Material for workshop to be held on ROOTS and FreeTest 2012
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README.md
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README.md

This repo contains all the material you need to participate in the Grinder Workshop, which will be held at Roots 2012 and Free-Test 2012.

In order to be able to get started quickly, you should do the preparations described in the next section.

You can get a copy of the slides here.

For windows-users: we'll refer to bash-scripts throughout this workshop (script.sh), but you'll find corresponding BAT-scripts for windows (script.bat) that you can use (if you are not using Cygwin).


Preparation before the workshop

TL;DR: run this command git clone git://github.com/kvalle/grinder-workshop.git; cd grinder-workshop; ./startAgent.sh example/scenario.properties

A bit more detailed: To save us all some time, it would be nice if everyone could do some preparation before the workshop begins. That let's us begin working on the tasks immediately, and gives us much more time to learn and help each other.

What you need to do is:

  • Make sure you have git installed

  • Make sure you have Java installed

  • Check out this repository

    git clone git://github.com/kvalle/grinder-workshop.git

When you are finished with these simple steps, you can check that everything works by running the sample test:

cd grinder-workshop
./startAgent.sh example/scenario.properties

When you run this example, Grinder will output some information. First there will be some information about what happens during the start-up of Grinder, and then some lines of 'hello world' while running the test script. This should look something like the following:

> worker thread 2: hello world!
> worker thread 0: hello world!
> worker thread 1: hello world!
> worker thread 3: hello world!
...

When the test has finished running, you can also check that everything is okay by inspection the results that have been stored in the newly created directory grinder-workshop/log. It should be two files with names like out_xyz-0.log and data_xyz-0.log where xyz is the name of your computer. The out-file contains a summary of the test results, and the datafile contains all the details in a comma-separated format. If everything ran smoothly there should not be any files with names like error_xyz-0.log!

If you for some reason can't install git it is also possible to download the code as zip file.

Everything below here will be covered at the workshop, but feel free to "peak" beforehand :)


Resources

We have tried to explain what to do in the tasks as best as we can, but there will always be some questions. In case we aren't immediately available to respond to these, and your pal sitting next to you can't help you either, we have summarized the most important places to find information below.

For information about Grinder, it's website is a good place to start. For inspiration and help regarding the test scripts, the script-gallery is a good place to start. It contains a number of good examples. There is also a script API with explanations of how the various classes and methods work. For information about the different configuration properties Grinder understands, see the table of properties in the documentation.

The first place to check if you have any questions about the language: Pythons official documentation. It contains a smorgasbord of good information. A good way to navigate this is through the search site. For any question regarding the interaction between Python and Java, the Jython home page is the place to start.


Tasks

The tasks are described below. While you could perfectly well solve them by yourself, we recommend that you work in pairs to get the most out of the workshop. This way, it will also be easier for us to help everybody.

The tasks start easy, by first only measuring the request time for a single URL. Through increasing difficulty, the tasks will then take us through testing multiple URLs, validating the responses, testing REST APIs, and utilizing Grinder's TCPProxy module to automatically generate test scripts.

Solutions to all tasks can be found in the solutions/ folder. Look at these if you wish, but only as a last resort if you are completely stuck and we are unable to help you!

Task 1 - Testing GET Response Time

In this first task, we will be writing a test to GET a single URL and measure the response time.

We have prepared some of the code, to help you get started. First, the test configuration is allready made for you in tests/1.properties. This file points to the test script file, in tests/scripts/test1.py. Here we have only provided the shell, which you must complete to make the test do anything useful.

To run the test, use the startAgent script as follows.

./startAgent.sh tasks/1.properties

(If you are doing this on Windows, substitute .bat for .sh and use \ instead of /.)

How-to

In the test script, there are three things you need to do:

  1. Create a Test with identification number (could be anything) and a description.
  2. Wrap an instance of HTTPRequest with the test you just created.
  3. Do a GET request every time the test runs (i.e. from the __call__-method). You can GET any page you wish, just please be sure not to accidentally DOS-attack anybody. A rather harmless alternative is to get http://grinder.espenhh.com/rocksolid.php

For how to do the actual GET request, have a look around the script API.

Once done, check out your results stored in the grinder-workshop/log folder.

Task 2 - Testing multiple URLs

Just like in task 1, we have also here prepared the configuration in tests/2.properties, and a shell for you to get started scripting in tests/scripts/task2.py.

The file tests/scripts/urls.txt contains a number of URLs to a small dummy site. Your task is to write a script that reads urls.text, and then does a GET-request against each URL (which is separated by line breaks). Make sure you use different Test objects for each URL, to make Grinder record their response times individually.

How-to

In short, your script should:

  1. Read the URLs from file.
  2. Create a Test for each URL. (Remember to wrap a HTTPRequest, like in the task 1.)
  3. GET all the URLs every time the test script is run.

Here are a few Python methods/concepts that could prove useful:

open: Read a file from disc.
lists: Use lists for holding your tests, URLs, etc.
enumerate: Provides a way to iterate over a list with indices. Useful for creating test IDs.
strip: Remove leading and trailing whitespace from strings.

Extras

If you complete the task quickly, try one or more of the following:

  • Add descriptions to each URL in the urls.txt file, and use these when creating the Test objects.
  • Instead of wrapping HTTPRequest with the tests like we did in task 1, try creating functions to do all the work (e.g. create a HTTPRequest and call GET with the correct URL), and then wrap these with your tests. This way, you won't need to keep track of URLs in addition to the tests in the __call__ method.

