Clone this wiki locally
- Core Concepts
- Formalism Extensions
- A Simple Example
Behavior Tree API
- Task Class Hierarchy
- The Task Superclass
- Using Data for Inter-Task Communication
- Task Attributes and Constraints
- Text Format
- Behavior Tree Libraries
- Including Subtrees
For the last few years, behavior trees (BT) are the major formalism used in game industry to build complex AI behaviors. This success comes from the simplicity to understand, use and develop BT by non programmers.
Behavior trees have been proposed as an improvement over Hierarchical State Machines for designing game AI of non-player characters (NPC). Their advantages over traditional AI approaches are being simple to design and implement, scalability when games get larger and more complex, and modularity to aid reusability and portability.
To better understand behavior trees evaluation, it's recommended that you play with our demo BehaviorTreeTests that shows you the status of the tasks at each evaluation step. Also, the demo allows you to run the tree indefinitely at regular intervals or step-by-step, load and save a tree snapshot, reset the whole tree to its initial state. We believe that this is a valuable learning tool for beginners.
The main problem with State Machines is the exponential growth of states and transitions. Even worse, states cannot be reused easily, without having to worry about transitions being invalid when they are reused for different portions of the AI logic. Essentially, State Machines lack a proper level of modularity.
Behavior Trees increase such modularity by encapsulating logic transparently within the states, making states nested within each other and thus forming a tree-like structure, and restricting transitions to only these nested states. The root node branches down to more nodes until the leaf nodes are reached, and these leaf nodes are the base actions that define the behavior of the AI from a state beginning at the root. The concept of an AI state is now seen as a high level AI behavior, or task, whereby the links to nested children nodes define sub-tasks which make up the main behavior. The leaf nodes are essentially then a group of basic actions that define a behavior.
The tasks of a behavior tree are formally constructed out of 2 classes of constructs: leaf tasks and composite tasks. In the next sections, we cover these constructs, describing in detail their usage and applicabilities.
Leaf tasks are the terminal nodes of the tree and define low level actions which describe the overall behavior. They are typically implemented by user code, maybe in the form of a script, and can be something as simple as looking up the value of a variable in the game state, executing an animation, or playing a sound effect.
Leaf tasks consist of 2 types:
- Actions - which cause the execution of methods or functions on the game world, e.g. move a character, decrease health, etc...
- Conditions - which query the state of objects in the game world, e.g. location of character, amount of health, etc...
These actions and conditions form the definitions of behavior tasks. For example, the informal behavior tree below defines a task "Avoid Combat".
+--------------+ | Avoid combat | +--------------+ / \ +----------------+ +----------+ | Enemy visible? | | Run away | +----------------+ +----------+
The root task is decomposed into two child tasks, the left child being a condition that an enemy is visible, and the right child being an action which makes the NPC run away. Each of these actions and conditions can either succeed or fail, which in turn define whether the high-level behavioral task succeeds or fails.
Some leaf tasks natively provided by the framework are:
- Failure immediately fails.
- Success immediately succeeds.
- Wait keeps running for the specified amount of time then succeeds.
Composite tasks provide a standard way to describe relationships between child tasks, such as how and when they should be executed. Contrary to leaf tasks, which are defined by the user, composite nodes are predefined and provided by the behavior tree formalism. They allow you to build branches of the tree in order to organize their sub-tasks (the children). Basically, branches keep track of a collection of child tasks (conditions, actions, or other composites), and their behavior is based on the behavior of their children.
You can think of composite tasks as the backbone of the behavior tree formalist. Unlike actions and conditions, there are normally only a handful of composite tasks because with only a handful of different grouping behaviors we can build very sophisticated behaviors. Especially, the composite tasks consist of selectors, sequences, parallels and decorators that will be described in the next subsessions.
A selector is a branch task that runs each of its child behaviors in turn. It will return immediately with a success status code when one of its children runs successfully. As long as its children are failing, it will keep on trying. If it runs out of children completely, it will return a failure status code.
