Skip to content
Permalink
master
Go to file
 
 
Cannot retrieve contributors at this time
1210 lines (973 sloc) 59.3 KB

BOLT #4: Onion Routing Protocol

Overview

This document describes the construction of an onion routed packet that is used to route a payment from an origin node to a final node. The packet is routed through a number of intermediate nodes, called hops.

The routing schema is based on the Sphinx construction and is extended with a per-hop payload.

Intermediate nodes forwarding the message can verify the integrity of the packet and can learn which node they should forward the packet to. They cannot learn which other nodes, besides their predecessor or successor, are part of the packet's route; nor can they learn the length of the route or their position within it. The packet is obfuscated at each hop, to ensure that a network-level attacker cannot associate packets belonging to the same route (i.e. packets belonging to the same route do not share any correlating information). Notice that this does not preclude the possibility of packet association by an attacker via traffic analysis.

The route is constructed by the origin node, which knows the public keys of each intermediate node and of the final node. Knowing each node's public key allows the origin node to create a shared secret (using ECDH) for each intermediate node and for the final node. The shared secret is then used to generate a pseudo-random stream of bytes (which is used to obfuscate the packet) and a number of keys (which are used to encrypt the payload and compute the HMACs). The HMACs are then in turn used to ensure the integrity of the packet at each hop.

Each hop along the route only sees an ephemeral key for the origin node, in order to hide the sender's identity. The ephemeral key is blinded by each intermediate hop before forwarding to the next, making the onions unlinkable along the route.

This specification describes version 0 of the packet format and routing mechanism.

A node:

  • upon receiving a higher version packet than it implements:
    • MUST report a route failure to the origin node.
    • MUST discard the packet.

Table of Contents

Conventions

There are a number of conventions adhered to throughout this document:

  • HMAC: the integrity verification of the packet is based on Keyed-Hash Message Authentication Code, as defined by the FIPS 198 Standard/RFC 2104, and using a SHA256 hashing algorithm.
  • Elliptic curve: for all computations involving elliptic curves, the Bitcoin curve is used, as specified in secp256k1
  • Pseudo-random stream: ChaCha20 is used to generate a pseudo-random byte stream. For its generation, a fixed null-nonce (0x0000000000000000) is used, along with a key derived from a shared secret and with a 0x00-byte stream of the desired output size as the message.
  • The terms origin node and final node refer to the initial packet sender and the final packet recipient, respectively.
  • The terms hop and node are sometimes used interchangeably, but a hop usually refers to an intermediate node in the route rather than an end node. origin node --> hop --> ... --> hop --> final node
  • The term processing node refers to the specific node along the route that is currently processing the forwarded packet.
  • The term peers refers only to hops that are direct neighbors (in the overlay network): more specifically, sending peers forward packets to receiving peers.
  • Each hop in the route has a variable length hop_payload, or a fixed-size legacy hop_data payload.
    • The legacy hop_data is identified by a single 0x00-byte prefix
    • The variable length hop_payload is prefixed with a bigsize encoding the length in bytes, excluding the prefix and the trailing HMAC.

Key Generation

A number of encryption and verification keys are derived from the shared secret:

  • rho: used as key when generating the pseudo-random byte stream that is used to obfuscate the per-hop information
  • mu: used during the HMAC generation
  • um: used during error reporting
  • pad: use to generate random filler bytes for the starting mix-header packet

The key generation function takes a key-type (rho=0x72686F, mu=0x6d75, um=0x756d, or pad=0x706164) and a 32-byte secret as inputs and returns a 32-byte key.

Keys are generated by computing an HMAC (with SHA256 as hashing algorithm) using the appropriate key-type (i.e. rho, mu, um, or pad) as HMAC-key and the 32-byte shared secret as the message. The resulting HMAC is then returned as the key.

Notice that the key-type does not include a C-style 0x00-termination-byte, e.g. the length of the rho key-type is 3 bytes, not 4.

Pseudo Random Byte Stream

The pseudo-random byte stream is used to obfuscate the packet at each hop of the path, so that each hop may only recover the address and HMAC of the next hop. The pseudo-random byte stream is generated by encrypting (using ChaCha20) a 0x00-byte stream, of the required length, which is initialized with a key derived from the shared secret and a zero-nonce (0x00000000000000).

The use of a fixed nonce is safe, since the keys are never reused.

Packet Structure

The packet consists of four sections:

  • a version byte
  • a 33-byte compressed secp256k1 public_key, used during the shared secret generation
  • a 1300-byte hop_payloads consisting of multiple, variable length, hop_payload payloads or up to 20 fixed sized legacy hop_data payloads.
  • a 32-byte hmac, used to verify the packet's integrity

The network format of the packet consists of the individual sections serialized into one contiguous byte-stream and then transferred to the packet recipient. Due to the fixed size of the packet, it need not be prefixed by its length when transferred over a connection.

The overall structure of the packet is as follows:

  1. type: onion_packet
  2. data:
    • [byte:version]
    • [point:public_key]
    • [1300*byte:hop_payloads]
    • [32*byte:hmac]

For this specification (version 0), version has a constant value of 0x00.

The hop_payloads field is a structure that holds obfuscated routing information, and associated HMAC. It is 1300 bytes long and has the following structure:

  1. type: hop_payloads
  2. data:
    • [bigsize:length]
    • [hop_payload_length:hop_payload]
    • [32*byte:hmac]
    • ...
    • filler

Where, the length, hop_payload (with contents dependent on length), and hmac are repeated for each hop; and where, filler consists of obfuscated, deterministically-generated padding, as detailed in Filler Generation. Additionally, hop_payloads is incrementally obfuscated at each hop.

Using the hop_payload field, the origin node is able to specify the path and structure of the HTLCs forwarded at each hop. As the hop_payload is protected under the packet-wide HMAC, the information it contains is fully authenticated with each pair-wise relationship between the HTLC sender (origin node) and each hop in the path.

