Berkeley Internet Name Daemon
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README.md

BIND Build Status

Description

A chef cookbook to manage BIND servers and zones.

Contents

Requirements

This release migrates to using custom resources. Thus we require a more recent version of chef (12.16 or above). To continue using this cookbook on older versions please stick with the 1.x versions.

This cookbook now follows the library pattern. To use the cookbook effectively you'll need a wrapper cookbook that has the resources listed.

A default recipe is provided. It only provides a basic recursive name server.

Supported Operating Systems:

  • CentOS/RHEL 6.9
  • CentOS/RHEL 7.3
  • Debian 8.9
  • Debian 9.2
  • Ubuntu 14.04
  • Ubuntu 16.04

Attributes

Most attributes have been removed in favour of custom resources. See the MIGRATION.md document.

Usage

Using custom resources leads to a quite flexible configuration, but requires a little bit more work in a wrapper cookbook to use. The following examples are presented here:

  • Internal recursive nameserver
  • Authoritative primary nameserver
  • Authoritative secondary nameserver
  • Using views for internal recursion and external authoritative name service

Internal recursive nameserver

bind_service 'default' do
  action [:create, :start]
end

bind_config 'default' do
  ipv6_listen true
  options [
    'check-names slave ignore',
    'multi-master yes',
    'provide-ixfr yes',
    'recursive-clients 10000',
    'request-ixfr yes',
    'allow-notify { acl-dns-masters; acl-dns-slaves; }',
    'allow-query { example-lan; localhost; }',
    'allow-query-cache { example-lan; localhost; }',
    'allow-recursion { example-lan; localhost; }',
    'allow-transfer { acl-dns-masters; acl-dns-slaves; }',
    'allow-update-forwarding { any; }',
  ]
end

bind_acl 'acl-dns-masters' do
  entries [
    '! 10.1.1.1',
    '10/8'
  ]
end

bind_acl 'acl-dns-slaves' do
  entries [
    'acl-dns-masters'
  ]
end

bind_acl 'example-lan' do
  entries [
    '10.2/16',
    '10.3.2/24',
    '10.4.3.2'
  ]
end

Authoritative primary nameserver

There are two ways to create primary zone files with this cookbook. The first is by providing a complete zone file that is placed in the correct directory (and is added to the nameserver configuration by using the bind_primary_zone resource). The second way is by using the bind_primary_zone_template resource. To use this you need to provide an array of hashes containing the records you want to be added to the zone file.

The following example has both options shown. In a wrapper cookbook add the code below with appropriate modifications.

You'll need to configure the ACL entries (and names) for the example-lan and acl-dns-masters ACLs for your local configuration.

You will also need to arrange for the zone files to be placed in the configured location (which is OS dependent by default).

Resource style:

bind_service 'default' do
  action [:create, :start]
end

bind_config 'default' do
  ipv6_listen true
  options [
    'recursion no',
    'allow-query { any; }',
    'allow-transfer { external-private-interfaces; external-dns; }',
    'allow-notify { external-private-interfaces; external-dns; localhost; }',
    'listen-on-v6 { any; }'
  ]
end

bind_acl 'external-private-interfaces' do
  entries [
  ]
end

bind_acl 'external-dns' do
  entries [
  ]
end

cookbook_file '/var/named/primary/db.example.com' do
  owner 'named'
  group 'named'
  mode '0440'
  action :create
end

bind_primary_zone 'example.com'

bind_primary_zone_template 'example.org' do
  soa serial: 100
  default_ttl 200
  records [
    { type: 'NS', rdata: 'ns1.example.org.' },
    { type: 'NS', rdata: 'ns2.example.org.' },
    { type: 'MX', rdata: '10 mx1.example.org.' },
    { type: 'MX', rdata: '20 mx1.example.org.' },
    { owner: 'www', type: 'A', ttl: 20, rdata: '10.5.0.1' },
    { owner: 'ns1', type: 'A', ttl: 20, rdata: '10.5.1.1' },
    { owner: 'ns2', type: 'A', ttl: 20, rdata: '10.5.2.1' },
    { owner: 'mx1', type: 'A', ttl: 20, rdata: '10.5.1.100' },
    { owner: 'mx2', type: 'A', ttl: 20, rdata: '10.5.2.100' },
  ]

Authoritative secondary nameserver

In a wrapper cookbook add the code below with appropriate modifications.

