Skip to content
This repository

Abort requests that are taking too long

branch: master
README.markdown

Rack::Timeout

Abort requests that are taking too long; a subclass of Rack::Timeout::Error is raised.

A generous timeout of 15s is the default. It's recommended to set the timeout as low as realistically viable for your application.

Usage

The following covers currently supported versions of Rails, Rack, Ruby, and Bundler. See the Compatibility section at the end for legacy versions.

Rails apps

# Gemfile
gem "rack-timeout"

That's all that's required if you want to use the default timeout of 15s. To use a custom timeout, create an initializer file:

# config/initializers/timeout.rb
Rack::Timeout.timeout = 10  # seconds

Sinatra and other Rack apps

# config.ru
require "rack-timeout"
use Rack::Timeout           # Call as early as possible so rack-timeout runs before other middleware.
Rack::Timeout.timeout = 10  # This line is optional. If omitted, timeout defaults to 15 seconds.

Heroku Niceties

  • Normally, Rack::Timeout always times out a request using the Rack::Timeout.timeout setting. Heroku makes available the X-Request-Start HTTP header, which is a timestamp indicating the time the request first enters the routing infrastructure.

    If the X-Request-Start HTTP header is present, Rack::Timeout will take the age of the request into consideration when determining the timeout to use. If a request is older than 30 seconds, it's dropped immediately. Otherwise, the timeout is the number of seconds left for the request to be 30 seconds old, or the value of Rack::Timeout.timeout, whichever is shorter.

    So, if a request has been sitting in the queue for 25s, and Rack::Timeout.timeout is set to 10s, the timeout used will be 5s, because 30 − 25 = 5, and 5 < 10.

    The reasoning for this behavior is that the Heroku router drops requests if no data is transferred within 30s, so it makes no sense for the application to process a request it'll never be able to respond to. (This is actually a bit more involved.)

    The 30s maximum age is set in Rack::Timeout::MAX_REQUEST_AGE, and should generally not be altered.

    An exception to this is made for requests that have a non-empty body, e.g. POST, PUT, and PATCH requests. X-Request-Start is set when the Heroku router begins receiving the request, but rack will generally only see the request after it's been fully received by the application server (i.e. thin, unicorn, etc). For short requests such as GET requests, this is irrelevant. But with a slow client (say, a mobile app performing a file upload) the request can take a long time to be fully received. A request that took longer than 30s to transmit would be dropped immediately by Rack::Timeout because it'd be considered too old. The Heroku router, however, would not have dropped this request because it would have been transmitting data all along.

    For requests with a body, Rack::Timeout provides additional overtime before expiring them. The default overtime is 60s, on top of the 30s MAX_REQUEST_AGE. This is user-configurable with the Rack::Timeout.overtime setting:

    Rack::Timeout.overtime = 10 # seconds over MAX_REQUEST_AGE
    
  • With every line logged, Rack::Timeout includes a request ID. It'll first look for an ID in the Heroku-Request-ID header; if not present, it'll then check X-Request-ID; and lastly, it'll generate its own.

    Heroku-Request-ID is not present by default on Heroku apps, but can be enabled through the http-request-id labs feature. It's recommended to enable http-request-id as it allows one to correlate Rack::Timeout events with the Heroku router's events. There are no downsides to enabling http-request-id.

Both these features are strictly reliant on the presence of the HTTP headers and make no effort to determine if the app is actually running on Heroku.

Request Lifetime

Throughout a request's lifetime, Rack::Timeout keeps details about the request in env[Rack::Timeout::ENV_INFO_KEY], or, more explicitly, env["rack-timeout.info"].

The value of that entry is an instance of Rack::Timeout::RequestDetails, which is a Struct containing the following fields:

  • id: a unique ID per request. Either Heroku-Request-ID, X-Request-ID, or a random ID generated internally.

  • age: time in seconds since X-Request-Start when the request is first seen by Rack::Timeout. Only set if X-Request-Start is present.

  • timeout: timeout to be used, in seconds. Generally Rack::Timeout.timeout, unless X-Request-Start is present. See discussion above, under the Heroku Niceties section.

  • duration: set after a request completes (or times out). The time in seconds it took. This is also updated while a request is still active, around every second, with the time it's taken so far.

  • state: the possible states are:

    • expired: the request is considered too old and is skipped entirely. This happens when X-Request-Start is present and older than 30s. When this happens, a Rack::Timeout::RequestExpiryError exception is raised. See earlier discussion about the Rack::Timeout.overtime setting, too.

    • ready: this is the initial state a request is in, before it's passed down the middleware chain. While it's being processed, it'll move on to active, and then on to timed_out and/or completed.

