A Clear Architecture
In my experience, development approaches like Domain-Driven Design and structural concepts as the Hexagonal Architecture or the Onion Architecture carry a lot of wisdom but don't necessarily provide practical guidance when it comes to starting off with a new project. After several unsatisfactory experiments, I felt a sort of relief when I first read about the Clean Architecture, which nicely aggregates some high-level concepts while simplifying things at the same time.
However, even the Clean Architecture doesn't provide a simple-to-follow recipe for layouting a project, naming classes, files and directories and deciding where to settle a particular functionality. So I trial-and-errored myself to the point where I had a rather concise, opinionated implementation of the Clean Architecture that prove useful in several projects — even and especially in combination with each other. Let me introduce you to the Clear Architecture.
Note: I won't go into too much detail about the various high-level concepts involved in the Clear Architecture but rather focus on their practical application. Follow the links to learn more about them.
- Pragmatic, down-to-earth architecture with a fixed base layout and a concise set of rules and conventions
- Reasonable balance of simplicity, usability, abstraction and high-level concepts
- Independence of programming environment, frameworks and delivery mechanisms
- Suitable for building libraries (to be used by other packages)
In the Clear Architecture, source code is structured into 3 tiers that build on one another, most easily illustrated as concentric circles with the outermost one consisting of 3 complementary sectors.
① Domain tier
- Domain objects & services
- High-level business rules
In a banking application, the domain layer holds the definitions of the bank account, the account holder, the currency etc. as well as their relationships with each other.
② Application tier
- Application specific business rules & services
- Use cases orchestrating domain components
- Translating between external requests from the ③ client tier and domain logic (back and forth)
The application layer executes different types of bank transactions, provides a currency exchange service and so on.
③ Client tier (3 sectors)
- Low-level implementation details and mechanisms
- Public ports for external agencies (APIs, CLI, MVC components, etc.)
- Infrastructural details (persistence strategy, database platform, frameworks, 3rd party library bindings, etc.)
- Unit, functional and integration tests
The client layer implements the database operations, provides a web interface for online banking and a FinTS interface to be used by external applications.
The Ports sector is the public interface of your application. It accept requests from external agencies (e.g. the Web, the command-line, an embedding system etc.), communicates them to the infrastructure sector as well as the ② application layer and responds with the processed results. It represents your system to the outer world by taking the form of a web or native GUI, a CLI, a REST API or any other type of interface suitable for accessing your application. Components in this sector may include (but are not limited to):
- Exceptions that might occur on the client layer
- Constant definitions useful for accessing your application
- Controller / Action components of MVC / ADR architectures
Note: If your application provides a web interface or similar API, don't directly use the
Ports directory (or any of its subdirectories) as document root for web server scripts. Instead, create a top-level
public directory and put your bootstrap script files there. Search for a similar solution when providing a CLI (see below for PHP specific recommendations).
The Infrastructure sector is not strictly private, but it holds the implementation details that are not necessarily of public interest. While the Ports interface should be stable in the long run, it's acceptable for infrastructural components to change with the requirements. Ideally, they can be swapped against equivalent mechanisms without affecting the overall system functionality. External agencies should avoid accessing the infrastructure layer directly, but there might be exceptions for efficiency's sake. Typically in this sector:
- Third-party libraries and frameworks (they're always considered to be part of the infrastructure even if stored elsewhere and / or autoloaded)
- Persistence mechanisms (e.g. database platforms)
- Model / View / Presenter / Domain / Responder components of MVC / MVP / ADR architectures
- Template engines and templates
- Configuration data
The Tests sector holds all resources required for testing your application. In general, tests are nothing more than highly specialized clients of your application and must be granted full access to your ③ client and ② application layers. Test resources may also be accessed by external agencies (e.g. by extension) and typically include:
- Unit, integration, interface and / or acceptance test cases
- Test fixtures
`-- src `-- <Module> |-- Application |-- Domain |-- Infrastructure |-- Ports `-- Tests
- The top level directory
srcseparates the actual source files from other package resources, e.g. documentation, dependency modules, web interface files etc.