Selectors are used to choose the first of a set of possible actions that is successful. For instance, a selector might represent a character wanting to reach safety. There may be multiple ways to do that: take cover, leave a dangerous area, and find backup. Such a selector will first try to take cover; if that fails, it will leave the area. If that succeeds, it will stop since there's no point also finding backup, as we've solved the character's goal of reaching safety. If we exhaust all options without success, then the selector itself has failed.
A selector node is graphically represented by a question mark.
There's a simple variation of the selector task that can make your AI more interesting and varied, the non-deterministic selector. While the standard selector runs each of its children in a strict order defined in advance by who has created the tree, the non-deterministic variation runs its children in a random order. As an example, imagine a dog that wants to rest, it could either sit or lie down. You can quickly implement this behavior by using a random selector with two children,
Sit Down and
A sequence is a branch task that runs each of its child behaviors in turn. It will return immediately with a failure status code when one of its children fails. As long as its children are succeeding, it will keep going. If it runs out of children, it will return in success.
Sequences represent a series of tasks that need to be undertaken. Each of our reaching-safety actions in the selector example above may consist of a sequence. To find cover we'll need to choose a cover point, move to it, and, when we're in range, play a roll animation to arrive behind it. If any of the steps in the sequence fails, then the whole sequence has failed: if we can't reach our desired cover point, then we haven't reached safety. Only if all the tasks in the sequence are successful we can consider the sequence as a whole to be successful.
A sequence node is graphically represented by an arrow.
Just like for selector, the non-deterministic variation of the sequence task runs its children in a random order. This comes in handy in certain situations. For instance, suppose you want to burn something. To accomplish this task you need matches and gasoline and, of course, the order you get them is irrelevant. This can be easily implemented through a random sequence with two children:
Get Matches and
The name "decorator" is taken from object-oriented software engineering. The decorator pattern refers to a class that wraps another class, modifying its behavior. If the decorator has the same interface as the class it wraps, then the rest of the software doesn't need to know if it is dealing with the original class or the decorator.
In the context of a behavior tree, a decorator is a task that has one single child task and modifies its behavior in some way. You could think of it like a composite task with a single child.
There are many different types of useful decorators:
- AlwaysFail will always fail no matter the wrapped task fails or succeeds.
- AlwaysSucceed will always succeed no matter the wrapped task succeeds or fails.
- Include grafts an external subtree. This decorator enhances behavior trees with modularity and reusability. For more detailed information see Including Subtrees
- Invert will succeed if the wrapped task fails and will fail if the wrapped task succeeds.
- Limit controls the maximum number of times a task can be run, which could be used to make sure that a character doesn't keep trying to barge through a door that the player has reinforced.
- Repeat will repeat the wrapped task a certain number of times, possibly infinite. This task always succeeds when reaches the specified number of repetitions.
- SemaphoreGuard allows you to specify how many characters should be allowed to concurrently use the wrapped task which represents a limited resource used in different behavior trees (note that this does not necessarily involve multi-threading concurrency). This is a simple mechanism for ensuring that a limited shared resource is not over subscribed. You might have a pool of 5 pathfinders, for example, meaning at most 5 characters can be pathfinding at a time. Or you can associate a semaphore to the player character to ensure that at most 3 enemies can simultaneously attack him. This decorator fails when it cannot acquire the semaphore. This allows a selector task higher up the tree to find a different action that doesn't involve the contested resource.
- UntilFail will repeat the wrapped task until that task fails, which makes this decorator succeed.
- UntilSuccess will repeat the wrapped task until that task succeeds, which makes this decorator succeed.
There are many more decorators you might want to use when building behavior trees, but I think these are enough for now.
A parallel composite task handles "concurrent" behaviors. It's a special branch task that starts or resumes all children every single time. The actual behavior of this task depends on its policy:
- Sequence policy: the parallel task fails as soon as one child fails; if all its children succeed, then the parallel task succeeds. This is the most common policy.
- Selector policy: the parallel task succeeds as soon as one child succeeds; if all its children fail, then the parallel task fails.
Notice that the above-mentioned word "concurrent" is in quotes for a reason. Some behavior tree implementations provide multi-threading parallel tasks (concurrently executing children at the same time). Our implementation does not use multi-threading at all. Here a parallel task is just a way to conceptually perform several tasks at once. These tasks still run on the same thread one by one following the specified sequence. That sequence should be irrelevant since they will all happen in the same frame, but it is still sometimes important.
