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A publishing tool for static websites

Distributed as a Perl module, Dapper comes with a command-line application called dapper which you can use to create static websites.

$ cpanm App::Dapper # Install
$ dapper init       # Initialize current directory with new site
$ dapper serve      # Build and serve locally at http://localhost:8000

Dapper has three goals:

  1. Simple. Learning Dapper is easy -- it gets out of the way so you can write content, develop layouts, and deploy to production the way you want.

  2. Flexible. Content is written in Markdown, and templates are written using the TT3 mini-language from Template::Alloy for maximum flexibility.

  3. Pragmatic. The easy things are easy and the hard things are possible. Dapper was created to solve problems in a straight-forward and intuitive way.

Why static? Decent question. Here are some reasons:

  1. Fast. Static pages are fast to load and easy to cache. Content management systems, on the other hand, may contact the database at least one time per page request, process the results, merge with a templating system, and serve the result to the user's web browser.

  2. Cheap. Having a static website means that options for hosting those static files also just got a lot more simple. No database is needed and no real processing power for scripting is needed. For example, with a static website, it becomes possible to host the site on Github Pages for free, or Amazon S3 for very modest fees.

  3. Secure. It's much more secure to host a static website than a dynamic one. Content management systems that use scripting languages such as Perl, Python, or Ruby, all are more susceptible to being hacked than a static website is. Simply stated, why use a dynamic content- management system if a static setup will do?

  4. Portable. With a static website, it's way easier to move the site to a new host in the future. All web hosts now and in the future support serving up a static website -- think of it as the lowest common denominator -- and so there's no need to pick a premium host with premium services.

Dapper was first written in 2002 to facilitate the creation of a series of static websites that each had their own look and feel, but shared content. Since then, Dapper has been used to create websites for speakers, artists, authors, illusionists, web designers, piano tuners, photographers, entertainment agencies, and API documentation for industrial sensing equipment. In addition, it is the tool that powers

In 2014, Dapper was submitted as a Perl module (App::Dapper) to CPAN under the MIT license for anyone to use for any purpose.


  • Written in perl, available as a command line utility after installing.
  • Content is written in Markdown.
  • Layouts are developed using TT3 from the Template::Alloy templating engine.
  • Configuration files and attributes are encoded with YAML.

The rest of this document shows you how to get your site up and running, how to manage the content and the way it looks, and how to deploy the result to your favorite web host.

Getting Started

The following sections show you how to install, upgrade, and downgrade the version of Dapper you have, as well as how to use the dapper command- line utility and work with the directory structure it depends on.


Install Dapper in seconds:

$ cpanm App::Dapper

Then, create a new site, build it, and view it locally like so:

$ mkdir new-site && cd new-site
$ dapper init
$ dapper build
$ dapper serve

After that, browse to http://localhost:8000 to see your site. To modify the content, look at _source/ To modify the layout, edit _layout/index.html.


Find out which version of Dapper you have, by using the -v option:

$ dapper -v

You can compare this with the latest version from CPAN like this:

$ cpan -D App::Dapper

Installed: 0.12
CPAN:      0.13  Not up to date
Mark Benson (MDB)

In this example, you can see there is a newer version available. Upgrade like this:

$ cpan App::Dapper

Stable releases are available on CPAN, but development happens at Github. If you like living on the edge, install from the latest development tip like this:

$ cpanm git://

A list of recent commits can also be viewed on Github.


If you want to install an older version of Dapper, first find the link on backpan. Then, install like this (e.g. v0.13):

$ cpanm

If you want, you can also install from source. To do that, you just need to download and unpack the desired release from backpan, or clone the repository from Github. Then, do this:

$ perl Makefile.PL
$ make
$ make test
$ make install


When you install the App::Dapper Perl module, an executable named dapper will be available to you in your terminal window. You can use this executable in a number of ways. The following sections show you how.


The dapper init command initializes a new site. Note that the site will be initialized in the current directory. Therefore, it's usually best to create a blank directory that can be used for this purpose. A description of the resulting directory structure is available in the Directory Structure section.

# Initialize the current directory with a fresh skeleton of a site
$ dapper init


After the site has been initialized, build it using the dapper build command. Dapper takes care of reading the source files, combining them with the layout template(s), and saving the result in the _output directory.

# Build the site
$ dapper build


The dapper watch command builds the site and then watches all the files in the project for changes. If any changes occur, the site is rebuilt again. The dapper watch command will do this repeatedly until you exit using Ctrl-C.

# Rebuild the site if anything changes
$ dapper watch

Specifically, the dapper command watches all files in the current directory and all subdirectories and files except:

  • Files that begin with a period (.).
  • Files that begin with an underscore (_).
  • Files in the output directory (_output) or any subfolder of the output directory.


The dapper serve command builds the site, serves the contents of the _output directory using Dapper's built-in webserver, and handles auto- rebuilding your site if anything changes. You can think of the dapper serve command as a combination of build, watch, and serve.

