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A Perl6 module that conjugates English verbs


 use Lingua::EN::Conjugate;

 my $verb = => 'code', forms => <BeIng HaveEn>);
 for < I you he she it we you they > -> $s {
   for < p sp > -> $t {
     $verb.tense = $t;
     say $verb.conjugate( subject => $s );
 my @sentence = conjugate( bare => 'be', subject => 'it', interrogative => True );
 say @sentence ~ ' a function ?';

Object, Methods and details

Object englishverb must be created first with one only conmpulsory parameter

  • bare : String required, Bare form of the verb without the "to"

The object also accepts named parameters for method "conjugate at creation.

Method conjugate returns Array: accepts named parameters :

  • subject : String any of I , he , she , it , we , you , they , default self init
  • alias : Replace the subject in the ouput array , default self init
  • mod : String, any of will , shall , may , can , default self init
  • tense : String, any of p,sp ; "p" = Present, "sp" = Past , default self init
  • forms : Array of String, many of = BeIng BeEn HaveEn; BeIng=continuous, BeEn=Passive, HaveEn=Perfect , default self init
  • negation : Bool default False;
  • shortneg : Bool default False, use the short negation ( ex: [will not] => [won't] );
  • interrogative : Bool default False, Use interrogative form

Method is-irreg returns Bool, accepts string default self bare

  • Tells if passed verb is irregular

Function usage

  • Subroutine "conjugate" accepts named parameter "bare" and all named parameters of the object method
  • Subroutine "is-irreg" behaves the as object method

Purpose And Notes

Warning, this is not a direct port of the Perl5 "Lingua-EN-Conjugate" module !

Instead of using fixed tense blocks to conjugate an English verb, this module uses notions of "forms" which can be combined. IE: The "Past Perfect Continuous/Progressive" of a verb is in this case, The "Perfect" and "Continuous" forms conbined and evaluated with the "Past Tense"

The notions used by the module:


The sentence's actor, any of I he she it we you they


The grammatical time of the action. "Time" is a physical notion, "Tense" a grammatical one. English has only 2 "Tense": Past and Present; The "Future" tense is a modality. Two Tenses are aviable: p = Present, sp = Past


Allows speakers to evaluate a proposition relative to a set of other propositions (Necessity or Possibility). The "future" (will) stands for a Possibility. Modality is any of will shall may can.


Conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).


Way in which a verb is structured in relation to time, BE+ING = Continuity, non-finite. HAVE+EN: Past event linked to the present, BE+EN: Passive verbal form Modality can be many of HaveEn BeIng BeEn

Speculative Todo List

  • Short forms for: "I am" "will" "would" etc ...
  • "be able to"
  • "used to"
  • "ought to"
  • "Explain" method for educational purpose
  • Multi method with pure grammatical arguments ex: conjugate( tense => "Past Perfect Continuous" )


Copyright © 2015 Nuguet Romuald under the Artistic License 2.0.


A perl6 module that conjugates English verbs






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