You'll need to configure the ACL entries (and names) for the example-lan and acl-dns-masters ACLs for your local configuration.

bind_service 'default' do
  action [:create, :start]
end

bind_config 'default' do
  ipv6_listen true
  options [
    'recursion no',
    'allow-query { any; }',
    'allow-transfer { external-private-interfaces; external-dns; }',
    'allow-notify { external-private-interfaces; external-dns; localhost; }',
    'listen-on-v6 { any; }'
  ]
end

bind_acl 'acl-dns-masters' do
  entries [
    '! 10.1.1.1',
    '10/8'
  ]
end

bind_acl 'acl-dns-slaves' do
  entries [
    'acl-dns-masters'
  ]
end

bind_acl 'example-lan' do
  entries [
    '10.2/16',
    '10.3.2/24',
    '10.4.3.2'
  ]
end

bind_secondary_zone 'example.com' do
  primaries %w(192.0.2.10 192.0.2.11 192.0.2.12)
end

bind_secondary_zone 'example.org' do
  primaries %w(192.0.2.10 192.0.2.11 192.0.2.12)
end

Using views for internal recursion and external authoritative name service

Using the bind_view resource allows you to configure one or more views in the configuration. When using bind_view you will need to tell the zone resources which view they should be configured in. If this is omitted the zone will be configured in the bind_config property default_view (which defaults to default).

bind_service 'default'

bind_config 'default' do
  default_view 'external'
end

bind_view 'internal' do
  match_clients ['10.0.0.0/8']
  options [
    'recursion yes'
  ]
end

bind_primary_zone 'internal-example.com' do
  view 'internal'
  zone_name 'example.com'
end

bind_primary_zone 'secret.example.com' do
  view 'internal'
end

bind_view 'external' do
  options [
    'recursion no'
  ]
end

bind_primary_zone 'example.com'

Nameserver in chroot mode

The bind_service and bind_config resources can accept a boolean true or false for chroot, declaring whether or not to install the BIND server in a chroot manner. If one provider declares this value, the other must match or the converge will fail. Currently all supported platforms except Ubuntu 16.04 LTS are supported with chrooted configuration. By default, this is set to false

bind_service 'default' do
  chroot true
  action :create
end

bind_config 'default' do
  chroot true
  options [
    'recursion no',
    'allow-transfer { internal-dns; }'
  ]
end

Available Custom Resources

bind_service

The bind_service resource installs the pre-requisites for the service to run.

The :create action installs packages and creates appropriate configuration directories. It does not attempt to create a working configuration.

The :start action ensures that the name server will be started at the end of the chef run and will be started automatically on boot.

The :restart wil immediately restart the name server.

Example

bind_service 'default' do
  action [:create, :start]
end

Properties

The following properties are supported:

  • sysconfdir - The system configuration directory where the named config will be located. The default is platform specific. Usually /etc/named or /etc/bind
  • vardir - The location for zone files and other data. The default is platform specific, usually /var/named or /var/cache/bind.
  • chroot - Boolean decleration to setup a chrooted nameserver installation. Defaults to false
  • chroot_dir - Define the chrooted base directory. Affects sysconfdir and vardir and is platform specific.
  • package_name - The package, or array of packages, needed to install the nameserver. Default is platform specific, usually includes bind and associated utility packages.
  • run_user - The user that the name server will run as. Defaults to named.
  • run_group - The groups that the name server will run as. Defaults to named.
  • service_name - The name of the service installed by the system packages. Defaults to a platform specific value.

bind_config

The bind_config resource creates the configuration files for the name server.

The only available action is :create which will create the default configuration files (including RFC1912 zones), configure an rndc key, and set any query logging parameters required.

The query_log properties are deprecated and will be removed in a future version. Migrate to using the bind_logging_channel and bind_logging_category resources.