# Serve the site locally at http://localhost:8000
$ dapper serve

If you want to use a different port number (e.g. 9000), specifiy it using the -p option:

# Serve the site locally at http://localhost:9000
$ dapper -p 9000 serve


To get more information about command-line options available, the current version of Dapper that you have installed on your system, or further documentation available, see the followig:

# Get help on usage and switches
$ dapper -h

# Print the version
$ dapper -v

Directory Structure

After running the dapper init command, the following directory structure will be created:


Here is a description of each file:


The configuration file is a YAML file that specifies key configuration elements for your static website. The default configuration file is as follows:

# Dapper configuration file
name : My Site

If you want to use a separate source, layout, or output directory, you may specify it in this file. For instance:

# Dapper configuration file
name : My Site
source : _source
layout : _layout
output : _output

There are a few definitions that affect the way that Dapper behaves. Those are defined in the Configuration section. Those and any others that you choose to specify become available in the layout templates under the site namespace. For instance, name is available in templates like this:

[% %]


A sample markdown file is available in the _source directory. Contents:

layout: index
title: Welcome

Hello world.

There are a few things to note about this file:

  1. There is a YAML configuration block at the start of the file.

  2. The layout configuration specifies which layout to use.

  3. The index layout indicates that _layout/index.html should be used.

  4. The title configuration is the name of the post/page. It is optional.

  5. All of the configurations may be used in the corresponding layout file.

    [% %]


Layout files are processed using the TT3 mini-language from the Template::Alloy template system. The initial layout file that is given after you run the dapper init command, is this:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
  <title>[% page.title %]</title>
  <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">


[% page.content %]


The main content of the text file that is being rendered with this template is available using [% page.content %].

Definitions specified in the _config.yml file can be referenced under the "site" namespace (e.g. [% %]. Definitions specified in the YAML portion of text files can be referenced under the "page" namespace (e.g. [% page.title %].

In that same directory, you may then build the site using the dapper build command, which will combine the source files and the layout files and place the results in the output directory (default: _output). After you build the default site, you'll then have the following directory structure:


Now, you'll see a new directory that has been created (_output) that contains a single file (index.html) containing a mashup of the source file and the layout template.


The output file that is created is a mix of the input file and the layout that is specified by the input file. For the default site, the following output file is created:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
  <meta http-equiv="content-type" content="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">


<p>Hello world.</p>



Dapper allows you to create static websites in just about any way that you want to. The project configuration file (_config.yml) allows you to specify special instructions to Dapper and also to guide the process of rendering the site using the source files (_source/) and the layout templates (_layout/).

Variables specified in _config.yml are done using YAML. Here is the default configuration file created after a dapper init command:

# Dapper configuration file.
name: My Site

Note that lines beginning with # are comments. Lines with --- mark the beginning/end of a YAML "document". What follows are <key>:<value> pairs or arrays, arranged hierarchically:

# Dapper config file
name: Mark Benson Portfolio
source : _source/
output : _output/
layout : _layout/
links :
    Preface : /preface/
    Amazon :
    Github :
    LinkedIn :
    Twitter :
ignore :
    - "^\."
    - "^_"
    - "^design$"
    - "^$"
    - "^Makefile$"

Any variable specified in _config.yml can be used in a template. In the example above, name can be used like this:

[% %]

URL can be used like this:

<a href="[% site.url %]">[% %]</a>

The links (key/value pairs) can be listed like this:

[% for link in site.links %]
    <a href="[% link.value %]">[% link.key %]</a><br />
[% end %]

All of the items in the ignore array can be shown like this:

[% for i in site.ignore %]
    <li>[% i %]</li>
[% end %]

See the official YAML specification, or the YAML::Tiny Perl module documentation (Dapper's YAML parsing engine) for more information.


Source files in Dapper are written in Markdown. Markdown is a markup language that allows you to write content in a natural way, and have that text converted to XHTML for displaying on the web.

Writing with Markdown allows you to separate the content and structure of your document from the formatting which allows you to focus on the actual writing.

All source files must contain YAML at the beginning. The YAML at the beginning of the source files is denoted by leading and trailing lines that each contain a sequence of three dashes. Example:

layout: post
title: Post Title

Here is the text of the post.

The variables specified as YAML are available under the page namespace in layouts. The body of the page (Here is the text of the post.) in the above example, is available as content in Template Toolkit templates.

Variable definitions in source files that carry special meaning are as follows:

  • extension: .html is the default used if not specified. To override, specify a new value for extension for that particular page. extension may also be specified in the _config.yml file to apply it globally.