The parallel task with sequence policy acts in a similar way to the sequence task. It has a set of child tasks, and it runs them until one of them fails. At that point, the parallel task as a whole fails. If all of the child tasks complete successfully, the parallel task returns with success. In this way, it looks like the sequence task. Similarly, the parallel task with selector policy acts in a similar way to the selector task.
Regardless of the actual policy, the difference is that both sequence and selector tasks can have only one child in the running status while parallel, which is a "concurrent" task, can have many children in the running status. The demo "Predators: Parallel vs. Sequence" visually shows this difference through steering behaviors.
Also, when one of the child tasks ends in failure (sequence policy) or success (selector policy), parallel will terminate all of the other children that are still running, so cleanly exiting those children with a cancelled status. This prevents serious problems that could leave the game inconsistent maybe not freeing resources (such as acquired semaphores, see decorators above). In order for this to work, all the tasks of the behavior tree formalism need to be able to receive a termination request.
Here are some typical uses of the parallel task:
- Non conflicting actions: the parallel task is most obviously used for sets of actions that can occur at the same time. You might, for example, use parallel to have your character roll into cover while shouting an insult and changing primary weapon. These three actions don't conflict (they wouldn't use the same semaphore, for example), and so you could carry them out simultaneously.
- Condition checking: one very common use of the parallel task is continually check whether certain conditions are met while carrying out an action. For instance, you can make your character react on event while sleeping or wandering. Using parallel tasks to make sure that conditions hold is an important use-case in behavior trees. With it we can get much of the power of a state machine, and in particular the state machine's ability to switch tasks when important events occur and new opportunities arise. Rather than events triggering transitions between states, we can use sub-trees as states and have them running in parallel with a set of conditions. In the case of a state machine, when the condition is met, the transition is triggered. With a behavior tree the behavior runs as long as the condition is met. This technique works quite well but can quickly become cumbersome even for relatively small trees. It's recommended to use guards and dynamic guard selectors instead.
- Group behavior: we can use parallel to control the behavior of a group of characters, such as a fire team in a military shooter. While each member of the group gets its own behavior tree for its individual actions (shooting, taking cover, reloading, animating, and playing audio, for example), these group actions are contained in parallel tasks within a higher level selector that chooses the group's behavior. If one of the team members can't possibly carry out their role in the strategy, then the parallel will return in failure and the selector will have to choose another option.
Generally speaking, behavior trees work great if your character transitions between types of behavior based on the success or failure of certain actions. However, the classical behavior tree formalism that you usually find in the literature makes it more difficult to think and design in terms of states. Actually, regular behavior trees tend to be reasonably clunky when representing state-based behaviors such as:
- a character who needs to respond to external events, for example, interrupting a patrol route to suddenly go into hiding or to raise an alarm
- a character that needs to switch strategies when its ammo is looking low
We're not claiming those behaviors can't be implemented in behavior trees by using only the classical tasks we have seen so far. In fact, we have already seen how to mimic state machines in behavior trees, see Parallel Task and in particular Condition Checking. However, it is somewhat cumbersome to do so systematically.
In order to make up for this drawback, the gdxAI framework adds two interesting extensions to the classical formalism. Especially, the guards and the dynamic guard selector together make it easier to think and design in terms of states.
In computer programming, a guard is a boolean expression that must evaluate to true if the program execution is to continue in the branch in question. Similarly, in behavior trees, a guard is a condition that must be met before executing the respective task.
Basically, guards have the following properties:
- guards are just regular tasks with the only limitation (introduced to keep things simple and clear) that they must complete in one tick
- any task at any point of the tree can be guarded
- a guard can be an entire sub-tree
- guarding another guard is allowed
All the guard's properties mentioned above have positive effects on the expressive power of the formalism. Also, using guards effectively helps to reduce the depth of the tree, which as a result makes the behavior tree more intuitive and easier to read.
As we have already seen, in the standard model for behavior trees, conditions are task leaf nodes, which simply do not do anything other than succeed or fail. Although nothing prevents you from using traditional conditional tasks, it is highly recommended that you use guards whenever possible.