Using this end-to-end authentication, each hop is able to cross-check the HTLC parameters with the hop_payload's specified values and to ensure that the sending peer hasn't forwarded an ill-crafted HTLC.

The length field determines both the length and the format of the hop_payload field; the following formats are defined:

  • Legacy hop_data format, identified by a single 0x00 byte for length. In this case the hop_payload_length is defined to be 32 bytes.
  • tlv_payload format, identified by any length over 1. In this case the hop_payload_length is equal to the numeric value of length.
  • A single 0x01 byte for length is reserved for future use to signal a different payload format. This is safe since no TLV value can ever be shorter than 2 bytes. In this case the hop_payload_length MUST be defined in the future specification making use of this length.

Legacy hop_data payload format

The hop_data format is identified by a single 0x00-byte length, for backward compatibility. Its payload is defined as:

  1. type: hop_data (for realm 0)
  2. data:
    • [short_channel_id:short_channel_id]
    • [u64:amt_to_forward]
    • [u32:outgoing_cltv_value]
    • [12*byte:padding]

Field descriptions:

  • short_channel_id: The ID of the outgoing channel used to route the message; the receiving peer should operate the other end of this channel.

  • amt_to_forward: The amount, in millisatoshis, to forward to the next receiving peer specified within the routing information.

    For non-final nodes, this value amount MUST include the origin node's computed fee for the receiving peer. When processing an incoming Sphinx packet and the HTLC message that it is encapsulated within, if the following inequality doesn't hold, then the HTLC should be rejected as it would indicate that a prior hop has deviated from the specified parameters:

     incoming_htlc_amt - fee >= amt_to_forward
    

    Where fee is calculated according to the receiving peer's advertised fee schema (as described in BOLT #7).

    For the final node, this value MUST be exactly equal to the incoming htlc amount, otherwise the HTLC should be rejected.

  • outgoing_cltv_value: The CLTV value that the outgoing HTLC carrying the packet should have.

     cltv_expiry - cltv_expiry_delta >= outgoing_cltv_value
    

    Inclusion of this field allows a hop to both authenticate the information specified by the origin node, and the parameters of the HTLC forwarded, and ensure the origin node is using the current cltv_expiry_delta value. If there is no next hop, cltv_expiry_delta is 0. If the values don't correspond, then the HTLC should be failed and rejected, as this indicates that either a forwarding node has tampered with the intended HTLC values or that the origin node has an obsolete cltv_expiry_delta value. The hop MUST be consistent in responding to an unexpected outgoing_cltv_value, whether it is the final node or not, to avoid leaking its position in the route.

  • padding: This field is for future use and also for ensuring that future non-0-realm hop_datas won't change the overall hop_payloads size.

When forwarding HTLCs, nodes MUST construct the outgoing HTLC as specified within hop_data above; otherwise, deviation from the specified HTLC parameters may lead to extraneous routing failure.

tlv_payload format

This is a more flexible format, which avoids the redundant short_channel_id field for the final node.

  1. tlvs: tlv_payload
  2. types:
    1. type: 2 (amt_to_forward)
    2. data:
      • [tu64:amt_to_forward]
    3. type: 4 (outgoing_cltv_value)
    4. data:
      • [tu32:outgoing_cltv_value]
    5. type: 6 (short_channel_id)
    6. data:
      • [short_channel_id:short_channel_id]
    7. type: 8 (payment_data)
    8. data:
      • [32*byte:payment_secret]
      • [tu64:total_msat]

Requirements

The writer:

  • Unless node_announcement, init message or the BOLT #11 offers feature var_onion_optin:
    • MUST use the legacy payload format instead.
  • For every node:
    • MUST include amt_to_forward and outgoing_cltv_value.
  • For every non-final node:
    • MUST include short_channel_id
    • MUST NOT include payment_data
  • For the final node:
    • MUST NOT include short_channel_id
    • if the recipient provided payment_secret:
      • MUST include payment_data
      • MUST set payment_secret to the one provided
      • MUST set total_msat to the total amount it will send

The reader:

  • MUST return an error if amt_to_forward or outgoing_cltv_value are not present.
  • if it is the final node:
    • MUST treat total_msat as if it were equal to amt_to_forward if it is not present.

The requirements for the contents of these fields are specified above and below.

Basic Multi-Part Payments

An HTLC may be part of a larger "multi-part" payment: such "base" atomic multipath payments will use the same payment_hash for all paths.

Note that amt_to_forward is the amount for this HTLC only: a total_msat field containing a greater value is a promise by the ultimate sender that the rest of the payment will follow in succeeding HTLCs; we call these outstanding HTLCs which have the same preimage, an "HTLC set".

Requirements

The writer:

  • if the invoice offers the basic_mpp feature:
    • MAY send more than one HTLC to pay the invoice.
    • MUST use the same payment_hash on all HTLCs in the set.
    • SHOULD send all payments at approximately the same time.
    • SHOULD try to use diverse paths to the recipient for each HTLC.
    • SHOULD retry and/or re-divide HTLCs which fail.
    • if the invoice specifies an amount:
      • MUST set total_msat to at least that amount, and less than or equal to twice amount.
    • otherwise:
      • MUST set total_msat to the amount it wishes to pay.
    • MUST ensure that the total amount_msat of the HTLC set which arrives at the payee is equal to total_msat.
    • MUST NOT send another HTLC if the total amount_msat of the HTLC set is already greater or equal to total_msat.
    • MUST include payment_secret.
  • otherwise:
    • MUST set total_msat equal to amt_to_forward.

