Gender and Sentiment Analysis of Tweets on Marquette University's Campus
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README.md

Heroku Travis

Overview

Femi-Gnab-Some (working title, also thinking of Patrignarky as an alternative) is a web application designed to pull live Twitter data based on a given geocode (a given latitude, longitude, and radius), and analyze the sentiment of tweets that contain text with a gendered subject.

The goal of the project is to aggregate enough social data on Marquette's campus to determine if there's a quantifiable difference in the treatment of online gender identities.

I think the analysis and critical intervention are a response to the technical findings. Does the social data "fit" a model of oppression we've talked about in class? Does the data support or challenge our understanding of the digital person? Of oppression? To guide that discussion, I'd probably use Young's understanding of the five forms of oppression to frame questions around:

  1. Exploitation - Do certain users on Twitter exploit others for popularity? For shock value? Can this be measured?
  2. Marginalization - In theory, is there a digital account of oppression against categories of persons online? Can Twitter data find this? Trends?
  3. Powerlessness - Is power in the digital world merely a function of popularity? Is this form of power gendered, and noticeable on Twitter? And do those with more followers tend to tweet about groups/topics in a patterned way?
  4. Cultural Imperialism - If we look at popular trends/users, is there a normalization of their culture? Can their trends be measured through friend cycles, through followers? For Twitter trends/popular users who gain traction, can the social impact of their message be measured?
  5. Violence - This one I'm not sure about. Maybe self-harm can be seen as a form of violence, and a function of digital oppression? Young thinks violence "may also take the form of name calling or petty harassment" (p. 102), and Twitter has from time to time acted as a forum for "petty harassment".

Initial Technical Results

Currently, the server can extract the date, text, user (including followers and name), users mentioned, topics mentioned, and overall sentiment of every tweet in a given geocode.

I've been using San Francisco as a city to test this app out (it turns out there are not a lot of people tweeting on Marquette's campus during spring break), and I can assemble the following data for a tweet (I anonymized the user's name and profile image):

{
  "id": 842762677223116800,
  "date": "Fri Mar 17 15:40:54 +0000 2017",
  "text": "Beware of false knowledge; it is more dangerous than ignorance. - George Bernard Shaw https://t.co/4aA6esVwFE",
  "textSentiment": {
    "score": -5,
    "comparative": -0.3333333333333333,
    "tokens": [
      "beware",
      "of",
      "false",
      "knowledge",
      "it",
      "is",
      "more",
      "dangerous",
      "than",
      "ignorance",
      "-",
      "george",
      "bernard",
      "shaw",
      "httpstco4aa6esvwfe"
    ],
    "words": [
      "ignorance",
      "dangerous",
      "false"
    ],
    "positive": [],
    "negative": [
      "ignorance",
      "dangerous",
      "false"
    ]
  },
  "textTopics": [
    {
      "text": " - George Bernard Shaw",
      "normal": "george bernard shaw",
      "firstName": "george",
      "middleName": "",
      "lastName": "bernard",
      "genderGuess": "Male",
      "pronoun": "he",
      "honorifics": []
    }
  ],
  "user": {
    "id": 3214528745,
    "name": XXX,
    "location": null,
    "followerCount": 61,
    "friendsCount": 0,
    "favoritesCount": 0,
    "statusesCount": 74841,
    "profileImage": XXX
  }
}

This is nifty, but doesn't seem super helpful. What here is gendered? How do you connect this to other tweets and users?

It would seem that the sentence overall is negative, one topic mentioned in the sentence is a person, George Bernard Shaw, and this person would appear to be male based on their name. There's also the user involved, who may or may not be a male (we can use the same library to predict topics to also predict the gender of the user), and we know how many followers they have, and how many friends they have.

Right now, we can take this tweet and says something along the lines of, there was a male person mentioned in the tweet, and what was said in the tweet appears to be negative overall. Perhaps the user is a male or female, and perhaps we can aggregate these kinds of tweets to see

  • If men (or women) are more likely to be negative/positive overall (based on gender of user and sentiment of tweet)
  • If tweets mention people (both in raw text and in user-mentions), how positive/negative those tweets are
  • Is there a pattern in the kinds of tweets (positive/negative) from people who have more power (measured by their followers/friends)?

Of course, this approach of aggregating data is problematic. It presupposes a gender binary, and the tooling doesn't work in many cases. In instances of sarcasm, jargon, or acronyms, it doesn't quite get the sentiment right. But I think a key takeaway here is a reflection on this ongoing process. The more general assumptions I make, the more data I can aggregate; however, I also end up ignoring more important aspects like context, and some other information I might not be able to gauge at all: race, class, and other axes of privelege.

