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(Ab)use git history to write tutorials!
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Turning git history into a step-by-step tutorial

This is a meta-tutorial. No, don't run, come back! It is just a tutorial explaining how to make tutorials.

The main idea is to use git commits as the base material for your tutorial. You start with some existing repository (or from a blank one), and you start modifying files. You commit your changes with git, and in the commit message, you include a good amount of text, explaining everything you did in great lengths. Each significant step of your tutorial corresponds to a git commit.

Once you're done, you can:

  • review everything you did using a special git log command, which will display all the steps of your tutorial in chronological order, showing your explanations (=commit messages) along with the changed files;
  • push to GitHub, and see the same thing using the GitHib "change view": this will show all the steps (=commits) of your tutorial in kind of table of contents, each commit being clickable and taking the viewer to a detailed view;
  • generate a RST file with the supplied script, and include this RST file in a Wiki or other documentation; for instance, if you use Sphinx for your global documentation, you can include the RST (maybe with minor documentation) and Sphinx can then transform it into HTML, PDF, etc.

A few examples:

Place the begin tag

First, we need to place our begin tag. It's important to remember that when you give a range to git, the diff of the first commit in the range won't be included in the output. Therefore, we need to place our begin tag right before the first step of our tutorial. If we start from an existing repository, we just have to tag the HEAD of the repository, and all further commits will make it into our tutorial. If we start from an empty repository, we need to create a dummy first commit (that cannot be included into our tutorial) and tag it, just for that purpose.

So, when starting from an existing repository:

# Clone it or whatever.
git clone .../something
cd something
# Tag the starting point of the tutorial.
git tag begin

And when starting from scratch:

# Create a new repository.
git init helloworld
cd helloworld
# Create a dummy empty commit.
git commit --allow-empty --allow-empy-message -m ''
# Tag it.
git tag begin

Write your tutorial

Then, start writing the meat of our tutorial. The main point is to use one commit for each step. If one step involves creating or modifying multiple files, you can of course group those modifications in one single commit. Conversely, if multiple sections in a single file deserve distinct parts in the tutorial, you can do a first round of modification, commit, then do more changes, and commit again.

Each commit message should start with a title line (try to keep it as short as possible, around maybe 40 characters, or it will be truncated when displayed in GitHib change view. Also, if you use the RST output to generate HTML, the titles will probably look weird if they are too long and span multiple lines.

If you plan to use the RST output, your commits should be in RST. You don't have to include underline symbols after the first title line: the RST generator will take care of that for you.

If you think you got wrong one of your commits or commit messages, don't worry and have a look at the next paragraph.


If you want to modify your tutorial, you will be using git's history editing feaetures to change existing commits and commit messages. While some people use history editing commands all the time, some of you might not be familiar with that; so here is a really quick and dirty tutorial!

Start by running git rebase -i begin: git will start your editor and display your commits. You can change their order; but be warned: while it's easy and straightforward to switch two independent commits (e.g. commits adding or modifying different sets of files), other modifications might involve conflict resolution (not covered here).

As shown in the editor, you can prefix each commit with e.g. reword or edit. reword will automatically start an editor allowing to change this commit's message. edit will allow you to change the commit. It can also be used to insert new commits, or split the commit.

To add something to a commit, flag it with edit. Save and exit. Git will take you to this commit. You can modify files, stage them with git add, and finally run git commit --amend. This will "blend" your changes with the existing commit.

To change a commit, flag it with edit. Save and exit. Git will take you to this commit. Then use git reset HEAD: this will "undo" the commit. You can now do other modifications, and end with git commit.

To split a commit, follow the same procedure as previously, but commit multiple times.

Once you're done with editing, run git rebase --continue, and git will take you back to the tip of the repository.

To see what your tutorial looks like, you can run the following command:

git log --patch --reverse begin..HEAD

Automatic inclusion of modified files

If you plan to use the RST generator, it will automatically add after each commit the files modified by the commit. If you want the files to be included in the middle of a commit, just include two dots (nothing else) on a line in the commit. For instance, if your commit looks like this:

Implement Prime Directive

We will now edit starfleet.cpp to add the relevant methods.