The main advantage behind the usage of guards becomes evident when they are used to guard the children of a dynamic guard selector task.
Dynamic Guard Selector
One useful building block you'll most likely need to create reactive behaviors is the dynamic guard selector. You can think of it as an "active" selector that actively rechecks its decisions on a regular basis after having made them. This differs from the traditional "passive" selectors by using parallelism to retry higher-priority behaviors than the one that was previously chosen. This allows you to dynamically check for impending risks or new opportunities, for instance, interrupting a patrol with a search behavior if a disturbance is reported.
Basically, a dynamic guard selector is a branch task that executes the first child whose guard is evaluated to true. Especially, at every AI cycle, the children's guards are re-evaluated in order up until one is possibly met. At this point, if there was a running child from the previous AI cycle and its guard either failed or has not been evaluated at all, that child task is immediately cancelled. Finally, the task whose guard has just succeeded is executed (if any). The dynamic guard selector task finishes when no guard is evaluated to true (thus failing) or when its active child finishes (returning the active child's termination status).
Notice that the last child of a dynamic guard selector task is often unguarded. This is a common use case that allows you to define fallback behaviors.
A Simple Example
Behavior Tree API
Behavior trees are made up of independent tasks, each with its own algorithm and implementation. At the API level, all of them conform to a basic interface which allows them to call one another without knowing how they are implemented, see the Task Class Hierarchy section below.
The API allows you to create behavior tree instances in four different ways:
- from external resources in a simple text format
- from libraries
- by cloning another tree
- programmatically, see javadoc
You can freely choose the technique you prefer, but the first two options are recommended as we will see.
Task Class Hierarchy
As you can notice from the figure below, everything is a Task. Even a BehaviorTree is a task. This allows us to easily support the inclusion of sub-trees, as we will see shortly. BranchTask and Decorator are the base classes for the composite tasks described in the core concepts above. LeafTask is the class that you'll have to extend more often in order to implement your actions and conditions.
The Task Superclass
The Task class is the abstract base class of all behavior tree tasks. All tasks have the following properties:
status: it's the task status which is updated when the task runs or is reset. The possible values are:
FRESHif the task has never run or has been reset
RUNNINGif the task has not completed and needs to run again
FAILEDif the task returned a failure result
SUCCEEDEDif the task returned a success result
CANCELLEDif the task has been terminated by an ancestor
control: it's the parent of the task. It's set to
nullwhen the task's status is
FRESH; set to the parent otherwise.
tree: it's the reference to the behavior tree the task belongs to. Like the control property, it's set to
nullwhen the task's status is
FRESH; set to the tree otherwise.
guard: it's the guard of the task. It is
nullfor unguarded tasks.
Task class also declares some final methods that, among other things, notify listeners attached to the behavior tree, see BehaviorTree.Listener:
running() called in
run()to inform the parent that this task needs to run again. The task status is set to
success() called in
run()to inform the parent that this task has finished running with a success result. The task status is set to
fail() called in
run()to inform the parent that this task has finished running with a failure result. The task status is set to
cancel() terminates this task and all its running children. This method MUST be called only if this task is running. The task status is set to
addChild() adds a child by invoking
addChildToTask()(see below) and notifies listeners if this task status is not
Task class also declares the following abstract methods:
run() contains the update logic of the task. The actual implementation MUST call
- childSuccess() called when one of the children of the task succeeds.
- childFail() called when one of the children of the task fails.
- childRunning() called when one of the children of the task needs to run again.
addChildToTask() adds a child to the list of this task's children. It is called by the final method
- getChildCount() returns the number of children of the task.
- getChild() returns the child at the given index.
The are a few other non-final non-abstract methods that sub-classes often override:
start() called when the task is entered, just before
end() called when the task is exited through
cancel(). This means that this task's status has just been set to
reset() resets this task to make it restart from scratch on next run. The task is cancelled if it was running. In any case the task status is set to
cloneTask() clones this task to a new one. If you don't specify a clone strategy through TASK_CLONER the new task is instantiated via reflection and
copyTo()is invoked. In this case, properly overriding the
copyTo()method in each task is developer's responsibility. This gives you opportunity to target the GWT back-end. On the other hand,
cloneTask()will use the non-null
copyTo()won't be invoked. For instance, if you don't care about GWT, you can let Kryo make a deep copy for you.
