Payment Networks] Revive: Rebalancing Off-Blockchain Payment Networks. Khalil, R., & Gervais, A. CCS '17.

[Payment Networks] General State Channel Networks Dziembowski S, Faust S, Hostáková K. CCS '18.

[System Design] FairSwap: How to fairly exchange digital goods Dziembowski S, Faust S, Eckey L. CCS '18.

[System] RapidChain: Scaling Blockchain via Full Sharding. Mahdi Zamani, Mahnush Movahedi, Mariana Raykova. CCS '18.

IEEE International Conference on Computer Communications(INFOCOM)

[Network]Stochastic Models and Wide-Area Network Measurements for Blockchain Design and Analysis. Nikolaos Papadis, Sem Borst, Anwar Walid, Mohamed Grissa, Leandros Tassiulas. INFOCOM'18

[Transaction]Understanding ethereum via graph analysis. Ting Chen,Yuxiao Zhu, Zihao Li, Jiachi Chen, Xiaoqi Li, Xiapu Luo, Xiaodong Lin, Xiaodong Lin. INFOCOM'18

[Security]Corking by Forking: Vulnerability Analysis of Blockchain. Shengling Wang and Chenyu Wang, Qin Hu. INFOCOM'19

[Scalability]ACCEL: Accelerating the Bitcoin Blockchain for High-throughput, Low-latency Applications. Adiseshu Hari, Murali Kodialam, T. V Lakshman. INFOCOM'19

[Application]A Blockchain based Witness Model for Trustworthy Cloud Service Level Agreement Enforcement. Huan Zhou, Xue Ouyang, Zhijie Ren, Jinshu Su, Cees de Laat and Zhiming Zhao. INFOCOM'19

IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS)

[Application] Transform Blockchain into Distributed Parallel Computing Architecture for Precision Medicine.Zonyin Shae, Jeffrey J.P. Tsai. ICDCS'18

[Crosschain] Towards A Novel Architecture for Enabling Interoperability Amongst Multiple Blockchains. Hai Jin, Xiaohai Dai, and Jiang Xiao. ICDCS'18

[Consensus] [Short Paper]Towards Dependable, Scalable, and Pervasive Distributed Ledgers with Blockchains. Zhang Kaiwen, Jacobsen Hans-Arno.ICDCS'18

[Privacy] [Short Paper]A Flexible Network Approach to Privacy of Blockchain Transactions. David M¨odinger, Henning Kopp, Frank Kargl and Franz J. Hauck. ICDCS'18

[PoW]Selfish Mining in Ethereum Jianyu Niu and Chen Feng. ICDCS'19

[Consensus]Trust Mends Blockchains: Living up to Expectations. Leila Bahri and Sarunas Girdzijauskas. ICDCS'19

[Application]Hierarchical Edge-Cloud Computing for Mobile Blockchain Mining Game. Suhan Jiang, Xinyi Li and Jie Wu. ICDCS'19

[Scalability]OptChain: Optimal Transactions Placement for Scalable Blockchain Sharding. Lan Nguyen, Truc Nguyen, Thang Dinh and My Thai. ICDCS'19

[]Jidar: A Jigsaw-like Data Reduction Approach without Trust Assumptions for Bitcoin System. Xiaohai Dai, Jiang Xiao, Wenhui Yang, Chaofan Wang and Hai Jin. ICDCS'19

[Scalability]ParBlockchain: Leveraging Transaction Parallelism in Permissioned Blockchain Systems. Mohammad Javad Amiri, Divyakant Agrawal and Amr El Abbadi. ICDCS'19

[Application]Optimal Admission Control For Secondary Users using Blockchain Technology In Cognitive Radio Networks. Wenlong Ni, Yuhong Zhang and Wei Li. ICDCS'19

[application]B-IoT: Blockchain Driven Internet of Things with Credit-Based Consensus Mechanism. Junqin Huang, Linghe Kong, Guihai Chen, Long Chen, Kaishun Wu and Xue Liu. ICDCS'19

[Application]Resource Allocation and Consensus on Edge Blockchain in Pervasive Edge Computing Environments. Yaodong Huang, Jiarui Zhang, Jun Duan, Bin Xiao, Fan Ye and Yuanyuan Yang. ICDCS'19

[Application]Xyreum: A High-Performance and Scalable Blockchain for IIoT Security and Privacy. Abubakar Sadiq Sani, Dong Yuan, Wei Bao, Phee Lep Yeoh, Zhaoyang Dong, Branka Vucetic and Elisa Bertino. ICDCS'19

[Vision]AI Blockchain Platform for Trusting News. Zonyin Shae and Jeffrey Tsai. ICDCS'19

[Vision]Dependable Public Ledger for Policy Compliance, a Blockchain Based Approach. Zhou Wu, Andrew Williams and Debbie Perouli. ICDCS'19

[Vision]Please, do not decentralize the Internet with (permissionless) blockchains!. Pedro Garcia Lopez, Alberto Montresor and Anwitaman Datta. ICDCS'19

USENIX Symposium on Networked Systems Design and Implementation(NSDI)

[Consensus-PoW] Bitcoin-NG: A Scalable Blockchain Protocol. Eyal I, Gencer AE, Sirer EG, Van Renesse R. NSDI ’16

[System]Monoxide: Scale Out Blockchain with Asynchronized Consensus Zones. Jiaping Wang, Hao Wang. NSDI'19

ACM Conference on Emerging Networking EXperiments and Technologies(CoNEXT)

[Consensus-PoW] On the Necessity of a Prescribed Block Validity Consensus: Analyzing Bitcoin Unlimited Mining Protocol. Ren Zhang, Bart Preneel. CoNEXT '17

Financial Cryptography (FC)

[Economic-PoW] Majority Is Not Enough: Bitcoin Mining Is Vulnerable. Eyal I, Sirer EG. FC '14.

[Consensus-PoW] Secure High-Rate Transaction Processing in Bitcoin. Sompolinsky Y, Zohar A. FC '15.

[ChainStructure]Inclusive Block Chain Protocols. Yoad Lewenberg, Yonatan Sompolinsky, Aviv Zohar. FC '15.

[Consensus] Cryptocurrencies without Proof of Work. Bentov I, Gabizon A, Mizrahi A. FC '16.

[Economic-PoW] Optimal Selfish Mining Strategies in Bitcoin. Sapirshtein A, Sompolinsky Y, Zohar A. FC '16.

[Consensus-PoS] A Proof-of-Stake protocol for consensus on Bitcoin subchains. Bartoletti M, Lande S, & Podda A S. FC '17.

[FC Accepted Paper Link:] FC'15, FC'16, FC'17, FC'18, FC'19.



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