  • urlpattern: /:category/:year/:month/:slug/ defines the URL path for the file. This may also be specified in _config.yml as well. If not specified, the following is used: /:category/:year/:month/:slug/. A full list of pattern options are as follows:

    • :category - The category of the page as defined by the page's YAML.
    • :year - The year the page was published as defined either by the date field in the page's YAML part, or from the file modification timestamp.
    • :month - The month the page was published as defined either by the date field in the page's YAML part, or from the file modification timestamp.
    • :day - The day the page was published as defined either by the date field in the page's YAML part, or from the file modification timestamp.
    • :hour - The hour the page was published as defined either by the date field in the page's YAML part, or from the file modification timestamp.
    • :minute - The minute the page was published as defined either by the date field in the page's YAML part, or from the file modification timestamp.
    • :second - The second the page was published as defined either by the date field in the page's YAML part, or from the file modification timestamp.
    • :slug - The title of the page with all non-ASCII characters removed, all non-word characters removed, all spaces converted to hyphens (-), and converted to lowercase.

Here is an example that shows a few different types of YAML definitions at the beginning of a source file and how to use those definitions in templates.

name: My Site
    Home: /
    Portfolio: /portfolio/
    About: /about/
    - Apple
    - Orange
    - Banana

[% %]<br />

[% for link in %]
    <li><a href="[% link.value %]">[% link.key %]</a></li>
[% end %]

[% for fruit in page.fruits %]
    <li>[% fruit %]</li>
[% end %]

Note that Dapper renders templates twice for each source file in the project. The first time, the source file itself is rendered wherby all directives are processed.

After Dapper combines the source file with the template file, Dapper renders the template directives a second time. The only difference between the variables available to source files versus the variables available to layout files are that [% page.content %] is only available in layout files to prevent circular references.

This double-rendering behavior of Dapper allows you to speciify layout directives in the source file in addition to the layout file, and gives you some extra flexibility. More information is available in Appendix C: Internals.

Dapper depends on MultiMarkdown. Or, more specifically, the Perl module implementation of MultiMarkdown (Text:: MultiMarkdown.

MultiMarkdown is based on the traditional definition of Markdown by John Gruber of Daring Fireball, but adds additional nice features such as tables and footnotes.

The following sections describe the markup that Dapper accepts, including headings, text, lists, footnotes, tables, and images. There are more features of the MultiMarkdown engine that Dapper uses. See the MultiMarkdown documentation on CPAN for details.


Headings are specified by prefixing with pound signs (#):

# Heading 1
## Heading 2
### Heading 3
#### Heading 4
##### Heading 5
###### Heading 6

Alternatively, headings may be specified using an underline style:

Alternative H1

Alternative H2


Text elements may be formatted as well. Here are some examples of bold, italics, code, links, and blockquotes:

Markdown Result
This is a normal paragraph. This is a normal paragraph.
This text is **bold**. This text is bold.
This text is also __bold__. This text is also bold.
This text is *italicized*. This text is italicized.
This text is also _italicized_. This text is also italicized.
`This is some code.` This is some code.
Link to [Mark Benson Portfolio]( Link to Mark Benson Portfolio.
Link to [Mark Benson Portfolio][ln1]. Link to [Mark Benson][ln1].
Link to <>. Link to
> This is the first level of quoting. The first level of quoting.
>> This is a nested blockquote. A nested blockquote.

[ln1]: "Mark Benson Portfolio" [ln1]: "Mark Benson Portfolio"

Code is placed in backticks (see above), or as a "fenced code block" by surrounding an entire block of text with three backticks in a row.

#!/usr/bin/perl -w
print "Hello, world!\n";


Lists may be specified by prefixing lines with an asterisk (*), minus (-), or plus (+). Hierarchical representations are accomplished via indentation.

* Milk
* Bread
* Cheese
    - Cheddar
        + Mild
        + Medium
        + Sharp
    - Limburger
* Rice

Numbered lists are prefixed by numbers. The order of the numbers doesn't matter -- just that they are numbers. Exmaple:

1. One
2. Two
3. Three
    1. Three.One
    2. Three.Two
4. Four

A definition list is a line followed by a line that starts with a colon and a list of definitions. Examples:

:   * Pomaceous fruit of plants of the genus Malus in the family Rosaceae.
    * Also the makers of really great products.

:   1. A delicious fruit that can be hazardous if left on the ground.
    2. A fruit that comes with it's own packaging

:   - The fruit of an evergreen tree of the genus Citrus.


Here is an example table that has a header row and a reference. The first column is left-justified, the middle column is centered, and the third column is right justified:

| First Header | Second Header |         Third Header |
| :----------- | :-----------: | -------------------: |
| First row    |      Data     | Very long data entry |
| Second row   |    **Cell**   |               *Cell* |

More information is available in the MultiMarkdown documentation.


Images can be specified in HTML by simply including the HTML in the text. Alternatively, here are some short-hand notations:

  • Image: ![Image description.](img.png)
  • Image with title attribute: ![Image description.](img.png "This is a title")
  • Image with ID: ![Image description.][img_id]

[img_id]: img.png "This is a title" height=50px width=200px


Footnotes can be accomplished as follows:

Here is some text containing a footnote[^somesamplefootnote]. You can then 
continue your thought...

[^somesamplefootnote]: Here is the text of the footnote itself.

This is an example of an inline footnote.[^This is the *actual* footnote.]


