Kotlin test framework based on the excellent Scalatest
Kotlin
Latest commit 0625646 Jan 15, 2017 @helmbold helmbold committed on GitHub Update README.md

README.md

KotlinTest

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KotlinTest is a flexible and comprehensive testing tool for the Kotlin ecosystem based on and heavily inspired by the superb Scalatest. KotlinTest provides several ways to lay out your test so that your team can pick the style they are most happy with. It also includes many matchers which allow you to write many different types of assertions easily and in a human readable way. Finally, there's helpers for things like collection testing, and future testing.

For latest updates see Changelog

Community

How to use

KotlinTest is published to Maven Central, so to use, simply add the dependency in test scope to your build file. You can get the latest version from the little badge at the top of the readme.

Gradle:

testCompile 'io.kotlintest:kotlintest:xxx'

Maven:

<dependency>
    <groupId>io.kotlintest</groupId>
    <artifactId>kotlintest</artifactId>
    <version>xxx</version>
    <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>

Testing Styles

You can choose a testing style by extending StringSpec, WordSpec, FunSpec, ShouldSpec, FlatSpec, FeatureSpec, BehaviorSpec or FreeSpec in your test class, and writing your tests inside an init {} block. In ScalaTest, the body of the class is the constructor, so you write tests directly in the class body. The KotlinTest equivalent is the init block.

class MyTests : StringSpec() {
  init {
    // tests here
  }
}

String Spec

StringSpec reduces the syntax to the absolute minimum. Just write a string followed by a lambda expression with your test code. If in doubt, use this style.

class StringSpecExample : StringSpec() {
  init {
    "strings.length should return size of string" {
      "hello".length shouldBe 5
    }
  }
}

Flat Spec

FlatSpec offers the keywords should and allows that to be used inline, as such:

class MyTests : FlatSpec() {
  init {
    "String.length" should "return the length of the string" {
      "sammy".length shouldBe 5
      "".length shouldBe 0
    }
  }
}

Fun Spec

FunSpec allows you to create tests similar to the junit style. You invoke a method called test, with a string parameter to describe the test, and then the test itself:

class MyTests : FunSpec() {
  init {
    test("String.length should return the length of the string") {
      "sammy".length shouldBe 5
      "".length shouldBe 0
    }
  }
}

Should Spec

ShouldSpec is similar to fun spec, but uses the keyword should instead of test. Eg:

class MyTests : ShouldSpec() {
  init {
    should("return the length of the string") {
      "sammy".length shouldBe 5
      "".length shouldBe 0
    }
  }
}

This can be nested in context strings too, eg

class MyTests : ShouldSpec() {
  init {
    "String.length" {
      should("return the length of the string") {
        "sammy".length shouldBe 5
        "".length shouldBe 0
      }
    }
  }
}

Word Spec

WordSpec uses the keyword should and uses that to nest test blocks after a context string, eg:

class MyTests : WordSpec() {
  init {
    "String.length" should {
      "return the length of the string" {
        "sammy".length shouldBe 5
        "".length shouldBe 0
      }
    }
  }
}

Feature Spec

FeatureSpec allows you to use feature and scenario, as such:

class MyTests : FeatureSpec() {
  init {
    feature("the thingy bob") {
      scenario("should explode when I touch it") {
        // test here
      }
      scenario("and should do this when I wibble it") {
        // test heree
      }
    }
  }
}

Behavior Spec

BehaviorSpec allows you to use given, when, then, as such:

class MyTests : BehaviorSpec() {
  init {
    given("a broomstick") {
      `when`("I sit on it") {
        then("I should be able to fly") {
          // test code
        }
      }
      `when`("I throw it away") {
        then("it should come back") {
          // test code
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

Because when is a keyword in Kotlin, we must enclose with backticks. Alternatively, there are title case versions available if you don't like the use of backticks, eg, Given, When, Then.

Free Spec

FreeSpec allows you to nest arbitary levels of depth using the keyword - (minus), as such:

class MyTests : FreeSpec() {
  init {
    "String.length" - {
      "should return the length of the string" {
        "sammy".length shouldBe 5
        "".length shouldBe 0
      }
    }
  }
}

Property-based Testing

Property Testing

To automatically test your code with many combinations of values, you can allow KotlinTest to do the boilerplate by using property testing with generators. You invoke forAll or forNone and pass in a function, where the function parameters are populated automatically with many different values. The function must specify explcitly the parameter types as KotlinTest will use those to determine what types of values to pass in.