Using Data for Inter-Task Communication
To be effective the behavior tree API must allow tasks to share data with one another. The most sensible approach is to decouple the data that behaviors need from the tasks themselves.The API does this by using an external data store for all the data that the behavior tree needs. In AI literature such a store object is known as blackboard. Using this external blackboard, we can write tasks that are still independent of one another but can communicate when needed.
In a squad-based game, for example, we might have a collaborative AI that can autonomously engage the enemy. We could write one task to select an enemy (based on proximity or a tactical analysis, for example) and another task or sub-tree to engage that enemy. The task that selects the enemy writes down the selection it has made onto the blackboard. The task or tasks that engage the enemy query the blackboard for a current enemy.
In most games we'll want some characters to have the same behavior, i.e. different instances (or clones as we'll see) of the same behavior tree. In this case each behavior tree instance will require its own blackboard.
At the API level, all the classes in the task hierarchy above are characterized by a generic type parameter
<T> which is the type of the blackboard. All the tasks of a behavior tree instance have the same generic type argument,
<Blackboard> for example, so sharing the same blackboard instance.
Task Attributes and Constraints
The framework provides two annotations that are used at runtime by the BehaviorTreeParser as metadata to identify task attributes and check task constraints:
@TaskConstraint: ideally, any task class should be annotated with this annotation to be properly recognized by the parser. However this is not strictly required. Note that
TaskConstraintis annotated with
@Inheritedand in turn Task is annotated with
@TaskConstraint. This means that you don't have to annotate a task class with
@TaskConstraintif the constraint of its super-class is the same. On the other hand, you can use
@TaskConstraintto "override" the constraint of its super-class. Also, the annotation
TaskConstrainthas two properties:
@TaskAttribute: any task attribute must be annotated with this annotation to be properly recognized by the parser. This annotation has two properties:
name specifies the name of the attribute; if omitted the field's name is used instead. This gives you the capability to use attribute names that are illegal field names in Java, like for instance reserved keywords such as
classand so on
required specifies whether the attribute is mandatory or optional; defaults to
- name specifies the name of the attribute; if omitted the field's name is used instead. This gives you the capability to use attribute names that are illegal field names in Java, like for instance reserved keywords such as
The behavior tree text format recognized by the API is a simple and versatile indentation-based format to load behavior trees from an external resource (usually a file) in a data-driven programming style.
All lines in the text format follow the grammar below (elements within
] are optional):
line = [[indent] [guardableTask] [comment]] guardableTask = [guard [...]] task guard = '(' task ')' task = name [attr:value [...]] | subtreeRef
- indent is a sequence of spaces/tabs defining the depth of the task specified by guardableTask
- guardableTask is a sequence of optional guards followed by a task
guard is just a task within parentheses
- task is either a task name with attributes or a subtree reference
name identifies the task; it's either a Java fully qualified class name or an imported alias in the form of Java identifier augmented with the possibility to use the character
importin the example below
- attr is the attribute name in the form of Java identifier
value is the attribute's value that must be one of the following based on the attribute's Java type:
falseliteral for types
- any number literal for primitive types
doubleand their respective boxed Java types
- double quoted string literal (accepting JSON-like escape sequences) for types
nullfor any non-primitive Java type
subtreeRef is the name of an internal sub-tree in the form of a Java identifier preceded by the symbol
comment starts with
#and extends up to the first newline character
As you can notice, everything is optional in a line, meaning that the empty line is legal.
Also, you can use multiple guards before a task like that
(guard0) (guard1) (guard2) task
This provide a simple inline syntax for guard sequences, which are a viable alternative to a guard tree whose root is a sequence, see guards as sub-trees. As long as you use short guard sequences (for instance, 0 to 4 guards) this construct remains pretty readable. But there's nothing stopping you from guarding dozens of guards, apart from common-sense, of course.