The final node:

  • MUST fail the HTLC if dictated by Requirements under Failure Messages
    • Note: "amount paid" specified there is the total_msat field.
  • if it does not support basic_mpp:
    • MUST fail the HTLC if total_msat is not exactly equal to amt_to_forward.
  • otherwise, if it supports basic_mpp:
    • MUST add it to the HTLC set corresponding to that payment_hash.
    • SHOULD fail the entire HTLC set if total_msat is not the same for all HTLCs in the set.
    • if the total amount_msat of this HTLC set equals total_msat:
      • SHOULD fulfill all HTLCs in the HTLC set
    • otherwise, if the total amount_msat of this HTLC set is less than total_msat:
      • MUST NOT fulfill any HTLCs in the HTLC set
      • MUST fail all HTLCs in the HTLC set after some reasonable timeout.
        • SHOULD wait for at least 60 seconds after the initial HTLC.
        • SHOULD use mpp_timeout for the failure message.
      • MUST require payment_secret for all HTLCs in the set.
    • if it fulfills any HTLCs in the HTLC set:
      • MUST fulfill the entire HTLC set.

Rationale

If basic_mpp is present it causes a delay to allow other partial payments to combine. The total amount must be sufficient for the desired payment, just as it must be for single payments. But this must be reasonably bounded to avoid a denial-of-service.

Because invoices do not necessarily specify an amount, and because payers can add noise to the final amount, the total amount must be sent explicitly. The requirements allow exceeding this slightly, as it simplifies adding noise to the amount when splitting, as well as scenarios in which the senders are genuinely independent (friends splitting a bill, for example).

The restriction on sending an HTLC once the set is over the agreed total prevents the preimage being released before all the partial payments have arrived: that would allow any intermediate node to immediately claim any outstanding partial payments.

An implementation may choose not to fulfill an HTLC set which otherwise meets the amount criterion (eg. some other failure, or invoice timeout), however if it were to fulfill only some of them, intermediary nodes could simply claim the remaining ones.

Accepting and Forwarding a Payment

Once a node has decoded the payload it either accepts the payment locally, or forwards it to the peer indicated as the next hop in the payload.

Non-strict Forwarding

A node MAY forward an HTLC along an outgoing channel other than the one specified by short_channel_id, so long as the receiver has the same node public key intended by short_channel_id. Thus, if short_channel_id connects nodes A and B, the HTLC can be forwarded across any channel connecting A and B. Failure to adhere will result in the receiver being unable to decrypt the next hop in the onion packet.

Rationale

In the event that two peers have multiple channels, the downstream node will be able to decrypt the next hop payload regardless of which channel the packet is sent across.

Nodes implementing non-strict forwarding are able to make real-time assessments of channel bandwidths with a particular peer, and use the channel that is locally-optimal.

For example, if the channel specified by short_channel_id connecting A and B does not have enough bandwidth at forwarding time, then A is able use a different channel that does. This can reduce payment latency by preventing the HTLC from failing due to bandwidth constraints across short_channel_id, only to have the sender attempt the same route differing only in the channel between A and B.

Non-strict forwarding allows nodes to make use of private channels connecting them to the receiving node, even if the channel is not known in the public channel graph.

Recommendation

Implementations using non-strict forwarding should consider applying the same fee schedule to all channels with the same peer, as senders are likely to select the channel which results in the lowest overall cost. Having distinct policies may result in the forwarding node accepting fees based on the most optimal fee schedule for the sender, even though they are providing aggregate bandwidth across all channels with the same peer.

Alternatively, implementations may choose to apply non-strict forwarding only to like-policy channels to ensure their expected fee revenue does not deviate by using an alternate channel.

Payload for the Last Node

When building the route, the origin node MUST use a payload for the final node with the following values:

  • payment_secret: set to the payment secret specified by the recipient (e.g. payment_secret from a BOLT #11 payment invoice)
  • outgoing_cltv_value: set to the final expiry specified by the recipient (e.g. min_final_cltv_expiry from a BOLT #11 payment invoice)
  • amt_to_forward: set to the final amount specified by the recipient (e.g. amount from a BOLT #11 payment invoice)

This allows the final node to check these values and return errors if needed, but it also eliminates the possibility of probing attacks by the second-to-last node. Such attacks could, otherwise, attempt to discover if the receiving peer is the last one by re-sending HTLCs with different amounts/expiries. The final node will extract its onion payload from the HTLC it has received and compare its values against those of the HTLC. See the Returning Errors section below for more details.

If not for the above, since it need not forward payments, the final node could simply discard its payload.

Shared Secret

The origin node establishes a shared secret with each hop along the route using Elliptic-curve Diffie-Hellman between the sender's ephemeral key at that hop and the hop's node ID key. The resulting curve point is serialized to the compressed format and hashed using SHA256. The hash output is used as the 32-byte shared secret.

Elliptic-curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) is an operation on an EC private key and an EC public key that outputs a curve point. For this protocol, the ECDH variant implemented in libsecp256k1 is used, which is defined over the secp256k1 elliptic curve. During packet construction, the sender uses the ephemeral private key and the hop's public key as inputs to ECDH, whereas during packet forwarding, the hop uses the ephemeral public key and its own node ID private key. Because of the properties of ECDH, they will both derive the same value.

Blinding Ephemeral Keys

In order to ensure multiple hops along the route cannot be linked by the ephemeral public keys they see, the key is blinded at each hop. The blinding is done in a deterministic way that allows the sender to compute the corresponding blinded private keys during packet construction.

The blinding of an EC public key is a single scalar multiplication of the EC point representing the public key with a 32-byte blinding factor. Due to the commutative property of scalar multiplication, the blinded private key is the multiplicative product of the input's corresponding private key with the same blinding factor.

The blinding factor itself is computed as a function of the ephemeral public key and the 32-byte shared secret. Concretely, it is the SHA256 hash value of the concatenation of the public key serialized in its compressed format and the shared secret.

