Skip to content


Folders and files

Last commit message
Last commit date

Latest commit



52 Commits

Repository files navigation


An ontology for Linked Ancient World Data

The goal of LAWD is to fill in the cracks between the data used and published by projects with a focus on the ancient world and the standard Linked Data vocablary schemes, like Dublin Core, the Open Annotation Collaboration, and CIDOC-CRM. LAWD will accomplish this by defining just enough new classes and properties to permit the semantic modeling of things like manuscript collation, relating provenance to geography, and prosopography.


dc: (Dublin Core Elements)

dct: (Dublin Core Terms)

crm: (CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model)

geo: (

prov: (PROV-O, the Provenance Ontology)

Modeling written works:



The idea of a work, which may have any number of written expressions (which may themselves have derivatives). Analogous to a Work in FRBR.

WrittenWork = crm:E33_Linguistic_Object

subclasses: AssembledWork, Edition, Translation, Hand

A written work (whether extant or not) that is a version of a ConceptualWork. Subclasses are AssembledWork, Edition, Translation, and Hand. A WrittenWork may be part of another WrittenWork (e.g. a manuscript written in multiple hands), it may embody one or more ConceptualWorks (e.g. a codex comprised of several works), and it may have one or more WrittenWorks as a source (e.g. an edition or translation that makes use of several versions).


subclasses: Siglum

A Citation models a bibliographic reference in long or short form that may be used to represent the thing it references (like an entry in a bibliography, for example). When the cited work is a Non Information Resource, a Citation may be used as the Information Resource analog for the cited work. A Siglum is a specialized citation used in the context of critical apparatus that uses a symbol to refer to a source, such as a manuscript.

Object Properties


Domain: WrittenWork Range: ConceptualWork


used to indicate the source of a WrittenWork (which will be one or more WrittenWorks)


Domain: Citation, Range: WrittenWork These relate Citations to WrittenWorks

Modeling Persons and Names


Agent = prov:Agent

subclasses: Person, Group, Deity

An Agent is an abstract entity which has agency or is considered capable of acting in some way. LAWD Agents are equivalent to PROV-O Agents.

Person = crm:E21_Person

Any person, whether real or fictional.


Any group, association, family, etc. which may be referred to as a single entity.


Any god, divinity or other sacred being from myth or cult


subclasses: PersonalName, PlaceName

An abstract name, which has one or more primary forms and any number of variant forms.


A name belonging to a lawd:Person


A name belonging to a lawd:Place

Object Properties


Range: Name Indicates that (e.g.) a Person or Place has a lawd:Name that is the range of the property.

Data Properties


Indicates the primary form of a Name


Indicates a variant form of a Name

Modeling Evidence




subclasses: EvidentiaryItem, TextReuse

An Observation is a scholarly assertion. There are two subclasses, dealing with the identification of evidence and the observation of textual reuse (e.g. quotation, summary, or allusion).


subclasses: Attestation

A superclass for types of evidence.


An Attestation models a piece of evidence for something in a text (e.g. the mention of a person in a document). Typically it is the conjunction of a Citation and an entity like a name or person.


TextReuse models an instance where an author quotes, summarizes, alludes to, or otherwise re-uses language in a text that comes from another text.

An rdf:value property on an Attestation or TextReuse may be used to provide the text of, e.g., the attestation or reuse.

Object Properties


Indicates a Citation that refers to the source for an Attestation


Indicates an Attestation providing evidence for a Name, Person, etc.


Links from a TextReuse instance to a Citation of the work from which the reused text came.


Links from a TextReuse instance to a Citation of the work in which the reused text appears.

Modeling the relationship of artifacts to places


Place = crm:E27_Site = geo:Feature

Object Properties


Range: Place The place where an artifact originated.


Range: Place The place where an artifact was found.


Range: Place Generic location relation. Can be used when the nature of the connection to a place is unclear.

Modeling the relationship of artifacts to existing typologies

Object Properties

= crm:P2_has_type

Modeling collation and critical apparatus:



subclasses: EditorialComment, Reference

Models an alternate reading in a manuscript source, an editor's comment on a reading, or the observation that a reading has a parallel elsewhere.