I have the basic pieces needed for assembling the kinds of data I need, and most of the configuration of the application seems done. Ideally I would have an accessible website with a chart visualizing aggregate data. To do that, I'll

  • Create a database of analyzed tweets over time
  • Create a visual graphing tool to look at overall sentiment of tweets, filterable by date, user's gender, and potentially the topics extracted from tweets
  • Deploy to a cloud server that everyone can use/look at

How it Works

To get a sense of what this is, I'll walk through the following steps:

  1. Getting information about a tweet of a user in a given location
  2. Assembeling relevant data, analyzing sentiment, and extracting topics
  3. Writing results of the previous steps to a file for later use

Getting a Tweet

Twitter has a nicely documented API that enables developers to request data from their servers if they follow some basic guidelines. After creating a developer account, registering my application, and storing my credentials in a privately kept credentials.json file, I can set up requests to Twitter using a simple HTTP GET request (I use the package Twit to handle most of the heavy work for me)

In the code, this is what gets that done:

// credentials = require('credentials.json')

const twitter = new Twit(credentials) // load authentication details
const sanFrancisco = [ '-122.75', '36.8', '-121.75', '37.8' ] // [lat, long, lat, long] coordinates of SF
const stream = twitter.stream('statuses/filter', { locations: sanFrancisco }) // listen for new tweets in SF
stream.on('tweet', (tweet) => { // when a new tweet appears
    logTweet(tweet) // log some details of it in a helper function
})

Here's what the server looks like in action when it's listening for tweets:

Cool, cool. So you're receiving tweets? It looks like a bunch of sentences with the word tweet followed by a really long number. How is that helpful?

Right now, I'm just printing the id of each tweet out to the screen, then saving all the details of each tweet in a text file. I'll do some more analysis of it in the next section. The data received from Twitter's API is in a standard JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format that looks like this:

Extracting and Analyzing Relevant Data

Each tweet has a unique id, details about the user (including the number of followers they have, their name, their description), details about when and where the tweet occurred, and plenty more. I'll collect the following information, and extract some of my own from analyzing the topics and sentiment of the tweet's text:

const extractDetailsFrom = (tweet) => {
    return {
        id: tweet.id,
        date: tweet.created_at,
        text: tweet.text,
        textSentiment: sentiment(tweet.text), // get sentiment of text, as well as all positive, negative words
        textTopics: nlp(tweet.text).people().data(), // get info on sentence's topics (people, places)
        user: {
            id: tweet.user.id,
            name: tweet.user.name,
            location: tweet.user.location,
            followerCount: tweet.user.followers_count,
            friendsCount: tweet.user.friends_count,
            favoritesCount: tweet.user.favourites_count,
            statusesCount: tweet.user.statuses_count,
            profileImage: tweet.user.profile_image_url
        },
        usersMentioned: tweet.user.user_mentions
    }
}

This describes the overall skeleton of the data I want to collect, and it already contains some analysis of the text and the user. In the above code, the line

const textSentiment = sentiment(tweet.text)

stores information about the words (or "tokens") in a sentence, a comparative score (an overall score of words rated from -5 to 5), and a list of all positive and negative words into a variable called textSentiment. In the line below it,

const textTopics = nlp(tweet.text).topics().data()

people and places mentioned in the sentence (as well as the best-guess to the gender of a person based on their name) are stored in a variable called textTopics.

Writing Results to a File

Once the data is nicely wrapped up, I'd like to save it to a file to use later. To do this, I simply call the following function:

const logTweet = (tweet) => {
    const details = extractDetailsFrom(tweet)
    const logMessage = `${JSON.stringify(details)}`
    if (details.textSentiment.score !== 0) { // check the tweet has some positive/negative words
        fs.writeFile(`server/output/san-francisco/TWEET-${tweet.id}.txt`, logMessage, (err) => {
            if (err) {
                return console.log(err)
            }
            console.log(`Logged a tweet: [${tweet.id}]`)
        })
    }
}

I check to make sure the tweet has some emotion, then I write its details to a file suffixed with the id of the tweet so each tweet has its own unique file

Libraries Used for Analyzing Text

Compromise - A syntactically intuitive natural language processing library. Comes with an API for parsing sentences into specific clauses, nouns, people, and topics (to name a few); it even gives a best-guess of inferred gender.

Sentiment - A sentiment analysis library based on the AFINN-165 wordlist, "a list of English words rated for valence with an integer between minus five (negative) and plus five (positive). The words have been manually labeled by Finn Årup Nielsen in 2009-2011." Read more

Tech Stack Used

Node and Express for the server routes (and eventual API endpoints)

React for the view engine (using the fantastic tool create-react-app)

SCSS for CSS pre-processing