Packet Construction

In the following example, it's assumed that a sending node (origin node), n_0, wants to route a packet to a receiving node (final node), n_r. First, the sender computes a route {n_0, n_1, ..., n_{r-1}, n_r}, where n_0 is the sender itself and n_r is the final recipient. All nodes n_i and n_{i+1} MUST be peers in the overlay network route. The sender then gathers the public keys for n_1 to n_r and generates a random 32-byte sessionkey. Optionally, the sender may pass in associated data, i.e. data that the packet commits to but that is not included in the packet itself. Associated data will be included in the HMACs and must match the associated data provided during integrity verification at each hop.

To construct the onion, the sender initializes the ephemeral private key for the first hop ek_1 to the sessionkey and derives from it the corresponding ephemeral public key epk_1 by multiplying with the secp256k1 base point. For each of the k hops along the route, the sender then iteratively computes the shared secret ss_k and ephemeral key for the next hop ek_{k+1} as follows:

  • The sender executes ECDH with the hop's public key and the ephemeral private key to obtain a curve point, which is hashed using SHA256 to produce the shared secret ss_k.
  • The blinding factor is the SHA256 hash of the concatenation between the ephemeral public key epk_k and the shared secret ss_k.
  • The ephemeral private key for the next hop ek_{k+1} is computed by multiplying the current ephemeral private key ek_k by the blinding factor.
  • The ephemeral public key for the next hop epk_{k+1} is derived from the ephemeral private key ek_{k+1} by multiplying with the base point.

Once the sender has all the required information above, it can construct the packet. Constructing a packet routed over r hops requires r 32-byte ephemeral public keys, r 32-byte shared secrets, r 32-byte blinding factors, and r variable length hop_payload payloads. The construction returns a single 1366-byte packet along with the first receiving peer's address.

The packet construction is performed in the reverse order of the route, i.e. the last hop's operations are applied first.

The packet is initialized with 1300 random bytes derived from a CSPRNG (ChaCha20). The pad key referenced above is used to extract additional random bytes from a ChaCha20 stream, using it as a CSPRNG for this purpose. Once the paddingKey has been obtained, ChaCha20 is used with an all zero nonce, to generate 1300 random bytes. Those random bytes are then used as the starting state of the mix-header to be created.

A filler is generated (see Filler Generation) using the shared secret.

For each hop in the route, in reverse order, the sender applies the following operations:

  • The rho-key and mu-key are generated using the hop's shared secret.
  • shift_size is defined as the length of the hop_payload plus the bigsize encoding of the length and the length of that HMAC. Thus if the payload length is l then the shift_size is 1 + l + 32 for l < 253, otherwise 3 + l + 32 due to the bigsize encoding of l.
  • The hop_payload field is right-shifted by shift_size bytes, discarding the last shift_size bytes that exceed its 1300-byte size.
  • The bigsize-serialized length, serialized hop_payload and hmac are copied into the following shift_size bytes.
  • The rho-key is used to generate 1300 bytes of pseudo-random byte stream which is then applied, with XOR, to the hop_payloads field.
  • If this is the last hop, i.e. the first iteration, then the tail of the hop_payloads field is overwritten with the routing information filler.
  • The next HMAC is computed (with the mu-key as HMAC-key) over the concatenated hop_payloads and associated data.

The resulting final HMAC value is the HMAC that will be used by the first receiving peer in the route.

The packet generation returns a serialized packet that contains the version byte, the ephemeral pubkey for the first hop, the HMAC for the first hop, and the obfuscated hop_payloads.

The following Go code is an example implementation of the packet construction:

func NewOnionPacket(paymentPath []*btcec.PublicKey, sessionKey *btcec.PrivateKey,
	hopsData []HopData, assocData []byte) (*OnionPacket, error) {

	numHops := len(paymentPath)
	hopSharedSecrets := make([][sha256.Size]byte, numHops)

	// Initialize ephemeral key for the first hop to the session key.
	var ephemeralKey big.Int
	ephemeralKey.Set(sessionKey.D)

	for i := 0; i < numHops; i++ {
		// Perform ECDH and hash the result.
		ecdhResult := scalarMult(paymentPath[i], ephemeralKey)
		hopSharedSecrets[i] = sha256.Sum256(ecdhResult.SerializeCompressed())

		// Derive ephemeral public key from private key.
		ephemeralPrivKey := btcec.PrivKeyFromBytes(btcec.S256(), ephemeralKey.Bytes())
		ephemeralPubKey := ephemeralPrivKey.PubKey()

		// Compute blinding factor.
		sha := sha256.New()
		sha.Write(ephemeralPubKey.SerializeCompressed())
		sha.Write(hopSharedSecrets[i])

		var blindingFactor big.Int
		blindingFactor.SetBytes(sha.Sum(nil))

		// Blind ephemeral key for next hop.
		ephemeralKey.Mul(&ephemeralKey, &blindingFactor)
		ephemeralKey.Mod(&ephemeralKey, btcec.S256().Params().N)
	}

	// Generate the padding, called "filler strings" in the paper.
	filler := generateHeaderPadding("rho", numHops, hopDataSize, hopSharedSecrets)

	// Allocate and initialize fields to zero-filled slices
	var mixHeader [routingInfoSize]byte
	var nextHmac [hmacSize]byte
        
        // Our starting packet needs to be filled out with random bytes, we
        // generate some determinstically using the session private key.
        paddingKey := generateKey("pad", sessionKey.Serialize()
        paddingBytes := generateCipherStream(paddingKey, routingInfoSize)
        copy(mixHeader[:], paddingBytes)

	// Compute the routing information for each hop along with a
	// MAC of the routing information using the shared key for that hop.
	for i := numHops - 1; i >= 0; i-- {
		rhoKey := generateKey("rho", hopSharedSecrets[i])
		muKey := generateKey("mu", hopSharedSecrets[i])

		hopsData[i].HMAC = nextHmac

		// Shift and obfuscate routing information
		streamBytes := generateCipherStream(rhoKey, numStreamBytes)

		rightShift(mixHeader[:], hopDataSize)
		buf := &bytes.Buffer{}
		hopsData[i].Encode(buf)
		copy(mixHeader[:], buf.Bytes())
		xor(mixHeader[:], mixHeader[:], streamBytes[:routingInfoSize])

		// These need to be overwritten, so every node generates a correct padding
		if i == numHops-1 {
			copy(mixHeader[len(mixHeader)-len(filler):], filler)
		}

		packet := append(mixHeader[:], assocData...)
		nextHmac = calcMac(muKey, packet)
	}

	packet := &OnionPacket{
		Version:      0x00,
		EphemeralKey: sessionKey.PubKey(),
		RoutingInfo:  mixHeader,
		HeaderMAC:    nextHmac,
	}
	return packet, nil
}

Packet Forwarding

This specification is limited to version 0 packets; the structure of future versions may change.