Layout templates in Dapper are based on a superset of the Template Toolkit v3 (TT3) mini language as implemented by Template::Alloy. Although both Dapper and Template::Alloy are both written in Perl, you do not need to know Perl in order to use them.

Layout templates include a series of directives. Directives can be used to print the contents of a variable, or perform more sophisticated computation such as if/then/else, foreach, or case statements. Directives are surrounded by matched pairs of hard brackets and percent signs. Here is an example of printing a variable called

[% %]

When printing variables, you may also use filters to transform the variable or print information about it. For instance, you can convert a variable name to all uppercase letters using the upper filter. Example:

[% | upper %]

Another class of "logic" directives are used in a similar fashion. Here is an example of a for statement that loops through each page in site.pages. For each iteration of the loop, print the contents of page.title:

[% for page in site.pages %]
  [% page.title %]
[% end %]

The following sections show how to use directives in more depth.


This section describes how to use variables, literals, and expressions in Dapper.

Variables are bits of text or numbers that are defined in the project configuration file or in the source files that can be used in templates. Here is an example of printing the contents of page.title:

[% page.title %]

In Dapper, there are two top-level variables (think of them as namespaces), which are site and page. All site variables are defined in _config.yml, and are available in layouts as [% site.* %]. All page variables (defined at the beginning of source files) are available in layouts as [% page.* %].

Example _config.yml:

name: Mark Benson Portfolio

Example _source/

title: The title of my post

The body of my post.

Example _layout/index.html:

    <title>[% page.title %] - [% %]</title>
    <h1>[% page.title %]</h1>
    <p>[% page.content %]</p>

This would produce the following:

    <title>The title of my post - Mark Benson Portfolio</title>
    <h1>The title of my post</h1>
    <p>The body of my post.</p>

Variables can also be defined within a template file. For example:

[% a = 42 %][% a %]
[% b = "Hello" %][% b %]



It's also possible to create arrays:

[% a = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] %]
[% a.1 %]
[% a | length %]



And associative arrays (hashes):

[% link = {name => 'Mark Benson Portfolio', 'url' => ''} %]
<a href="[% link.url %]">[% %]</a>


<a href="">Mark Benson Portfolio</a>


The following are the types of literals (numbers and strings) allowed in layouts:

[% 23423 %]          Prints an integer
[% 3.14159 %]        Prints a number
[% pi = 3.14159 %]   Sets the value of the variable
[% 3.13159.length %] Prints 7 (the string length of the number)


Expressions are one or more variables or literals joined together with operators. An expression can be used anywhere a variable can be used with the exception of the left-hand side of a variable assignment directive or a filename for one of the process, include, wrapper, or insert directives.


[% 1 + 2 %]       Prints 3
[% 1 + 2 * 3 %]   Prints 7
[% (1 + 2) * 3 %] Prints 9

[% x = 2 %]       Assignments don't return anything
[% (x = 2) %]     Unless they are in parens. Prints 2
[% y = 3 %]
[% x * (y - 1) %] Prints 4

For a full listing of operators, see Template::Alloy::Operator.


Comments in Dapper are specified using the comment directive. Example:

[% comment %]
   This text is commented out and won't be shown.
[% end %]


Variables can use filters. Filters are simple methods that take a string as an input, along with zero or more optional parameters, and returns a string as a result. Filters can be chained together. Examples:

[% = " Mark Benson Portfolio    " %]
[% | upper | trim %]
[% page.title = "My very long page title that should be truncated" %]
[% page.title | truncate(26) %]


My very long page title...

Here is a list of filters that are provided by default. Most are provided by Template::Alloy. Others that are provided by Dapper are marked as [DSF].


The following methods can be called on text/string variables.