Examples

bind_config 'default'

bind_config 'default' do
  ipv6_listen false

  options [
    'recursion no',
    'allow-transfer { external-dns; }'
  ]
end

bind_config 'default' do
  statistics_channel address: 127.0.0.1, port: 8090

  query_log '/var/log/named/query.log'
  query_log_versions 5
  query_log_max_size '10m'
  query_log_options [
    'print-time yes'
  ]
end

Properties

  • conf_file - The desired full path to the main configuration file. Platform specific default.
  • options_file - The desired full path to the configuration file containing options. Platform specific default.
  • chroot - Configuring a chrooted nameserver. Defaults to false
  • chroot_dir - Define the chrooted base directory. Platform specific default.
  • ipv6_listen - Enables listening on IPv6 instances. Can be true or false. Defaults to true.
  • options - Array of option strings. Each option should be a valid BIND option minus the trailing semicolon. Defaults to an empty array.
  • query_log - DEPRECATED. If provided will turn on general query logging. Should be the path to the desired log file. Default is empty and thus disabled.
  • query_log_max_size - DEPRECATED. Maximum size of query log before rotation. Defaults to '1m'.
  • query_log_versions - DEPRECATED. Number of rotated query logs to keep on the system. Defaults to 2.
  • query_log_options - DEPRECATED. Array of additional query log options. Defaults to empty array.
  • statistics_channel - Presence turns on the statistics channel. Should be a hash containing :address and :port to configure the location where the statistics channel will listen on. This will likely move to a separate resource in the future.
  • default_view - The name of the default view to configure zones within when views are used. Defaults to 'default'.

bind_view

The bind_view resource configures a BIND view. This allows you to serve different content to different clients.

Examples

bind_view 'internal' do
  match_clients ['10.0.0.0/8']
  options ['recursion yes']
end

bind_view 'external' do
  options ['recursion no']
end

Properties

  • match_clients - Serve the content of this view to any client matching an IP address in this list. Defaults to any.
  • match_destinations - Server the content of this view to any request arriving on this IP address. Defaults to any.
  • match_recursive_only - Match on any recursive requests. Defaults to false.
  • options - Array of option strings. Each option should be a valid BIND option minus the trailing semicolon. Defaults to an empty array.

bind_primary_zone

The bind_primary_zone resource will copy a zone file from your current cookbook into the correct directory and add the zone as a master zone to your BIND configuration. The file should be named for the zone you wish to configure. For example to configure example.com the file should be in files/default/example.com

This resource also supports setting the action to :create_if_missing. In this event the cookbook will only copy a zone file in place if it does not already exist. Once copied the cookbook will not touch the file again allowing it to be used for dynamic updates. However, please be aware that in the event of the server being rebuilt or the file being removed that the data has not been persisted anywhere.

Examples

bind_primary_zone 'example.com'

bind_primary_zone 'example.org' do
  options [
    'allow-transfer { none; }'
  ]
end

Properties

  • options - Array of option strings. Each option should be a valid BIND option minus the trailing semicolon. Defaults to an empty array.
  • view - Name of the view to configure the zone in. Defaults to the value from the bind_config property.
  • file_name - Name of the file to store the zone in. Defaults to the name property. Used when you wish to have the same zone with different content in different views.
  • zone_name - The zone name of the zone. Used only if the name property does not match the zone name.

bind_primary_zone_template

The bind_primary_zone_template resource will create a zone file from a template and list of desired resources.

Examples

bind_primary_zone_template 'example.com' do
  soa serial: 100, minimum: 3600
  records [
    { type: 'NS', rdata: 'ns1.example.com.' },
    { owner: 'ns1', type: 'A', rdata: '10.0.1.1' }
  ]
end