Upon receiving a packet, a processing node compares the version byte of the packet with its own supported versions and aborts the connection if the packet specifies a version number that it doesn't support. For packets with supported version numbers, the processing node first parses the packet into its individual fields.

Next, the processing node computes the shared secret using the private key corresponding to its own public key and the ephemeral key from the packet, as described in Shared Secret.

The above requirements prevent any hop along the route from retrying a payment multiple times, in an attempt to track a payment's progress via traffic analysis. Note that disabling such probing could be accomplished using a log of previous shared secrets or HMACs, which could be forgotten once the HTLC would not be accepted anyway (i.e. after outgoing_cltv_value has passed). Such a log may use a probabilistic data structure, but it MUST rate-limit commitments as necessary, in order to constrain the worst-case storage requirements or false positives of this log.

Next, the processing node uses the shared secret to compute a mu-key, which it in turn uses to compute the HMAC of the hop_payloads. The resulting HMAC is then compared against the packet's HMAC.

Comparison of the computed HMAC and the packet's HMAC MUST be time-constant to avoid information leaks.

At this point, the processing node can generate a rho-key and a gamma-key.

The routing information is then deobfuscated, and the information about the next hop is extracted. To do so, the processing node copies the hop_payloads field, appends 1300 0x00-bytes, generates 2*1300 pseudo-random bytes (using the rho-key), and applies the result, using XOR, to the copy of the hop_payloads. The first few bytes correspond to the bigsize-encoded length l of the hop_payload, followed by l bytes of the resulting routing information become the hop_payload, and the 32 byte HMAC. The next 1300 bytes are the hop_payloads for the outgoing packet.

A special hmac value of 32 0x00-bytes indicates that the currently processing hop is the intended recipient and that the packet should not be forwarded.

If the HMAC does not indicate route termination, and if the next hop is a peer of the processing node; then the new packet is assembled. Packet assembly is accomplished by blinding the ephemeral key with the processing node's public key, along with the shared secret, and by serializing the hop_payloads. The resulting packet is then forwarded to the addressed peer.

Requirements

The processing node:

  • if the ephemeral public key is NOT on the secp256k1 curve:
    • MUST abort processing the packet.
    • MUST report a route failure to the origin node.
  • if the packet has previously been forwarded or locally redeemed, i.e. the packet contains duplicate routing information to a previously received packet:
    • if preimage is known:
      • MAY immediately redeem the HTLC using the preimage.
    • otherwise:
      • MUST abort processing and report a route failure.
  • if the computed HMAC and the packet's HMAC differ:
    • MUST abort processing.
    • MUST report a route failure.
  • if the realm is unknown:
    • MUST drop the packet.
    • MUST signal a route failure.
  • MUST address the packet to another peer that is its direct neighbor.
  • if the processing node does not have a peer with the matching address:
    • MUST drop the packet.
    • MUST signal a route failure.

Filler Generation

Upon receiving a packet, the processing node extracts the information destined for it from the route information and the per-hop payload. The extraction is done by deobfuscating and left-shifting the field. This would make the field shorter at each hop, allowing an attacker to deduce the route length. For this reason, the field is pre-padded before forwarding. Since the padding is part of the HMAC, the origin node will have to pre-generate an identical padding (to that which each hop will generate) in order to compute the HMACs correctly for each hop. The filler is also used to pad the field-length, in the case that the selected route is shorter than 1300 bytes.

Before deobfuscating the hop_payloads, the processing node pads it with 1300 0x00-bytes, such that the total length is 2*1300. It then generates the pseudo-random byte stream, of matching length, and applies it with XOR to the hop_payloads. This deobfuscates the information destined for it, while simultaneously obfuscating the added 0x00-bytes at the end.

In order to compute the correct HMAC, the origin node has to pre-generate the hop_payloads for each hop, including the incrementally obfuscated padding added by each hop. This incrementally obfuscated padding is referred to as the filler.

The following example code shows how the filler is generated in Go:

func generateFiller(key string, numHops int, hopSize int, sharedSecrets [][sharedSecretSize]byte) []byte {
	fillerSize := uint((numMaxHops + 1) * hopSize)
	filler := make([]byte, fillerSize)

	// The last hop does not obfuscate, it's not forwarding anymore.
	for i := 0; i < numHops-1; i++ {

		// Left-shift the field
		copy(filler[:], filler[hopSize:])

		// Zero-fill the last hop
		copy(filler[len(filler)-hopSize:], bytes.Repeat([]byte{0x00}, hopSize))

		// Generate pseudo-random byte stream
		streamKey := generateKey(key, sharedSecrets[i])
		streamBytes := generateCipherStream(streamKey, fillerSize)

		// Obfuscate
		xor(filler, filler, streamBytes)
	}

	// Cut filler down to the correct length (numHops+1)*hopSize
	// bytes will be prepended by the packet generation.
	return filler[(numMaxHops-numHops+2)*hopSize:]
}

Note that this example implementation is for demonstration purposes only; the filler can be generated much more efficiently. The last hop need not obfuscate the filler, since it won't forward the packet any further and thus need not extract an HMAC either.