Filter Description
abs Returns the absolute value
atan2(x) Returns the arctangent. The item itself represents Y, the passed argument represents X.
chunk(n) Split string up into a list of chunks of text n chars wide.
collapse Strip leading and trailing whitespace and collapse all other space to one space.
cos Returns the cosine of the item.
date_to_xmlschema [DSF] Convert a date to an XML-formatted version of the date that also includes the timezone
defined Always true - because the undef sub translates all undefs to ''.
eval Process the string as though it was a template.
evaltt Same as the eval filter.
exp Returns "e" to the power of the item.
fmt Similar to format. Returns a string formatted with the passed pattern. Default pattern is %s. Opposite from of the sprintf vmethod.
format Print the string out in the specified format. It is similar to the "fmt" virtual method, except that the item is split on newline and each line is processed separately.
hash Returns a one item hash with a key of "value" and a value of the item.
hex Returns the decimal value of the passed hex numbers.
html Performs a very basic html encoding (swaps out &, <, > and " with the corresponding html entities).
indent(n) Indent by n spaces if an integer is passed (default is 4), or string if string is passed.
int Return the integer portion of the value (0 if none).
json(1) Returns a JSON encoded representation. Returns a pretty JSON encoded representation if 1 is passed.
json [DSF] Convert an object or string to a JSON representation
lc Same as the lower vmethod. Returns the lowercased version of the item.
lcfirst Lowercase the leading letter.
length Return the length of the string.
list Returns a list (arrayref) with a single value of the item.
log Returns the natural log base "e" of the item.
lower Return the string lowercased.
match(p, 1) Return a list of items matching the regular expression pattern p. If the second argument is 1, match globally.
none Returns the item without modification.
null Return nothing.
oct Returns the decimal value of the octal string.
rand Returns a number greater or equal to 0 but less than the value of the item.
remove(p) Same as replace, but is global and replaces the regular expression p with nothing.
repeat(n, s) Repeat the item n times, separated with s. s is optional.
replace(p, q) Globally replace all p with q. p and q may be strings or regular expressions. An optional third argument of 0 may be passed to turn off global replacement.
replace_last [DSF] Replace the last occurrance of a string with another string
return Returns the item from the inner most block, macro, or file. Similar to the return directive.
search(s) Tests if the given pattern is in the string.
sin Returns the sine of the item.
size Always returns 1 for text variables.
smart [DSF] Replace dashes with mdashes and ndashes
split(s, n) Splits the item on regular expression s and returns an array with the chunks. If n is passed, processing stops after the first n chunks.
sprintf(p, q, ...) Uses the pattern stored in self, and passes it to sprintf with the passed arguments. Opposite from the fmt vmethod.
sqrt Returns the square root of the number.
srand Calls the perl srand function to set the internal random seed. This will affect future calls to the rand vmethod.
stderr Print the item to the current STDERR handle.
substr(i, n) Returns a substring of item starting at i and going to the end of the string. If n is passed, the substring stops after n characters.
trim Strips leading and trailing whitespace.
uc Same as the upper command. Returns uppercased string.
ucfirst Uppercase the leading letter.
upper Return the string uppercased.
uri Perform a very basic URI encoding.
url Perform a URI encoding - but some characters such as : and / are left intact.
xml_escape [DSF] Escape strings that may contain XML so the string can be included in XML files such as ATOM or RSS feeds
xml Performs a very basic xml encoding (swaps out &, <, >, ' and " with the corresponding xml entities).


The following methods can be called on arrays (text/strings are automatically converted to an array containing a single element containing the value of the text/string).

Filter Description
fmt(s,t,u) Returns a string of the values of the list formatted with the passed pattern and joined with the passed string. Default pattern is %s and the default join string is space.
first(n) Returns a list of the first n items in the list.
grep(s) Returns a list of all items matching the regex pattern.
hash Returns a hash with the array indexes as keys and the values as values.
join(s) Joins on s. s defaults to space.
json(1) Returns a JSON encoded representation. If 1 is passed, returns a JSON-encoded pretty representation.
last(n) Returns a list of the last n items in the list.
list Returns a reference to the list.
map [%>{ this.upper }) %] Returns a list with the macro played on each item.
max Returns the last item in the array.
merge(a) Returns a new list with all defined items from list a added.
nsort(key) Returns the numerically sorted items of the list. If the items are hashes, a key containing the field to sort on can be passed.
pop Removes and returns the last element from the arrayref (the stash is modified).
push(e) Adds an element to the end of the arrayref (the stash is modified).
pick(n) Returns n random items from the list. n defaults to 1.
return Returns the list from the inner most block, macro, or file. Similar to the RETURN directive.
reverse Returns the list in reverse order.
shift Removes and returns the first element of the arrayref (the stash is modified).
size Returns the number of elements in the array.
slice(i,n) Returns a list from the arrayref beginning at index i and continuing for n items.
sort Returns the alphabetically sorted items of the list. If the items are hashrefs, a key containing the field to sort on can be passed.
splice(i,n) Removes items from array beginning at i and continuing for n items.
unique Return a list of the unique items in the array.
unshift(n) Adds an item to the beginning of the arrayref.


The following methods can be called on hash type data structures. Additionally, list virtual methods can be accessed via the Hash Virtual Object.

Filter Description
fmt [% myhash.fmt('%s => %s', "\n") %] Passed a pattern and an string to join on. Returns a string of the key/value pairs of the hash formatted with the passed pattern and joined with the passed string. Default pattern is "%s\t%s" and the default join string is a newline.
defined(a) Checks if a is defined in the hash.
delete(a) Deletes the item a from the hash.
each Turns the contents of the hash into a list - subject to change.
exists(a) Checks if a is in the hash.
hash Returns a reference to the hash.
import(h) Overlays the keys of hash h over the keys of the hash item.
item(k) Returns the hash value for key k.
items Returns a list of the key and values (flattened hash).
json(1) Returns a JSON encoded representation. If 1 is passed, returns a pretty JSON-encoded representation.
keys Returns an arrayref of the keys of the hash.
list Returns an arrayref with the hash as a single value (subject to change).
pairs Returns an arrayref of hashrefs where each hash contains {key => $key, value => $value} for each value of the hash.
nsort Returns a list of keys numerically sorted by the values.
return Returns the hash from the inner most block, macro, or file. Similar to the RETURN directive.
size Returns the number of key/value pairs in the hash.
sort Returns a list of keys alphabetically sorted by the values.
values Returns an arrayref of the values of the hash.