<Module>must be replaced with a vendor-unique UpperCamelCase package name (e.g.
- The 3rd level is made up of five directories representing the main architectural tiers and sectors .
Inside the five main directories, your application may add additional structures as needed. However, to keep things consistent, I recommend sticking to these conventions:
- Directory and file names are always to be written in UpperCamelCase. I prefer using singular expressions wherever possible (i.e.
- If you have multiple similar components, that are mostly used by external agencies (e.g. on a lower architectural level or by an external package), keep them at a common central location. As an example, I typically use directories named
Factoryfor grouping classes with similar functionality.
- Keep closely related components together. If you have, for instance, a class definition that implements an interface as described in The Dependency Inversion Principle, put them into the same directory instead of spreading them across the file system. This rule commonly outweighs the previous one — it might be a matter of taste in some situations though.
- If a lower architectural layer "mirrors" and extends the structure of a higher one, e.g. by providing concrete implementations of a high-level interface, try to use common file and directory names accross levels. This will help keeping the cross-boundary relationships in mind.
Rules & Conventions
The Dependency Rule
In the Clear Architecture, source code dependencies may only ever point to the same or an inward layer.
Nothing in an inner circle can know anything at all about something in an outer circle. In particular, the name of something declared in an outer circle must not be mentioned by the code in an inner circle. That includes functions, classes, variables or any other named software entity. (Clean Architecture, Robert C. Martin)
In other words, it's perfectly fine to reference same or higher-level components e.g. by
- constructing class instances ("objects"),
- implementing interfaces, using traits etc.,
- calling functions and methods or
- using classes, interfaces etc. for typing.
Adhering to the Dependency Rule makes your application testable and flexible in terms of implementation details (persistence strategy, database platform, provided client APIs etc.).
The Dependency Inversion Principle
In order to not violate the Dependency Rule, the Dependency Inversion Principle must be used whenever complex data needs to be passed across a boundary to an inward layer. Instead of expecting and directly referencing a low-level component (e.g. as a function parameter), the high-level layer provides and references an interface that must be implemented and inherited from by the caller. This way, the conventional dependency relationship is inverted and the high-level layer is decoupled from the low-level component.
Decoupling & Dependency Injection
In general, avoid tight coupling between components and prefer abstractions / interfaces over concrete implementations, thus enabling polymorphism and making your application a lot better testable. You will always have to deal with object instantiation and globals at some point, but try to limit their occurrences to a minimum and manage them smartly. Some type of Dependency Injection mechanism might be of great help, but please consider the possible drawbacks as well. DI configuration should be part of the Infrastructure sector or of a general bootstrap process, stored somewhere outside the layer directories altogether.
The following special components (and their files) must be named after their role:
- Interfaces must use the
- Traits must use the
- Factories must use the
MyCustomFactory). Public factory method names must use the
Considerations for PHP implementations
Note: I mostly use the Clear Architecture for projects written in PHP but it should be easy to adapt its principles to other environments as well. Please let me know if you succeed (or fail) in doing so.
- Stick to commonly agreed coding style rules like PSR-1 and PSR-2. Consider using code quality checkers like Scrutinizer, Code Climate etc. Have a look at my Clear Architecture Yeoman Generator to speed up the installation and configuration of these tools.
- Apply PSR-4 autoloading standards with
<Module>being the base directory corresponding to the namespace prefix (e.g.
Jkphl\MyApp). Follow the next point to get autoloading for free.
- Use Composer as the principal dependency manager for your projects. By default, Composer installs package dependencies into the top-level
- When providing a CLI, check out Composer's vendor binary features.
- Use environment variables for configuration purposes (respectively the phpdotenv library or one of its equivalents).
- S.O.L.I.D. Software Development, One Step at a Time by Derek Bailey
- Clean Architecture in PHP by Kristopher Wilson
- Domain-Driven Design in PHP by Carlos Buenosvinos et al.