Returning Errors

The onion routing protocol includes a simple mechanism for returning encrypted error messages to the origin node. The returned error messages may be failures reported by any hop, including the final node. The format of the forward packet is not usable for the return path, since no hop besides the origin has access to the information required for its generation. Note that these error messages are not reliable, as they are not placed on-chain due to the possibility of hop failure.

Intermediate hops store the shared secret from the forward path and reuse it to obfuscate any corresponding return packet during each hop. In addition, each node locally stores data regarding its own sending peer in the route, so it knows where to return-forward any eventual return packets. The node generating the error message (erring node) builds a return packet consisting of the following fields:

  1. data:
    • [32*byte:hmac]
    • [u16:failure_len]
    • [failure_len*byte:failuremsg]
    • [u16:pad_len]
    • [pad_len*byte:pad]

Where hmac is an HMAC authenticating the remainder of the packet, with a key generated using the above process, with key type um, failuremsg as defined below, and pad as the extra bytes used to conceal length.

The erring node then generates a new key, using the key type ammag. This key is then used to generate a pseudo-random stream, which is in turn applied to the packet using XOR.

The obfuscation step is repeated by every hop along the return path. Upon receiving a return packet, each hop generates its ammag, generates the pseudo-random byte stream, and applies the result to the return packet before return-forwarding it.

The origin node is able to detect that it's the intended final recipient of the return message, because of course, it was the originator of the corresponding forward packet. When an origin node receives an error message matching a transfer it initiated (i.e. it cannot return-forward the error any further) it generates the ammag and um keys for each hop in the route. It then iteratively decrypts the error message, using each hop's ammag key, and computes the HMAC, using each hop's um key. The origin node can detect the sender of the error message by matching the hmac field with the computed HMAC.

The association between the forward and return packets is handled outside of this onion routing protocol, e.g. via association with an HTLC in a payment channel.

Requirements

The erring node:

  • SHOULD set pad such that the failure_len plus pad_len is equal to 256.
    • Note: this value is 118 bytes longer than the longest currently-defined message.

The origin node:

  • once the return message has been decrypted:
    • SHOULD store a copy of the message.
    • SHOULD continue decrypting, until the loop has been repeated 20 times.
    • SHOULD use constant ammag and um keys to obfuscate the route length.

Failure Messages

The failure message encapsulated in failuremsg has an identical format as a normal message: a 2-byte type failure_code followed by data applicable to that type. Below is a list of the currently supported failure_code values, followed by their use case requirements.

Notice that the failure_codes are not of the same type as other message types, defined in other BOLTs, as they are not sent directly on the transport layer but are instead wrapped inside return packets. The numeric values for the failure_code may therefore reuse values, that are also assigned to other message types, without any danger of causing collisions.

The top byte of failure_code can be read as a set of flags:

  • 0x8000 (BADONION): unparsable onion encrypted by sending peer
  • 0x4000 (PERM): permanent failure (otherwise transient)
  • 0x2000 (NODE): node failure (otherwise channel)
  • 0x1000 (UPDATE): new channel update enclosed

Please note that the channel_update field is mandatory in messages whose failure_code includes the UPDATE flag.

The following failure_codes are defined:

  1. type: PERM|1 (invalid_realm)

The realm byte was not understood by the processing node.

  1. type: NODE|2 (temporary_node_failure)

General temporary failure of the processing node.

  1. type: PERM|NODE|2 (permanent_node_failure)

General permanent failure of the processing node.

  1. type: PERM|NODE|3 (required_node_feature_missing)

The processing node has a required feature which was not in this onion.

  1. type: BADONION|PERM|4 (invalid_onion_version)
  2. data:
    • [sha256:sha256_of_onion]

The version byte was not understood by the processing node.

  1. type: BADONION|PERM|5 (invalid_onion_hmac)
  2. data:
    • [sha256:sha256_of_onion]

The HMAC of the onion was incorrect when it reached the processing node.

  1. type: BADONION|PERM|6 (invalid_onion_key)
  2. data:
    • [sha256:sha256_of_onion]

The ephemeral key was unparsable by the processing node.

  1. type: UPDATE|7 (temporary_channel_failure)
  2. data:
    • [u16:len]
    • [len*byte:channel_update]

The channel from the processing node was unable to handle this HTLC, but may be able to handle it, or others, later.

  1. type: PERM|8 (permanent_channel_failure)

The channel from the processing node is unable to handle any HTLCs.

  1. type: PERM|9 (required_channel_feature_missing)

The channel from the processing node requires features not present in the onion.

  1. type: PERM|10 (unknown_next_peer)

The onion specified a short_channel_id which doesn't match any leading from the processing node.

  1. type: UPDATE|11 (amount_below_minimum)
  2. data:
    • [u64:htlc_msat]
    • [u16:len]
    • [len*byte:channel_update]

The HTLC amount was below the htlc_minimum_msat of the channel from the processing node.

  1. type: UPDATE|12 (fee_insufficient)
  2. data:
    • [u64:htlc_msat]
    • [u16:len]
    • [len*byte:channel_update]

The fee amount was below that required by the channel from the processing node.

  1. type: UPDATE|13 (incorrect_cltv_expiry)
  2. data:
    • [u32:cltv_expiry]
    • [u16:len]
    • [len*byte:channel_update]

The cltv_expiry does not comply with the cltv_expiry_delta required by the channel from the processing node: it does not satisfy the following requirement:

    cltv_expiry - cltv_expiry_delta >= outgoing_cltv_value
  1. type: UPDATE|14 (expiry_too_soon)
  2. data:
    • [u16:len]
    • [len*byte:channel_update]

The CLTV expiry is too close to the current block height for safe handling by the processing node.