Using enumerations and distributions in attribute values
It's worth noting the special use of strings for attribute values representing enumerations and distributions:
- enums: the string is the non-case-sensitive name of the enum constant like, for instance, "sequence" and "selector" for the policy attribute of the parallel task.
distributions: are a comma-separated string of the form "distributionType,arg1,arg2,..." where
- distributionType can be
- the number of arguments identify the overloaded constructor to use
Built-in distributions are represented by distribution classes in package com.badlogic.gdx.ai.utils.random. User defined distributions are supported by customizing the DitributionAdapters instance provided to the parser. Also, it's worth mentioning that, as a shortcut, constant distributions can be directly represented by the corresponding number. For instance,
repeat times:2is equivalent to
- distributionType can be
Importing user-defined tasks
While built-in tasks previously described are ready to use inside the text format, user-defined tasks must be imported through the
import directive, because the parser does not know them.
This directive follows the syntax of the generic line that we have seen above and allows you define aliases for your custom tasks in order to avoid using their fully qualified name.
For instance, the import directives below define aliases
task3 for their respective fully qualified classes. Also, note that you can import multiple tasks with a single import directive.
# Alias definitions import task1:"my.package.Task1" import task2:"my.package.Task2" task3:"my.package.Task3"
Declaring and referencing internal sub-trees
Internal sub-trees are subtrees only visible within the tree file where they are declared.
subtree directive allows you to declare an internal sub-tree with its name. You can think of this directive as a kind of macro, which is simply the association of a name with a sub-tree. After the macro is defined, the parser is able to substitute the sub-tree each time is referenced by name.
A sub-tree reference, identified by
$ followed by the tree name, can occur in the source file anywhere a task is legal and as many times as necessary.
subtree name:"myTree" # Specify here the tasks which the subtree is made up of # From here down you can reference your sub-tree # through the syntax $myTree.
Guards as sub-trees
Because of our in-line text format, sub-tree references are essential in case of task guards that are not just a leaf task. Indeed, using a leaf task to guard another task is trivial:
import myLeafGuard:"my.package.MyLeafGuard" root (myLeafGuard) myTask arg1:1 arg2:"hello"
However, if your guard is a composite task you can't clearly put it on the same line of the guarded task. In such a situation you can use an internal subtree reference like that:
subtree name:"myTreeGuard" ... root ($myTreeGuard) myTask arg1:1 arg2:"hello"
Alternatively, you can use an include decorator to graft an external sub-tree:
(include subtree:"path/to/my/subtree") myTask arg1:1 arg2:"hello"
It's worth noting that the latter is no different than the first solution above. Indeed, at compile-time the include decorator has no child, just like the leaf guard
Here are some examples of behavior trees expressed in our text format.
# # Dog tree # # Alias definitions import bark:"com.badlogic.gdx.ai.tests.btree.dog.BarkTask" import care:"com.badlogic.gdx.ai.tests.btree.dog.CareTask" import mark:"com.badlogic.gdx.ai.tests.btree.dog.MarkTask" import walk:"com.badlogic.gdx.ai.tests.btree.dog.WalkTask" # Tree definition (note that root is optional) root selector parallel care urgentProb:0.8 alwaysFail com.badlogic.gdx.ai.tests.btree.dog.RestTask # fully qualified task sequence bark times:"uniform,1,3" # the type of attribute times is an IntegerDistribution walk com.badlogic.gdx.ai.tests.btree.dog.BarkTask # fully qualified task mark
And the equivalent tree in a graphical form:
Example #2: A more complex behavior tree with guards and subtree references can be found here. That behavior tree models a dog that freely moves all around the garden until the owner calls him to play with the stick.
We have previously mentioned the possibility to use the
? character in the text format. The question mark is just syntactic sugar; it gives the user the opportunity to improve readability by making it clear when a leaf task is a condition or an action. For instance, take a look at the tree below.
import doorLocked?:"packageName.DoorLockedCondition" import unlockDoor:"packageName.UnlockDoorAction" import enterRoom:"packageName.EnterRoomAction" root selector sequence doorLocked? unlockDoor enterRoom enterRoom
Notice that you can use the
? character only inside the alias of an imported task (usually a condition). A fully qualified task name can not contain the
? because its use is illegal in Java class names. Also, notice that the
? character is not required for conditions, you might want to use a different naming convention such as
isDoorLocked or the more verbose
doorLockedCondition. It's totally up to you. Personally, I prefer the final
? but it's just a matter of taste.