Error checking has been left out of this sample, but proper
exception handling should be added in production code.

Then the edited files (probably starfleet.cpp) will be inserted in lieu of the ".." in the middle.

If at least one commit uses the ".." convention, the modified files will no longer be included verbatim at the end of each commit. If a git base URL (see below) was specified, the list of files (with links) will be included anyway (but without the content of the files).

Place the end tag

When you are done with the last step of your tutorial, you should add the end tag. It will be used by miscellaneous tools to know that there is nothing useful (for the tutorial) after this tag.

Just run git tag end. That's all!


If you do some modifications, the hashes of the commits will change and the end tag won't point anymore to the right commit: it will point to the commit in the old history.

To recreate the tag at the right place, you have to delete the old tag with git tag -d end, and then run git tag end abcd..., where abcd... is the new hash of the last commit of your tutorial.

Add README and other files

If you plan to push to GitHib, it might be nice to add a README in one of the supported formats. You might also want to add extra files that you don't want to include in the tutorial, but that could be useful (or even necessary) in the repository.

We could have added everything before the begin tag, and not use a end tag. However, defining the end tag and adding those extra files after it allow to modify them afterward, without rewriting the whole git history.

On the other hand, if you think that you will most likely not change those files, but that you will probably update the tutorial itself, it is certainly better to include the extra files before the begin tag. That way, a tutorial modification won't rewrite history for the extra files.

If you include a README file, we suggest that you remind the reader that the repository itself is a tutorial, and mention the convenient git log --patch --reverse begin..end command. If you plan to push to GitHub, you can also mention the nice "change view" URL (<username>/<reponame>/changes/begin..end). Last thing: if you plan to use the RST generator, and transform the output to HTML, you can host the HTML and include a link to the HTML version. The HTML version will probably be less confusing for people not used to GitHub.

Push to GitHub

Push your repository as you would push any other repository.

Don't forget to also push your tags (git push --tags).


Before you can run the script you'll need to install the GitPython module, you can do that by:

pip install GitPython

Generate RST output

The enclosed script will transform the sequence of commits of your tutorial into a RST file, as explained above. Each commit will be one section, and the changed files will be shown at the end of each section (or, if the section contains ".." on a single line, ".." will be replaced with the changed files).

The usage of the script is something like this (using our example):

python helloworld

If the code is hosted on GitHub or a similar hosting service, you can specify the base URL of the repository; e.g.:

python helloworld

If you specify that URL, the names of the modified files will actually be links to the modified files on the GitHub repository. This allows easy download of long files which would impair the readability of the document if they were included verbatim.

It is recommended to add a title and introductory text to the generated RST output. If you plan to regenerate the RST content frequently, you might want to put the title and introduction in a separate file, and include the generated RST content from this separate file.

The RST output can be converted to HTML using e.g. Sphinx.


If you want to change anything in your tutorial, just do modifications to the repository as explained above. However, there are a few important things that you should keep in mind:

  • when pushing your repository, you will have to git push --force (and push the tags with git push --tags --force as well), since we're basically rewriting history;
  • if you're just modifying the README, don't amend the commit, but create a new one; because GitHub might not detect that there is a new HEAD and still show the old README (and using begin..end tags will usually keep the README commits our of your tutorial anyway).


  • generate output in other formats (trivial to implement if you need them)
  • implement nicer formatting for the files shown at the end of each commit (get some inspiration from the way files are shown in e.g. Gist)
  • use gitorial for this tutorial


I initially wrote this because I wanted people to be able to clone the code of my tutorials, but I also wanted to generate a "user-friendly" document. And I did not want the code and the documentation to get out of sync.

After writing this, I had to come up with a name; and thought that "gitorial" would be satisfactory. I then found out that there were already other "gitorial" projects out there. Since the motivations seem to be the same, I hope nobody will mind if I use the same name!

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