Conditional statements are possible in Dapper. A variety of options exist, including if/else, unless, and switch/case, which are defined next.


If statements are used for controlling the flow of execution through a layout template. If statements take an expression. If true, the proceeding block is executed. If not, an elsif block is executed (if it exists). Finally, an else block (if it exists) is executed if neither the if or the elsif block is true. Example:

[% page.category == "books" %]
    Category: Books
[% end%]

Here is an if/else example:

[% if page.category == "books" %]
    Category: Books
[% elsif page.category == "movies" %]
    Category: Movies
[% else %]
    Category: Unknown
[% end %]

For brevity, if statements may also be used as post-operative directives. Example:

[% "Category: Books" if page.category == "books" %]


Same as if statements, but the condition is reversed. The following block is only evaluated if the expression is not true.

[% unless page.category == "books" %]
    Category: (Not) Books
[% end %]

Unless directives can also be used as post-operative directives. Example:

[% "Category: (Not) Books" unless page.category == "books" %]


Switch statements are allowed in Dapper as well. Usage is best described with an example:

[% switch page.category %]
    [% case "books"  %] Category: Books
    [% case "movies" %] Category: Movies
    [% case default  %] Category: Unknown
[% end %]


Iterative (looping) constructs are also available in Dapper. Options include for/foreach, and while. Additionally, a loop variable is provided to allow you to see information about the current loop.


For statements allow you to iterate over the contents of an array. If the variable is not already an array, it is automatically converted to an array for you. Foreach is an alias for for. Example:

[% for link in site.blogroll %]
    The link is [% link %]
[% end %]

You can also use = in place of in:

[% for link = site.blogroll %]
    The link is [% link %]
[% end %]

The for statement also works on hashes:

[% for [{a => 1}, {a => 2}] %]
    Key a = [% a %]
[%~ END %]


    Key a = 1
    Key a = 2

During a for loop, a special variable called loop is available and provides the following information:

Variable Definition
loop.index The current index
loop.max The max index of the list
loop.size The number of items in the list
loop.count Index + 1
loop.number Index + 1
loop.first True if on the first item
loop.last True if on the last item Return the next item in the list
loop.prev Return the previous item in the list
loop.odd Return 1 if the current count is odd, 0 otherwise
loop.even Return 1 if the current count is even, 0 otherwise
loop.parity Return "odd" if the current count is odd, "even" otherwise


[% for [1 .. 3] %]
    [% loop.count %]/[% loop.size %]
[% end %]



Additinoally, break/last and next directives may be used in loops. Break is an alias for last and exits the loop. Next skips the remainder of the current loop and begins the next iteration in the loop. Example:

[% for [1 .. 3] %]
    [% if loop.count == 2 %][% break %][% end %]
    [% loop.count %]/[% loop.size %]
[% end %]




[% for [1 .. 3] %]
    [% if loop.count == 2 %][% next %][% end %]
    [% loop.count %]/[% loop.size %]
[% end %]




The while directive will process a block of code while a condition continues to be true. Example:

[% i = 0 %]
[% while i < 3 %]
    [% i = i + 1 %]
    i = [% i %]
[% end %]


i = 1
i = 2
i = 3

As with for statements, break/last and next statements are also available.


Block directives allow you to save a block of text under a name for later use in an include directive. Blocks may be placed anywhere within the template being processed. Example:

[% block foo %]Some text[% end %]
[% include foo %]

Anonymous block definitions can be used for capturing chunks of text:

[% a = block %]Some text[% end %]
[% a %]


An include directive parses the contents of a file or block and inserts them into the template. Variables that are defined or modified within the included bits are discarded after the include occurs. Example:

[% include "path/to/template.html" %]

[% file = "path/to/template.html" %]
[% include $file %]

[% block foo %]This is foo[% end %]
[% include foo %]

Arguments may also be passed to the template:

[% include "path/to/template.html" a = "An arg" b = "Another arg" %]

Multiple filenames can be passed by separating them with a plus, a space, or commas. Any supplied arguments will be used on all templates. Example:

[% include "path/to/template1.html",
           "path/to/template2.html" a = "An arg" b = "Another arg" %]

If it's important that the included file not be parsed for directives, an alternative directive may be used called insert. Insert directives act in exactly the same way that include directives do, but does not process any directives that the inserted file might contain. Example:

[% insert "path/to/template1.html",
          "path/to/template2.html" %]


The macro directive can be thought of as a way to define a miniature function that can be used elsewhere in the template. Example:

[% macro foo(i, j) block %]You passed me [% i %] and [% j %].[% end %]
[% foo(1, 2) %]


You passed me 1 and 2.