You can look into the ParseAndRunTest class for a simple example of how to load a behavior tree into memory from a file.
Behavior Tree Libraries
A BehaviorTreeLibrary is a collection of behavior trees loaded into memory from an external source (usually a file in your application). You can also use it to store named sub-trees that you intend to use in multiple contexts.
It's important to understand that a library contains behavior tree instances known as archetypes. You should never use an archetype to run any behaviors on. Any time you need an instance of that behavior tree you ask the library for a copy of the archetype and use the copy. That way you're getting all of the configuration of the tree, but you're getting your own copy. In order to achieve this capability, the
Task class provides cloneTask described above. The library can then ask the behavior tree or its root task for a clone of itself and have it build us a copy. This would normally be done during the loading of the level, making sure that only the trees that might be needed in that level are loaded and instantiated into archetypes.
This technique presents a simple and effective API. The main advantage of this approach is that if you have a lot of agents having the same behavior (or many common sub-behaviors) the source file doesn't have to be parsed again and again (parsing a tree is something slow producing garbage into memory). On the other hand, the drawback is that you'll have to properly implement the
copyTo() method in your leaf tasks in order to preserve the task configuration on cloning. Alternatively, you can set a task cloner instance (see Task.TASK_CLONER) using a third-party library like Kryo behind the scene.
However, you're not forced to use any behavior tree library, unless you want to exploit the include sub-tree capability. Simple applications whose behavior trees exist as a single instance and not needing a high modularity level can just parse and run their trees directly.
Actually, you're not even forced to load behavior trees from an external source. You can create them programmatically, but mostly for maintenance reasons this is not the recommended approach.
As previously said, the Include task is a decorator that allows you to graft a subtree into another behavior tree instance. This is very useful for reusability when you identify behavioral patterns in your AI agents.
Internally, the include decorator makes use of the singleton BehaviorTreeLibraryManager to get a fresh new instance of the required subtree.
Basically, there are two types of inclusion:
Eager inclusion: It happens when the lazy attribute of the include decorator is set to
false(default). The archetype behavior tree contains these reference nodes, but as soon as we instantiate our full tree it replaces itself with a copy of the sub-tree, built by the library. Notice that the sub-tree is instantiated when the behavior tree is created, ready for a character's use.
Lazy inclusion: It happens when the lazy attribute of the include decorator is set to
true. In memory-constrained platforms, or for games with hundreds of AI characters, it may be worth holding off on creating the sub-tree until it is needed, saving memory in cases where parts of a large behavior tree are rarely used. This may be particularly the case where the behavior tree has a lot of branches for special cases: how to use a particular rare weapon, for example. These highly specific sub-trees don't need to be created for every character, wasting memory; instead, they can be created on demand if the rare situation arises. Actually, the lazy include task creates its child sub-tree at execution time when it is first needed.
Notice that both eager and lazy inclusion are an anomalous decorator that has no child at the archetype level (usually decorators have exactly one child). Especially, the eager include will never execute since it will be replaced by the grafted sub-tree at clone-time, while the lazy include can execute but its child is created and added the first time it executes.
Please, look into the IncludeSubtreeTest class for a simple example of lazy and eager inclusion.
Over the last years, behavior trees on their own have been a big win for game AI, but obviously this does not mean that you should consider them as a solution to almost every problem you can imagine in game AI. As we have seen, behavior trees work great if your character transitions between types of behavior based on the success or failure of certain actions. Also, with small targeted extensions to the traditional formalism, behavior trees allow you to think and design comfortably in terms of states.
However, sometimes other techniques such as state machines might more naturally apply to certain issues. Moreover, there's nothing stopping you from building a hybrid system where behavior trees and state machines cooperate with each other, providing the best of both worlds. There are 2 common approaches:
- Characters have multiple behavior trees and use a state machine to determine which behavior tree they are currently running.
- Certain tasks in the behavior tree can act like state machines, detecting important events and terminating the current sub-tree to begin another.