For example, here is a property test that checks that for any two Strings, the length of a + b is the same as the length of a plus the length of b. In this example KotlinTest would execute the test 100 tests for random String combinations.

class PropertyExample: StringSpec() {

  "String size" {
    forAll({ a: String, b: String ->
      (a + b).length == a.length + b.length
    })
  }

}

There are generators for all the common types - String, Ints, Sets, etc. If you need to generate custom types then you can simply specify the generator manually (and write your own). For example here is the same test again but with the generators specified.

class PropertyExample: StringSpec() {

  "String size" {
    forAll(Gen.string(), Gen.string(), { a: String, b: String ->
      (a + b).length == a.length + b.length
    })
  }

}

To write your own generator for a type T, you just implement the interface Gen<T>. For example you could write a Gen that supports a custom class called Person:

data class Person(val name: String, val age: Int)
class PersonGenerator : Gen<Person> {
  override fun generate(): Person = Person(Gen.string().generate(), Gen.int().generate())
}

Table-driven Testing

To test your code with different parameter combinations, you can use tables as input for your test cases.

Your test class should extend from the interface TableTesting. Create a table with the table function and pass a header and one or more row objects. You create the headers with the headers function, and a row with the row function. A row can have up to 22 entries. Headers and and rows must all have the same number of entries.

To use the table, you invoke forAll(table) inside a test plan and pass a closure with the actual test code. The entries of the rows are passed as parameters to the closure.

Table testing can be used with any spec. Here is an example using StringSpec.

class StringSpecExample : StringSpec() {
  init {
    "should add" {
       val myTable = table(
         headers("a", "b", "result"),
         row(1, 2, 3),
         row(1, 1, 2)
       )
       forAll(myTable) { a, b, result ->
         a + b shouldBe result
       }
    }
  }
}

Matchers

KotlinTest has many built in matchers, along a similar line to the popular hamcrest project. The simplest assertion is that a value should be equal to something, eg: x shouldBe y or x shouldEqual y. This will also work for null values, eg x shouldBe null or y shouldEqual null.

String Matchers

  • To assert that a string starts with a given prefix use str should startWith(y).
  • To assert that a string ends with a given suffix use str should endWith(y).
  • To assert that a string contains a given substring use str should have substring y.
  • To assert that a string matches a given regular expression, use str should match("regex").
  • To assert that a string has a given length, use str should haveLength(10)

Long / Int Matchers

  • To assert that a value is greater than a given value use x should be gt y. This is the same as doing (x > y) shouldBe true. Choose whatever style you prefer. The same goes for the other operators lt, gte, lte.

Double Matchers

  • To assert that a double is exactly equal to another double use d shouldBe exactly(e)
  • To assert that a double is equal within some tolerance range, use d shouldBe (e plusOrMinus y)

Collection Matchers

  • To assert that a collection has a given size use col should haveSize(4). This is the same as (col.size == 4) shouldBe true but more readable.
  • To assert that a collection contains a given element use col should contain(x).
  • To assert that a collection has a given collection of elements in any order, you can use col should containInAnyOrder(xs)

Map Matchers

  • To assert that a map contains a given key use map should haveKey(k).
  • To assert that a map contains a given value use map should haveValue(v).
  • To assert that a map contains a given mappings use col should contain(k,v).

References

  • To assert that two instances are the same reference, you can use x should beTheSameInstanceAs(y)

Exceptions

To assert that a given block of code throws an exception, one can use the shouldThrow function. Eg,

shouldThrow<IllegalAccessException> {
  // code in here that you expect to throw an IllegalAccessException
}

You can also check the caught exception:

val exception = shouldThrow<IllegalAccessException> {
  // code in here that you expect to throw an IllegalAccessException
}
exception.message should start with "Something went wrong"

Before and After Each (since 1.1.0)

If you need to run a method before each test and/or after each test (perhaps to reset some values to defaults etc), then simply override the beforeEach and afterEach methods in your test class, eg:

override fun beforeEach() {
  println("Test starting")
}
override fun afterEach() {
  println("Test completed")
}

Before and After All

If you need to run a setup/tear down function before and after all the tests have run, then simply override the beforeAll and afterAll methods in your test class, eg:

override fun beforeAll() {
  println("Setting up my tests")
}
override fun afterAll() {
  println("Cleaning up after my tests")
}

One Instance Per Test (since 1.1.0)