  1. type: PERM|15 (incorrect_or_unknown_payment_details)
  2. data:
    • [u64:htlc_msat]
    • [u32:height]

The payment_hash is unknown to the final node, the payment_secret doesn't match the payment_hash, the amount for that payment_hash is incorrect or the CLTV expiry of the htlc is too close to the current block height for safe handling.

The htlc_msat parameter is superfluous, but left in for backwards compatibility. The value of htlc_msat always matches the amount specified in the final hop onion payload. It therefore does not have any informative value to the sender. A penultimate hop sending a different amount or expiry for the htlc is handled through final_incorrect_cltv_expiry and final_incorrect_htlc_amount.

The height parameter is set by the final node to the best known block height at the time of receiving the htlc. This can be used by the sender to distinguish between sending a payment with the wrong final CLTV expiry and an intermediate hop delaying the payment so that the receiver's invoice CLTV delta requirement is no longer met.

Note: Originally PERM|16 (incorrect_payment_amount) and 17 (final_expiry_too_soon) were used to differentiate incorrect htlc parameters from unknown payment hash. Sadly, sending this response allows for probing attacks whereby a node which receives an HTLC for forwarding can check guesses as to its final destination by sending payments with the same hash but much lower values or expiry heights to potential destinations and check the response. Care must be taken by implementations to differentiate the previously non-permanent case for final_expiry_too_soon (17) from the other, permanent failures now represented by incorrect_or_unknown_payment_details (PERM|15).

  1. type: 18 (final_incorrect_cltv_expiry)
  2. data:
    • [u32:cltv_expiry]

The CLTV expiry in the HTLC doesn't match the value in the onion.

  1. type: 19 (final_incorrect_htlc_amount)
  2. data:
    • [u64:incoming_htlc_amt]

The amount in the HTLC doesn't match the value in the onion.

  1. type: UPDATE|20 (channel_disabled)
  2. data:
    • [u16: flags]
    • [u16:len]
    • [len*byte:channel_update]

The channel from the processing node has been disabled.

  1. type: 21 (expiry_too_far)

The CLTV expiry in the HTLC is too far in the future.

  1. type: PERM|22 (invalid_onion_payload)
  2. data:
    • [bigsize:type]
    • [u16:offset]

The decrypted onion per-hop payload was not understood by the processing node or is incomplete. If the failure can be narrowed down to a specific tlv type in the payload, the erring node may include that type and its byte offset in the decrypted byte stream.

  1. type: 23 (mpp_timeout)

The complete amount of the multi-part payment was not received within a reasonable time.

Requirements

An erring node:

  • MUST select one of the above error codes when creating an error message.
  • MUST include the appropriate data for that particular error type.
  • if there is more than one error:
    • SHOULD select the first error it encounters from the list above.

Any erring node MAY:

  • if the realm byte is unknown:
    • return an invalid_realm error.
  • if the per-hop payload in the onion is invalid (e.g. it is not a valid tlv stream) or is missing required information (e.g. the amount was not specified):
    • return an invalid_onion_payload error.
  • if an otherwise unspecified transient error occurs for the entire node:
    • return a temporary_node_failure error.
  • if an otherwise unspecified permanent error occurs for the entire node:
    • return a permanent_node_failure error.
  • if a node has requirements advertised in its node_announcement features, which were NOT included in the onion:
    • return a required_node_feature_missing error.

A forwarding node MAY, but a final node MUST NOT:

  • if the onion version byte is unknown:
    • return an invalid_onion_version error.
  • if the onion HMAC is incorrect:
    • return an invalid_onion_hmac error.
  • if the ephemeral key in the onion is unparsable:
    • return an invalid_onion_key error.
  • if during forwarding to its receiving peer, an otherwise unspecified, transient error occurs in the outgoing channel (e.g. channel capacity reached, too many in-flight HTLCs, etc.):
    • return a temporary_channel_failure error.
  • if an otherwise unspecified, permanent error occurs during forwarding to its receiving peer (e.g. channel recently closed):
    • return a permanent_channel_failure error.
  • if the outgoing channel has requirements advertised in its channel_announcement's features, which were NOT included in the onion:
    • return a required_channel_feature_missing error.
  • if the receiving peer specified by the onion is NOT known:
    • return an unknown_next_peer error.
  • if the HTLC amount is less than the currently specified minimum amount:
    • report the amount of the outgoing HTLC and the current channel setting for the outgoing channel.
    • return an amount_below_minimum error.
  • if the HTLC does NOT pay a sufficient fee:
    • report the amount of the incoming HTLC and the current channel setting for the outgoing channel.
    • return a fee_insufficient error.
  • if the incoming cltv_expiry minus the outgoing_cltv_value is below the cltv_expiry_delta for the outgoing channel:
    • report the cltv_expiry of the outgoing HTLC and the current channel setting for the outgoing channel.
    • return an incorrect_cltv_expiry error.
  • if the cltv_expiry is unreasonably near the present:
    • report the current channel setting for the outgoing channel.
    • return an expiry_too_soon error.
  • if the cltv_expiry is unreasonably far in the future:
    • return an expiry_too_far error.
  • if the channel is disabled:
    • report the current channel setting for the outgoing channel.
    • return a channel_disabled error.

An intermediate hop MUST NOT, but the final node:

  • if the payment hash has already been paid:
    • MAY treat the payment hash as unknown.
    • MAY succeed in accepting the HTLC.
  • if the payment_secret doesn't match the expected value for that payment_hash, or the payment_secret is required and is not present:
    • MUST fail the HTLC.
    • MUST return an incorrect_or_unknown_payment_details error.
  • if the amount paid is less than the amount expected:
    • MUST fail the HTLC.
    • MUST return an incorrect_or_unknown_payment_details error.
  • if the payment hash is unknown:
    • MUST fail the HTLC.
    • MUST return an incorrect_or_unknown_payment_details error.
  • if the amount paid is more than twice the amount expected:
    • SHOULD fail the HTLC.
    • SHOULD return an incorrect_or_unknown_payment_details error.
      • Note: this allows the origin node to reduce information leakage by altering the amount while not allowing for accidental gross overpayment.
  • if the cltv_expiry value is unreasonably near the present:
    • MUST fail the HTLC.
    • MUST return an incorrect_or_unknown_payment_details error.
  • if the outgoing_cltv_value does NOT correspond with the cltv_expiry from the final node's HTLC:
    • MUST return final_incorrect_cltv_expiry error.
  • if the amt_to_forward does NOT correspond with the incoming_htlc_amt from the final node's HTLC:
    • MUST return a final_incorrect_htlc_amount error.

