Ramda inspired library of helper functions for ReasonML
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README.md

Rationale

Rationale is inspired by RamdaJS. It is a collection of helper utility functions that are absent in the OCaml/ReasonML standard library.

Note that not all of Ramda was ported over, as many of Ramda's utilities are making up for deficits in Javascript, which Reason doesn't have. Furthermore, many of the functions that operate on objects, simply don't make sense in Reason.

Installation

Run npm install --save rationale and add rationale to bs-dependencies in bsconfig.json.

Features

Exception-free List operations

In the OCaml/ReasonML standard library, many of the common List operations throw exceptions if there's a problem. Rationale's utilities do not throw exceptions, and instead return options.

  • head
  • tail
  • init
  • last
  • nth
  • etc

Monadic Options and Belt.Results

Rationale includes monadic and functor operations ala Haskell for the option and Belt.Result types.

open Rationale.Option.Infix;
open Rationale.Function;

RList.init(a)
  >>= ((x) => RList.last(a) <$> f <$> flip(RList.append, x))
  <$> RList.concat(b)
  |> Option.default(xs);

Support for Point-free style

Rationale has compose and pipe functions, as well as supporting infix operators: <|| and ||> respectively.

Infix Lens composition

Rationale also allows for fluid lens composition via infix operators: -<< and >>-.

Lens.view(aLens >>- bLens >>- optional(0), { a: { b: Some(3) } });

Function signatures for composition

Like in Ramda, functions always keep their data at the end making piping and composing a breeze:

list
  |> take(9)
  |> drop(3)
  |> splitAt(4);

Usage

Using Optional Returns in RList and Dict

Returning option('a) from functions is generally preferred to throwing an exception. It protects you from runtime errors, and forces you to deal with potential errors at compile time. However, if you're not used to doing it, things can get a little confusing.

Pattern matching for errors all the time would be extremely cumbersome. Fortunately, we provide a host of useful methods to working with optional returns. Hopefully, this doc will show you that you don't need to use excessive pattern matching to work with optional returns.

Default

The most straight forward way to get out of an option is by calling default.

Option.default(0, Some(1)); /* 1 */

Option.default(0, None); /* 0 */

Monads

Calling default will definitely get you out of the option, but what if you want to do some things to it first? What if you need other funtions that also return option?

the Option module includes monadic operations for option, so you can take a railway oriented approach to working with them.

First, let's check if the last item of a list is equal to a certain value:

let lastEquals = (a, xs) => Option.fmap(Util.eq(a), RList.last(xs)) |> Option.default(false);

lastEquals(3, [1,2,3]); /* true */
lastEquals(3, [4,5,6]); /* false */
lastEquals(3, []); /* false */

/* Or, with infix operators */
open Option.Infix;

let lastEquals = (a, xs) => RList.last(xs) <$> Util.eq(a) |> Option.default(false);

Here we used fmap and its infix variation <$> to apply a function to the value inside the option. Note that, Util.eq returns a bool not an option. So what if the next function also returns an option? Well you'd get nested options, which doesn't really help anyone. So, instead, we would use bind.

Now let's replace the last item of one list with the last item of another. Note that both last and init return option:

let swapLast = (xs, ys) =>
  Option.(bind(RList.last(xs), ((x) => fmap(RList.append(x), RList.init(ys)))) |> default(ys));

swapLast([1,2,3], [4,5,6]); /* [4,5,3] */
swapLast([], [4,5,6]); /* [4,5,6] */

/* Or, with infix operators */
open Option.Infix;

let swapLast = (xs, ys) =>
  RList.last(xs) >>= ((x) => RList.init(ys) <$> RList.append(x)) |> Option.default(ys);

Here we used bind and its infix variation >>= to apply a function that also returned an option.

Applicatives

Let's try checking if the last elements of two lists are equal. We could accomplish this using bind, but that can be a little awkward.

let lastEqual = (xs, ys) =>
  Option.(apply(apply(Some(Util.eq), RList.last(xs), RList.last(ys))) |> default(false));

lastEqual([1,2,3], [4,5,3]); /* true */
lastEqual([1,2,3], [4,5,6]); /* false */
lastEqual([], [4,5,6]); /* false */
lastEqual([1,2,3], []); /* false */

/* Or, with infix operators */
open Option.Infix;

let lastEqual = (xs, ys) =>
  Some(Util.eq) <*> RList.last(xs) <*> RList.last(ys) |> Option.default(false);

Translating JS Idioms

Or chains

Take the following example in Javascript:

let x = a || b || c || d;

We can't translate that directly to Reason, because there is no null or undefined in Reason. The closest approximation would be option, in which we can string together Some and None to get the first one that is Some.

There is a helper function called firstSome and its infix variation |? that do exactly this.

/* a, b, and c are all options, but d is not */
let x = a |? b |? c |> default(d);

Reference

Infix Operators

  • >>=: Monadic Bind
  • <$>: Functor Fmap
  • <*>: Applicative Apply
  • <||: Point-free Function Compose
  • ||>: Point-free Function Pipe
  • -<<: Lens Compose
  • >>-: Lens Pipe
  • |?: Optional Or