Another example:

[% macro bar(max) foreach i = [1 .. max] %]([% i %])[% end %]
[% bar(4) %]




Layout plugins provide a way to get access to special functionality that are more complicated than what filters provide. This section defines some of the plugins that are distributed with Dapper. For a comprehensive list, see Template::Toolkit plugin.


This plugin provides a simple facility to construct a list of hash references, each of which represents a data record of known structure from a specified data file. A filename must be specified. An optional delim parameter may also be provided to specify an alternate delimiter character.

The format of the file is intentionally simple. The first line defines the field names, delimited by colons with optional surrounding whitespace. Subsequent lines then defines records containing data items, also delimited by colons. For example:

id : name
mdb: Mark Benson
lkb: Loomis Buschwa

Each line is read, split into composite fields, and then used to initialize a hash array containing the field names as relevant keys. The plugin returns a blessed list reference containing the hash references in the order as defined in the file. Example:

[% use userlist = datafile('users.txt', delim = ':') %]
[% for user in userlist %]
    [% %] -> [% %]
[% end %]


mdb -> Mark Benson
lkb -> Loomis Buschwa

The first line of the file must contain the field definitions. After the first line, blank lines will be ignored, along with comment line which start with a '#'.


The Date plugin provides an easy way to generate formatted time and date strings by delegating to the POSIX strftime() routine.

The plugin can be loaded via the use directive.

[% use date %]

This creates a plugin object with the default name of date. An alternate name can be specified like this:

[% use myname = date %]

The plugin provides the format() method which accepts a time value, a format string and a locale name. All of these parameters are optional with the current system time, default format ('%H:%M:%S %d-%b-%Y') and current locale being used respectively, if undefined. Default values for the time, format and/or locale may be specified as named parameters in the use directive.

[% use date(format = '%a %d-%b-%Y', locale = 'fr_FR') %]

When called without any parameters, the format() method returns a string representing the current system time, formatted by strftime() according to the default format and for the default locale (which may not be the current one, if locale is set in the use directive).

[% date.format %]

The plugin allows a time/date to be specified as seconds since the epoch, as is returned by time().

File last modified: [% date.format(filemod_time) %]

The time/date can also be specified as a string of the form h:m:s d/m/y or y/m/d h:m:s. Any of the characters : / - or space may be used to delimit fields.

[% use day = date(format => '%A', locale => 'en_GB') %]
[% day.format('4:20:00 9-13-2000') %]



A format string can also be passed to the format() method, and a locale specification may follow that.

[% date.format(filemod, '%d-%b-%Y') %]
[% date.format(filemod, '%d-%b-%Y', 'en_GB') %]

A fourth parameter allows you to force output in GMT, in the case of seconds- since-the-epoch input:

[% date.format(filemod, '%d-%b-%Y', 'en_GB', 1) %]

Note that in this case, if the local time is not GMT, then also specifying '%Z' (time zone) in the format parameter will lead to an extremely misleading result.

Any or all of these parameters may be named. Positional parameters should always be in the order ($time, $format, $locale).

[% date.format(format => '%H:%M:%S') %]
[% date.format(time => filemod, format => '%H:%M:%S') %]
[% date.format(mytime, format => '%H:%M:%S') %]
[% date.format(mytime, format => '%H:%M:%S', locale => 'fr_FR') %]
[% date.format(mytime, format => '%H:%M:%S', gmt => 1) %]

The now() method returns the current system time in seconds since the epoch.

[% date.format(, '%A') %]

The calc() method can be used to create an interface to the Date::Calc module (if installed on your system).

[% calc = date.calc %]
[% calc.Monday_of_Week(22, 2001).join('/') %]

The manip() method can be used to create an interface to the Date::Manip module (if installed on your system).

[% manip = date.manip %]
[% manip.UnixDate("Noon Yesterday","%Y %b %d %H:%M") %]


When using directives in templates, it can help to add whitespace around the directives to make them more readable. However, adding this whitespace can make the resulting output unreadable. To help with this, special uses of the +, -, =, and ~ characters can be used to pre- and post-chomp the whitespace as follows:

[%+ Chomp None +%]

Don't do any chomping.


[%+ "Brown." +%]






[%- Chomp One -%]

Delete any whitespace up to the adjacent newline.


[%- "Brown." -%]




[%= Chomp Collapse =%]

Collapse adjacent whitespace to a single space.


[%= "Brown." =%]



Quick. Brown. Fox.

[%~ Chomp Greedy ~%]

Remove all adjacent whitespace.


[%~ "Brown." ~%]





The dump directive inserts a Data::Dumper printout of the variable or expression. If no argument is passed it will dump the entire contents of the current variable stash (with private keys removed). The output also includes the current file and line number that the DUMP directive was called from. Example:

[% dump %]      # dump everything
[% dump site %] # dump everything in the site
[% dump page %] # dump everything in the current page


To deploy your content, you have a number of options. This section outlines a few of them.

Amazon S3

It's possible to serve a static website using Amazon S3. Here's how.

  1. Go to Amazon's AWS Console and create 2 buckets: '' and ''. Content will be loaded into the '' bucket and '' will just point to it.