Properties

  • soa - Hash of SOA entries. Available keys are:
    • :serial - The serial number of the zone. Defaults to '1'. If this zone has secondary servers configured then you will need to either manually manage this and update when the record set changes, or use the manage_serial property.
    • :mname - Domain name of the primary name server serving this zone. Defaults to 'localhost.'
    • :rname - The email address of the "Responsible Person" for this zone with the @-sign replaced by a .. Defaults to hostmaster.localhost.
    • :refresh - The period that a secondary name server will wait between checking if the zone file has been updated on the master. Defaults to '1w'.
    • :retry - The period that a secondary name server will attempt to retry checking a zone file if the initial attempt fails. Defaults to '15m'.
    • :expire - The length of time that a zone will be considered invalid if the primary name server is unavailable. Defaults to '52w'.
    • :minimum - The length of time that a name server will cache a negative (NXDOMAIN) result. Defaults to 30 seconds.
  • default_ttl - The default time to live for any records which do not have an explicitly configured TTL.
  • records - An array of hashes describing each desired record. Possible keys are:
    • :owner - The name to be looked up.
    • :type - The record type; examples include: 'NS', 'MX', 'A', 'AAAA'.
    • :ttl - A non-default TTL. If not present will use the default TTL of the zone.
    • :rdata - The value of the record. Freeform string that depends on the type for structure.
  • manage_serial - A boolean indicating if we should manage the serial number. Defaults to false. When true persists the current serial number and a digest of the current zone contents into the node object. If the records change the serial number will be incremented. The default serial number used is the value of soa[:serial].
  • template_cookbook - The cookbook to locate the primary zone template file. Defaults to 'bind'. You can override this to change the structure of the zone file.
  • template_name - The name of the primary zone template file within a cookbook. Defaults to 'primary_zone.erb'
  • view - Name of the view to configure the zone in. Defaults to the value from the bind_config property.
  • file_name - Name of the file to store the zone in. Defaults to the name property. Used when you wish to have the same zone with different content in different views.
  • zone_name - The zone name of the zone. Used only if the name property does not match the zone name.

A note on serial numbers

Serial numbers are primarily used by the DNS to discover if a zone has changed and thus trigger a zone transfer by a secondary server. If you are managing all of the authoritative servers for a zone with chef then you do not need to change serial numbers when updating a zone. In this instance you can set a simple static serial number ('1' is used by default and is just fine).

On the other hand, if you have non-chef managed secondary servers then you will need to increment the serial number whenever the record set changes. This can be done in two different ways: manually (where you control the serial number set and will increment it each time the record set changes), or using the manage_serial property.

If you use the manage_serial property then each time the record set changes the serial number will be incremented. Providing a serial number in the soa property will be used as a default value for the serial number. When enabled this property will cause the cookbook to store the serial number and a hash of the record set in the host's node object. If you destroy the node object then this will result in the serial number being reset to the default value in the soa property. Finally, ensure that you only have a single server using the manage_serial property. Otherwise you may end up with different name servers with different serial numbers. In this case, set up a single node as the primary server and use the bind_secondary_zone on all the other authoritative servers to pull the zone from that designated primary server.

bind_secondary_zone

The bind_secondary_zone resource will configure a zone to be pulled from a primary name server.

Examples

bind_secondary_zone 'example.com' do
  primaries [
    '10.1.1.1',
    '10.2.2.2'
  ]
end

bind_secondary_zone 'example.org' do
  primaries [
    '10.1.1.1',
    '10.2.2.2'
  ]

  options [
    'zone-statistics full'
  ]
end

Properties

  • primaries - An array of IP addresses used as the upstream master for this zone. Is mandatory and has no default.
  • options - Array of option strings. Each option should be a valid BIND option minus the trailing semicolon. Defaults to an empty array.
  • view - Name of the view to configure the zone in. Defaults to the value from the bind_config property.
  • file_name - Name of the file to store the zone in. Defaults to the name property. Used when you wish to have the same zone with different content in different views.
  • zone_name - The zone name of the zone. Used only if the name property does not match the zone name.

bind_forward_zone

The bind_forward_zone resource will configure a forwarding only zone.

Examples

bind_forward_zone 'example.com' do
  forwarders [
    '10.1.1.1',
    '10.2.2.2'
  ]
end

bind_forward_zone 'example.org' do
  forward 'first'
  forwarders ['10.0.1.1', '10.2.1.1']
end

Properties

  • forwarders - An array of IP addresses to which requests for this zone will be forwarded to. Defaults to an empty list. (Which if set will disable forwarding for this zone if globally configured).
  • forward - Set to 'first' if you wish to try a regular lookup if forwaridng fails. 'only' will cause the query to fail if forwarding fails. Default is 'only'.
  • view - Name of the view to configure the zone in. Defaults to the value from the bind_config property.

bind_linked_zone

The bind_linked_zone resource will create a zone linked to a zone with the same name in a different view, using the bind in-view directive. The in-view directive requires bind 9.10 or higher. So this resource will only be compatible with Debian 9 and Ubuntu 16.04.