    • active: the request is being actively processed in the application thread. This is signaled repeatedly every ~1s until the request completes or times out.

    • timed_out: the request had run for longer than the determined timeout and was aborted. A Rack::Timeout::RequestTimeoutError error is raised in the application when this occurs. If this error gets caught and handled and not re-raised in the app or framework (which will generally happen with Rails and Sinatra), this state will not be final, completed will be set after the framework is done with it.

    • completed: the request completed in time and Rack::Timeout is done with it. This does not mean the request completed successfully. Rack::Timeout does not concern itself with that. As mentioned just above, a timed out request may still end up with a completed state.

Errors

Rack::Timeout can raise two types of exceptions. Both descend from Rack::Timeout::Error, which itself descends from RuntimeError. They are:

  • Rack::Timeout::RequestTimeoutError: this is raised when a request has run for longer than the specified timeout. This is raised by the rack-timeout timer thread in the application thread, at the point in the stack the app happens to be in when the timeout is triggered. This exception can generally be caught within the application, but in doing so you're working past the timeout. This is ok for quick cleanups but shouldn't be abused as Rack::Timeout will not kick in twice for the same request.

  • Rack::Timeout::RequestExpiryError: this is raised when a request is skipped for being too old (see the X-Request-Start bit under the Heroku Niceties section). This cannot generally be rescued from inside a Rails controller action as it happens before the request has a chance to reach Rails.

    This shouldn't be any different for other frameworks, unless you have something above Rack::Timeout in the middleware stack, which you generally shouldn't.

You shouldn't rescue from these errors for reporting purposes. Instead, you can subscribe for state change notifications with observers.

If you're trying to test that a Rack::Timeout::RequestTimeoutError is raised in an action in your Rails application, you must do so in integration tests. Please note that Rack::Timeout will not kick in for functional tests as they bypass the rack middleware stack.

More details about testing middleware with Rails here.

Observers

Observers are objects or blocks that are notified about state changes during a request lifetime.

You can register an observer easily with a block:

Rack::Timeout.register_state_change_observer(:a_unique_name) { |env| do_things env }

or by passing an object that responds to rack_timeout_request_did_change_state_in(env):

class MyObserver
  def rack_timeout_request_did_change_state_in(env)
    # ... do stuff ...
  end
end

Rack::Timeout.register_state_change_observer(:another_name, MyObserver.new)

This is how logging is implemented, too. See Rack::Timeout::StateChangeLogger.

You can remove an observer with unregister_state_change_observer:

Rack::Timeout.unregister_state_change_observer(:a_unique_name)

Custom observers might be used to store statistics on request length, timeouts, etc., and potentially do performance tuning on the fly.

Logging

Rack::Timeout logs a line every time there's a change in state in a request's lifetime.

Changes into timed_out and expired are logged at the ERROR level, most other things are logged as INFO.

Exceptionally, active state is logged as DEBUG, every ~1s while the request is still active.

The default log level for Rack::Timeout is INFO, but can be affected via:

  • Unix environment variables. First RACK_TIMEOUT_LOG_LEVEL is checked, then LOG_LEVEL. Their value must be name of a predefined constant in ruby's Logger class, e.g. INFO or DEBUG. Case is not significant.

  • By setting Rack::Timeout.logger.level directly, e.g.:

    Rack::Timeout.logger.level = ::Logger::DEBUG
    

Logging is enabled by default if Rack::Timeout is loaded via the rack-timeout file (recommended), but can be removed by unregistering its observer:

Rack::Timeout.unregister_state_change_observer(:logger)

Each log line is a set of key=value pairs, containing the entries from the env["rack-timeout.info"] struct that are not nil. See the Request Lifetime section above for a description of each field. Note that while the values for age, timeout, and duration are stored internally as seconds, they are logged as milliseconds for readability.

A sample log excerpt might look like:

source=rack-timeout id=13793c age=369ms timeout=10000ms state=ready at=info
source=rack-timeout id=13793c age=369ms timeout=10000ms duration=15ms state=completed at=info
source=rack-timeout id=ea7bd3 age=371ms timeout=10000ms state=timed_out at=error

(IDs shortened for readability.)

Compatibility

This version of Rack::Timeout is compatible with Ruby 1.9.1 and up, and, for Rails apps, Rails 3.x and up.

For applications running Ruby 1.8.x and/or Rails 2.x, use version 0.0.4.


Copyright © 2010-2013 Caio Chassot, released under the MIT license
http://github.com/kch/rack-timeout

Something went wrong with that request. Please try again.