  2. Under the properties for the '' bucket, choose 'redirect all requests to another host name' under 'Static Web Hosting'.

  3. Under properties for '', choose 'enable website hosting' under 'Static Web Hosting', and set 'Index Document' to 'index.html'.

  4. Install s3cmd. On Mac OSX, using Homebrew, install like this:

    $ pip install s3cmd
  5. Configure s3cmd with your Amazon credentials (AWS access key, secret key):

    $ s3cmd --configure
  6. Now any time you want to rebuild your content and push it to s3, it's a simple call to:

    $ s3cmd sync _output/ s3:// --reduced-redundancy --acl-public --delete-removed

    A few notes about the options. First, --reduced-redundancy tells Amazon that your website content is non-critical and easily reproducible if there is a problem. It means your charges from Amazon will be less and is a good option for most static sites.

    Second, the --acl-public option makes everything in the bucket public, which is what we want for a static website. We want the world to have read access to the contents of the bucket, and --acl-public accomplishes this.

    Third, the --delete-removed option tells s3cmd to delete files in the bucket that are not stored locally. This cleans things up so that you don't have lots of extra crap sitting in your bucket that isn't being used, but is costing you money. If you upload image files independently of Dapper or s3cmd, you may want to not use this option.

An optional step is to route traffic to your website through Amazon's Route 53. To do this, follow these steps:

  1. Create 2 A records, one for '' and one for 'www.mydomain. com'.

  2. For each A record, set 'Alias' to yes, and set 'Alias Target' to the S3 bucket with the same name.

To make it easy to publish to Amazon S3, one option is to create a Makefile that encodes the publishing instructions. Here is a Makefile that I use for Mark Benson Portfolio:


	dapper build

serve: build
	dapper serve

publish: build
	s3cmd sync $(OUTPUTDIR)/ s3://$(S3_BUCKET) --reduced-redundancy --acl-public --delete-removed

	dapper watch

.PHONY: build serve publish watch

Github Pages

Github Pages is a free service that allows you to publish a static website for free. By pushing your changes to a git repository, your website will be automatically available on Here are the steps:

  1. First, if you don’t have an account already, you should sign up for a Github account.

  2. Next, create a new repository named <username> where you should replace <username> with your actual Github username.

  3. After that, push the contents of your _output directory to the new github repo. Steps:

    $ cd _output
    $ git init
    $ git remote add origin<username>/<username>
    $ git add *
    $ git commit -m"Initial revision"
    $ git push
  4. Wait a few minutes. Then, find your new website on at the following address: http://<username>

Further Reading

You can look for more information here:

Appendix A: Extending

Dapper may be used as a perl module directly from a script. Examples:

use App::Dapper;

# Create a Dapper object
my $d = App::Dapper->new();

# Initialize a new website in the current directory

# Build the site

# Serve the site locally at http://localhost:8000

After installing Dapper, you can find documentation for this module with the perldoc command.

perldoc App::Dapper

Appendix B: Debugging

With templating, it's easy to outsmart yourself and forget what variables are assigned to which collection and how that collection should be used in a template. Here is a way to debug that makes use of the json template filter built in to Dapper. The resulting page that we'll create displays all of the varialbes that are available for you to use.

First, create a debug page in your _source directory:

$ echo "" > _source/debug/index.html

Then, edit the file and fill it with this content:

name: Debug
layout: plain

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<title>Dapper Debug</title>
<style type="text/css" media="screen">
    #editor {
        position: absolute;
        top: 0;
        right: 0;
        bottom: 0;
        left: 0;

<div id="editor">[% dump site | json(1)%]</div>

<script src="//"
    type="text/javascript" charset="utf-8"></script>
    var editor = ace.edit("editor");
    window.setTimeout(function() {
    }, 100);

Create a plain layout template:

$ echo "[% page.content %]" > _layout/plain.html

Then, build your site and view the content locally at http://localhost:8000/debug/

Appendix C: Internals

There are two importatn aspects of Dapper internals that are important to understand. The first is that source files are rendered using the templating system once, and then again after being combined with a layout. This means that layout variables and directives can be used in source files.

The second important thing to understand about Dapper internals is that after all of the source files are rendered to output, Dapper does a copy operation which copies things like binary files, images, or other files that need to be transferred into the output directory but do not need to be processed by Markdown or the templating system. The rules for what to copy are simple: everything is copied except for those things that match the site.ignore list. By default, the following ignore list is used:

ignore :
    - "^\."
    - "^_"
    - "^dapper$"

More files and regular expression patterns may be specified in the project configuration file. For instance, if you have a folder that holds your design files and is called design, you might not want to have that copied into the output directory. In this case, you would add the following lines to your _config.yml file:

ignore :
    - "^design$"

Appendix D: Meta

Dapper development environment:

  • perlbrew on osx to isolate and test against different versions of Perl


Dapper was written by Mark Benson

License and Copyright

The MIT License (MIT)

Copyright (c) 2002-2021 Mark Benson

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.