Examples

bind_primary_zone 'sub.example.com' do
  view 'internal'
end

bind_linked_zone 'sub.example.com' do
  in_view 'internal'
  view 'external'
end

Properties

  • view - Name of the view to configure the zone in. Defaults to the value from the bind_config property.
  • in_view - The view of the zone to reference
  • zone_name - The name of the zone. Used only if the name property does not match the zone name. Must be identical to the name of the zone that is being linked to.

bind_acl

The bind_acl resource allows you to create a named ACL list within the BIND configuration.

Examples

bind_acl 'google-dns-servers' do
  entries [
    '8.8.8.8',
    '8.8.4.4'
  ]
end

bind_acl 'internal-dns' do
  entries [
    '! 10.1.1.1',
    '10/8'
  ]
end

bind_acl 'tsig_key' do
  entries [
    'key "internal-key"',
  ]
end

Properties

  • entries - An array of strings representing each acl entry.

Each entry should be a valid BIND address match list. This means it can be:

  • an IP address
  • an IP prefix
  • a key id
  • the name of a different address march list from another acl statement
  • a nested address match list enclosed in braces

Predefined ACLs (from BIND itself) which do not need additional configuration are: any, none, localhost, and localnets.

bind_key

The bind_key resource adds a shared secret key (for either TSIG or the command channel) to the configuration.

bind_key 'dns-update-key' do
  algorithm 'hmac-sha256'
  secret 'this_is_the_secret_key'
end

Properties

  • algorithm - The algorithm that the secret key was generated from.
  • secret - The secret key

bind_server

The bind_server resource allows specific options to be configured for a particular upstream name server.

Examples

bind_server '10.1.1.1' do
  options [
    'bogus yes'
  ]
end

Properties

  • options - Array of option strings. Each option should be a valid BIND option minus the trailing semicolon. Defaults to an empty array.

bind_logging_channel

The bind_logging_channel resource will configure a destination for logs to be sent to. To actually send logs you need to also configure a bind_logging_category.

Examples

bind_logging_channel 'querylog' do
  destination 'file'
  severity 'info'
  path '/tmp/query.log'
  versions 5
  size '10m'
  print_category true
  print_severity true
  print_time true
end

bind_logging_channel 'syslog' do
  destination 'syslog'
  facility 'daemon'
  severity 'info'
end

Properties

  • destination - String containing the destination name. Must be one of: stderr, syslog, file, or null.
  • facility - String containing the syslog facility to use for the syslog destination. Must be a valid syslog facility: kern user mail daemon auth syslog lpr news uucp cron authpriv ftp local0 - local7.
  • severity - String containing the minimum severity of BIND logs to send to this channel. Can be critical, error, warning, notice, info, dynamic, or debug (this must be followed by a number representing the debug verbosity).
  • path - File name used for the file destination.
  • versions - Number of versions of the log file used for the file destination.
  • size - Maximum size of the log file used for the file destination.
  • print_category - Boolean representing if we should print the category in the output message.
  • print_severity - Boolean representing if we should print the severity of the log message to the output channel.
  • print_time - Boolean representing if we should print the time in the log message sent to the output channel.

bind_logging_category

The bind_logging_category resource maps BIND logging categories to logging channels.

Examples

bind_logging_category 'queries' do
  channels ['syslog', 'querylog']
end

bind_logging_category 'xfer-in' do
  channels 'syslog'
end

Properties

  • category - Name of the BIND logging category to send to the specified channels. Defaults to the name of the resource.
  • channels - Array of names (or single name) of channels to send the category of logs to.

License and Author

  • Copyright: 2011 Eric G. Wolfe
  • Copyright: 2017, 2018 David Bruce

Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at

http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0

Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied. See the License for the specific language governing permissions and limitations under the License.