By default a single instance of the test class is created for all the test it contains. However, if you wish to have a fresh instance per test (sometimes its easier to have setup code in the init block instead of resetting after each test) then simply override the oneInstancePerTest value and set it to true, eg:

class MyTests : ShouldSpec() {
  override val oneInstancePerTest = true
  init {
    // tests here
  }
}

Testing Config (since 1.2.0)

Each test can be configured with various parameters. After the test block, invoke the config method passing in the parameters you wish to set. The available parameters are:

  • invocations - the number of times to run this test. Useful if you have a non-deterministic test and you want to run that particular test a set number of times. Defaults to 1.
  • threads - Allows the invocation of this test to be parallelized by setting the number of threads to use in a thread pool executor for this test. If invocations is 1 (the default) then this parameter will have no effect. Similarly, if you set invocations to a value less than or equal to the number threads, then each invocation will have its own thread.
  • ignored - If set to true then this test is ignored. Can be useful if a test needs to be temporarily disabled.
  • timeout - sets a timeout for this test. If the test has not finished in that time then the test fails. Useful for code that is non-deterministic and might not finish. Timeout is of type Duration which can be instantiated like 2.seconds, 3.minutes and so on.
  • tag / tags - a list of String tags that can be set on a test. Then by invoking the test runner with a system property of testTags, you can control which tests are run. For example, tests that require a linux based O/S might be tagged with "linux" then gradle could be invoked with gradle test -DtestTags=linux. Another example might be tagging database tags that you only want to run on a server that has a database installed. Any test that has no tags is always run.

Examples of setting config:

class MyTests : ShouldSpec() {
  init {
    should("return the length of the string") {
      "sammy".length shouldBe 5
      "".length shouldBe 0
    }.config(invocations=10, threads=2)
  }
}
class MyTests : WordSpec() {
  init {
    "String.length" should {
      "return the length of the string" {
        "sammy".length shouldBe 5
        "".length shouldBe 0
      }.config(timeout = 2.seconds)
    }
  }
}
class FunSpecTest : FunSpec() {
  init {
    test("FunSpec should support config syntax") {
    }.config(tags = listOf("database", "linux"))
  }
}

Closing resource automatically (since 1.3.0)

You can let KotlinTest close resources automatically after all tests have been run:

class StringSpecExample : StringSpec() {

  val reader = autoClose(StringReader("xyz"))

  init {
    "your test case" {
      // use resource reader here
    }
  }
}

Resources that should be closed this way must implement java.io.Closeable. Closing is performed in
reversed order of declaration after afterAll() was executed.

Inspectors

Inspectors allow us to test elements in a collection. For example, if we had a collection from a method and we wanted to test that every element in the collection passed some assertions, we can do:

val xs = // some collection
forAll(xs) { x ->
  x should have substring "qwerty"
  x should start with "q"
}

Similarly, if we wanted to asset that NO elements in a collection passed some assertions, we can do:

val xs = // some collection
forNone(xs) { x ->
  x should have substring "qwerty"
  x should start with "q"
}

The full list of inspectors are:

  • forAll which asserts every element passes the assertions
  • forNone which asserts no element passes
  • forOne which asserts only a single element passed
  • forAtMostOne which asserts that either 0 or 1 elements pass
  • forAtLeastOne which asserts that 1 or more elements passed
  • forAtLeast(k) which is a generalization that k or more elements passed
  • forAtMost(k) which is a generalization that k or fewer elements passed
  • forAny which is an alias for forAtLeastOne
  • forSome which asserts that between 1 and n-1 elements passed. Ie, if NONE pass or ALL pass then we consider that a failure.
  • forExactly(k) which is a generalization that exactly k elements passed. This is the basis for the implementation of the other methods

Eventually

When testing future based code, it's handy to be able to say "I expect these assertions to pass in a certain time". Sometimes you can do a Thread.sleep but this is bad as you have to set a timeout that's high enough so that it won't expire prematurely. Plus it means that your test will sit around even if the code completes quickly. Another common method is to use countdown latches. KotlinTest provides the Eventually mixin, which gives you the eventually method which will repeatedly test the code until it either passes, or the timeout is reached. This is perfect for nondeterministic code. For example:

class MyTests : ShouldSpec(), Eventually {
  init {
    should("do something") {
      eventually(5.seconds) {
        // code here that should complete in 5 seconds but takes an indetermistic amount of time.
      }
    }
  }
}