Task 3 - Validating the responses

In task 2, you created a test script for timing the responses while GETing a series of URLs. But just sending a request and waiting for some response does not ensure that you get back is what you expected or wanted. In this task, we will enhance the script to inspect the responses, and validate them against a set of requirements. Should the response not fulfill the requirements, we will fail that particular test.

Here we have not prepared any code for you to start from. Instead, you'll be able to use the results from task 2 as a basis, and expand on that. In case you did not quite finish the previous task, but still would like to move ahead, make use of the provided solutions.

The set of requirements are largely up to you. You'll have the entire HTTP response to play with, so the possibilities are quite open. You decide your own response checks, but here are a few suggestions:

You could test that the...

  • HTTP status code is 200 (for example)
  • response body is larger than some minimum size (in lines, or in bytes)
  • response body contains (or does not contains) some string of text
  • HTTP header contains some field

By the way, the URLs in the urls.txt file is meant only as a starting point. Feel free to add or remove URLs as you like. Just remember: no DOS attacks! ;)

How-to

To perform the checks, capture the HTTPResponse object returned from the GET method. Have a look at the API to find out which methods you have available. Use these to create your response checks.

To control whether Grinder should record the execution of a test as a success or failure, use grinder.statistics. You will need the following import, which should be familiar by now:

from net.grinder.script.Grinder import grinder

You need to know about and use the following:

  • grinder.statistics.setDelayReports(True): Turns off immediate result reporting, which is enabled by default. Use this in the beginning of your script, e.g. in the __init__ method, in order to be able to manually control the reporting.
  • grinder.statistics.getForLastTest().setSuccess(False): This will mark the last test run as a failure. By default the results of each test is automatically set to success==True, so you don't need to do anything unless you need to register the test as a failure.
  • grinder.statistics.report(): This method reports the result of the test. Call it after your checks have determined success or failure.

To verify that your checks are working, fail some tests and have a look at the test results.

Extras

If you finish quickly and have some extra time on your hands, consider the following:

In most cases, you will have different requirements when testing different URLs. Some pages should perhaps have different status codes, contain different text, or return different headers. Implement this by adding information about which validation checks to perform alongside the URLs in the input file.

Task 4 - Testing of a typical JSON-API (REST API)

Up until now, we have tested some pretty static pages. You (might have) parsed the response to do some basic content-check (e.g. to check whether some specific text are present, or if it's not). Now, it's time to do some more fancy parsing.

We'll be testing against an API which returns JSON-formatted data. This JSON-object will contain links to more stuff you can test against. These links will theoretically change for each request, this means that we'll have to parse the JSON to fetch the links - we can't hard-code all the links in the script beforehand. This task will prepare you for testing real API's out there, either if they have real links or if they just have ID's you have to parse out and include in a predefined URL-template.

The easiest way to start is to do a manual call against the webpage: http://grinder.espenhh.com/json.php. We have prepared the configuration in tests/4.properties, and a shell for you to get started scripting in tests/scripts/task4.py. This shell contains the code to GET the JSON, and print it out. Therefore, to get startet just run this test:

./startAgent.sh tests/4.properties

Take a look at the JSON, and figure out what you want to test. It could be smart to run the JSON through a "beautifier" to be better able to see the structure.

How-to

Then, start writing the test. We'll give you complete freedom here, but to get you started you can do the following:

  1. Modify the test to parse the JSON. You have the org.json-API availiable.
  2. To start simple, print out the fetched-field on the JSON
  3. Now loop through all the tweets, and print out the tweets
  4. Find the URL for each tweets profile picture, and do a GET against this URL

If you want to continue doing some JSON testing, you can try the real twitter API. And PLEASE: don't load-test this, just run with a single thread and a single run each time! Load-testing other people's servers without permission is BAD BEHAVIOUR ;)

Twitter: http://search.twitter.com/search.json?q=grinder (change "grinder" to whatever you want)

Task 5 - Using Grinder's TCPProxy to automatically generate tests

Sometimes, you don't want to write all your tests by hand, you just want to simulate a user clicking through some pages in a browser. Grinder has support for this; by using the Grinder TCPProxy you can record a web-browsing-session and replay it using Grinder afterwards. This technique will also generate a script which you can later modify (this is something you almost certainly would want to do!).

How-to

Do the following tasks to record a simple web page:

  1. Start the proxy server by running the script ./startProxy.sh. This will start a simple console that lets you input comments, and stop the proxy cleanly
  2. Configure your browser to send traffic through the proxy. This most likely means localhost, port 8001 – the output from the first step will tell you if this is correct (read more about configuring the browser here)
  3. Browse to a simple web page (we recommend starting with http://grinder.espenhh.com/simple/ ). If you browse to a complex page, the generated script will be crazy long!
  4. After the page has loaded in the browser, click "stop" in the simple console window
  5. Inspect the generated script: it's located at proxy/proxygeneratedscript.sh
  6. Try running the script: ./startAgent.sh proxy/proxygeneratedscript.sh
  7. Check the log, try modifying the script, experiment. You can start by removing all the sleep statements in the script. Then try it on a more complicated page. Have fun =)

That's all, folks :)