Driver Initial Reconnaissance Tool
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DIRT: Driver Initial Reconnaissance Tool

I'm writing this tool to learn C++ and get an initial assessment of drivers installed on a Windows system (e.g. master images developed by OEMs or enterprises). It's supposed to help with target selection, finding low-hanging fruit, and some assistance with deep-dive binary analysis. Currently unstable, undergoing active development.

Primary Features

  • Listing of kernel-mode drivers non-administrative users can interact with via DeviceIoControl.
    • This can be useful to narrow down on drivers that can potentially be used toward LPE.
  • Retrieval of company names associated with drivers to determine ownership.
    • This can be useful in target selection to separate third-party drivers from Microsoft drivers.
  • Resolution of the DispatchDeviceControl routine used to handle requests from DeviceIoControl.
    • This makes it easier to find the function in IDA (versus relying on heuristics in static analysis).
    • The function can be analyzed to enumerate IOCTL codes and perform attack surface analysis.
  • Enumeration of the IOCTL codes supported by DispatchDeviceControl.
    • There might be an opportunity for symbolic execution like this, but not sure how robust it can be.
  • Enumeration of user-mode drivers that make calls to a given kernel-mode driver.

Secondary Features

  • CLI and GUI modes.
  • Output formats: JSON, CSV, and human readable text.

Alternative Tools

I've used a combination of DeviceTree, WinObjEx64, and WinDbg for these use-cases. It's more of a tedious manual process that doesn't scale easily, so DIRT just attempts to make it more convenient.


This should compile with Visual Studio 2015 or greater.


  1. Enable debug mode with bcdedit -debug on with an administrative Command Prompt.
  2. Place kldbgdrv.sys (found with WinDbg) in the same directory as DIRT.exe.
  3. Run DIRT.exe > output.txt with administrative privileges.

The --lp-only and --no-msft switches can be used to filter results.

Below is some sample output to know what to expect:

DIRT v0.1.0: Driver Initial Reconnaisance Tool (@Jackson_T)
Compiled on: Aug 22 2018 00:01:04

INFO: Hiding Microsoft drivers (--no-msft).
INFO: Only showing drivers that low-privileged users can interface with (--lp-only).

Capcom: Capcom
Path: C:\Windows\System32\Capcom.sys
DispatchDeviceControl: 0xFFFFF8024C9A0590
Devices: 1
└── \Device\Htsysm72FB (open DACL, 1 symlinks)
    └── \\.\Global\Htsysm72FB

SmbDrvI: SmbDrvI (Synaptics Incorporated)
Path: C:\WINDOWS\System32\drivers\Smb_driver_Intel.sys - Hooked by Wdf01000 (Microsoft Corporation)
DispatchDeviceControl: 0xFFFFF808212C72B0
Devices: 1
└── \Device\SmbDriver (open DACL, 1 symlinks)
    └── \\.\Global\SmbDriver

nvlddmkm: nvlddmkm
Path: C:\Windows\System32\DriverStore\FileRepository\nvlt.inf_amd64_ed3ba3fb30d4dd86\nvlddmkm.sys
DispatchDeviceControl: 0xFFFFF80822D074D0
Devices: 2
├── \Device\NvAdminDevice (open DACL, 1 symlinks)
│   └── \\.\Global\NvAdminDevice
└── \Device\UVMLiteController0x1 (open DACL, 1 symlinks)
    └── \\.\Global\UVMLiteController

There is also a CSV output available using DIRT::Main::ExportCSV():


Jackson Thuraisamy (2018). The code is heavily derived from the WinObjEx64 project by @hFireF0X.