Receiving Failure Codes

Requirements

The origin node:

  • MUST ignore any extra bytes in failuremsg.
  • if the final node is returning the error:
    • if the PERM bit is set:
      • SHOULD fail the payment.
    • otherwise:
      • if the error code is understood and valid:
        • MAY retry the payment. In particular, final_expiry_too_soon can occur if the block height has changed since sending, and in this case temporary_node_failure could resolve within a few seconds.
  • otherwise, an intermediate hop is returning the error:
    • if the NODE bit is set:
      • SHOULD remove all channels connected with the erring node from consideration.
    • if the PERM bit is NOT set:
      • SHOULD restore the channels as it receives new channel_updates.
    • otherwise:
      • if UPDATE is set, AND the channel_update is valid and more recent than the channel_update used to send the payment:
        • if channel_update should NOT have caused the failure:
          • MAY treat the channel_update as invalid.
        • otherwise:
          • SHOULD apply the channel_update.
        • MAY queue the channel_update for broadcast.
      • otherwise:
        • SHOULD eliminate the channel outgoing from the erring node from consideration.
        • if the PERM bit is NOT set:
          • SHOULD restore the channel as it receives new channel_updates.
    • SHOULD then retry routing and sending the payment.
  • MAY use the data specified in the various failure types for debugging purposes.

Test Vector

Returning Errors

The test vectors use the following parameters:

pubkey[0] = 0x02eec7245d6b7d2ccb30380bfbe2a3648cd7a942653f5aa340edcea1f283686619
pubkey[1] = 0x0324653eac434488002cc06bbfb7f10fe18991e35f9fe4302dbea6d2353dc0ab1c
pubkey[2] = 0x027f31ebc5462c1fdce1b737ecff52d37d75dea43ce11c74d25aa297165faa2007
pubkey[3] = 0x032c0b7cf95324a07d05398b240174dc0c2be444d96b159aa6c7f7b1e668680991
pubkey[4] = 0x02edabbd16b41c8371b92ef2f04c1185b4f03b6dcd52ba9b78d9d7c89c8f221145

nhops = 5/20
sessionkey = 0x4141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141414141
associated data = 0x4242424242424242424242424242424242424242424242424242424242424242

The following is an in-depth trace of an example of error message creation:

# node 4 is returning an error
failure_message = 2002
# creating error message
shared_secret = b5756b9b542727dbafc6765a49488b023a725d631af688fc031217e90770c328
payload = 0002200200fe0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
um_key = 4da7f2923edce6c2d85987d1d9fa6d88023e6c3a9c3d20f07d3b10b61a78d646
raw_error_packet = 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
# forwarding error packet
shared_secret = b5756b9b542727dbafc6765a49488b023a725d631af688fc031217e90770c328
 ammag_key = 2f36bb8822e1f0d04c27b7d8bb7d7dd586e032a3218b8d414afbba6f169a4d68
stream = e9c975b07c9a374ba64fd9be3aae955e917d34d1fa33f2e90f53bbf4394713c6a8c9b16ab5f12fd45edd73c1b0c8b33002df376801ff58aaa94000bf8a86f92620f343baef38a580102395ae3abf9128d1047a0736ff9b83d456740ebbb4aeb3aa9737f18fb4afb4aa074fb26c4d702f42968888550a3bded8c05247e045b866baef0499f079fdaeef6538f31d44deafffdfd3afa2fb4ca9082b8f1c465371a9894dd8c243fb4847e004f5256b3e90e2edde4c9fb3082ddfe4d1e734cacd96ef0706bf63c9984e22dc98851bcccd1c3494351feb458c9c6af41c0044bea3c47552b1d992ae542b17a2d0bba1a096c78d169034ecb55b6e3a7263c26017f033031228833c1daefc0dedb8cf7c3e37c9c37ebfe42f3225c326e8bcfd338804c145b16e34e4
error packet for node 4: 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
# forwarding error packet
shared_secret = 21e13c2d7cfe7e18836df50872466117a295783ab8aab0e7ecc8c725503ad02d
ammag_key = cd9ac0e09064f039fa43a31dea05f5fe5f6443d40a98be4071af4a9d704be5ad
stream = 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
error packet for node 3: 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
forwarding error packet
shared_secret = 3a6b412548762f0dbccce5c7ae7bb8147d1caf9b5471c34120b30bc9c04891cc
ammag_key = 1bf08df8628d452141d56adfd1b25c1530d7921c23cecfc749ac03a9b694b0d3
stream = 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
error packet for node 2: 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
# forwarding error packet
shared_secret = a6519e98832a0b179f62123b3567c106db99ee37bef036e783263602f3488fae
ammag_key = 59ee5867c5c151daa31e36ee42530f429c433836286e63744f2020b980302564
stream = 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
error packet for node 1: 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
# forwarding error packet
shared_secret = 53eb63ea8a3fec3b3cd433b85cd62a4b145e1dda09391b348c4e1cd36a03ea66
ammag_key = 3761ba4d3e726d8abb16cba5950ee976b84937b61b7ad09e741724d7dee12eb5
stream = 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
error packet for node 0: 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

References

Authors

[ FIXME: ]

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

You can’t perform that action at this time.