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Author: Massimo Di Pierro <>
License: BSD <>
Created on: 2013-02-20

This program is named after Luca Pacioli (1445–1517), inventor of accounting and double-entry bookkeeping. Pacioli maintained that business people must insist on justice, honour, and truth.

The program contains three parts:

An implementation of double-entry bookkeeping

  • Assets, Liabilities, Equity, Income, Expenses
  • Computations of Balance Sheet and Profit/Losses
  • Automatic computation FIFO capital-gains
  • API
  • Scenario analysis (WORK IN PROGRESS)

Functions to read and write a general ledger in the beancount format

  • list of accounts
  • support for ofx records
  • transactions with multiple postings
  • tags
  • checks
  • support for multiple files and partial output


  • The output of the program is in HTML
  • Reporting in Latex/PDF (can be improved)
  • Reporting in JSON (WORKM IN PROGRESS)
  • Charting

This program uses a single file to store the input ledger. This is only appropriate for small bussinesses. Our benchmark indicates that the program requires 0.0004 seconds/transactions. Therefore if a business processes about 1000 transaction/day, the system can process one year of trasactions in about 2 minutes. Additional time is required to generate reports.


This program is usable but:

  • It is a work in progress.
  • It may need more testing.
  • We plan to add feature.
  • We may break the API. The documentation is incomplete.
  • I am not an accountant


./ -h


Consider a simple business that buys wood and sells wood toys.

; file: toystore.ledger
; define your accounts
@defaccount De Assets:Cash
@defaccount De Assets:AccountsReceivable
@defaccount Cr Liabilities:Loan
@defaccount Cr Liabilities:AccountPayable
@defaccount Cr Equity:Opening-Balances
@defaccount De Income:ToySale
@defaccount De Income:Capital-Gains
@defaccount Cr Expense:ShippingCosts
@defaccount Cr Expense:Monthly:LoanInterest

; put initial money in cash account
@pad   2013-01-01 Assets:Cash Equity:Opening-Balances
@check 2013-01-01 Assets:Cash 2000 USD

; transactions
2013-01-01 * Receive a loan
    Assets:Cash                   +10000 USD
    Liabilities:Loan              -10000 USD

2013-02-01 * Pay load interest
    Assets:Cash                   -300 USD
    Liabilities:Loan              +125 USD
    Expense:Monthly:LoanInterest           ; automatically computed as 300-125 = 275 USD

2013-03-01 * buy wood
    Expense:ShippingCosts          500 USD
    Assets:Cash                            ; automatically computes as -(9*1000+500) USD

@begintag client-0001
2013-04-01 * first toy sale (cash transaction)
    Income:ToySale                -230 USD ; $230 from client #0001
    Assets:Cash                            ; automatically computed as 230 USD
@endtag client-0001

@check 2013-04-01 Assets:Cash     2430 USD ; 2000+10000-9*1000-500+230 = 2430 USD

; read more about AccountsReceivable

@begintag client-0002
2013-04-02 * second toy sale (invoice)
    Income:ToySale                -230 USD ; $230 billed to client #0001
    Assets:AccountsReceivable              ; automatically computed as 230 USD

2013-04-10 * second toy sale (payment received after one week)
    Assets:AccountsReceivable     -230 USD ; $230 received from client #0001
    Assets:Cash                            ; automatically computed as 230 USD
@endtag client-0002

@check 2013-04-10 Assets:Cash     2660 USD ; 2000+10000-9*1000-500+230*2 = 2460 USD

Run it with

./ -B -i toystore.ledger > toystore.balance

The output will be in toystore.ledger.output and toystore.balance

banchmark: 4.11e-04 sec/transaction
Assets                        : 2660.0 USD
Assets:AccountsReceivable     : 0.0 USD
Assets:Cash                   : 2660.0 USD
Equity                        : -2000.0 USD
Equity:Opening-Balances       : -2000.0 USD
Expense                       : 675.0 USD
Expense:Monthly               : 175.0 USD
Expense:Monthly:LoanInterest  : 175.0 USD
Expense:ShippingCosts         : 500.0 USD
Expenses                      : 
Income                        : -460.0 USD
Income:Capital-Gains          : 
Income:ToySale                : -460.0 USD
Liabilities                   : -9875.0 USD
Liabilities:AccountPayable    : 
Liabilities:Loan              : -9875.0 USD

More docs?

Most of the documentation about ledger and beancount applies to pacioli.


So why when we have beancount? I mostly made it for myself. I wanted to rewrite beancount from scratch to understand it. The result (pacioli) performs the same functions but it is much smaller (~800 lines of code). I believe pacioli has better API. I have plans to turn it into a web application and integrate it with d3.js. Beancount is GPL. Pacioli is BSD.


Pacioli can be used programmatically:

>>> from pacioli import *
>>> p = Pacioli()
>>> p.add_account('Assets:Cash','De','USD')
>>> p.add_account('Equity','Cr','USD')
>>> p.ledger.append(Transaction('2008-10-20','info',postings=[
...     Posting('Assets:Cash',amount=Amount(100,'USD')),
...     Posting('Equity')]))
>>> p.ledger.sort()
>>> p.dump_html('folder')
>>> p.dump_latex('folder/report.latex')
>>> assert p.accounts['Assets'].wallet['USD'] == +100
>>> assert p.accounts['Equity'].wallet['USD'] == -100

Web server

Pacioli uses Tornado to serve the genarated documents:

./ -i demo.ledger -w 8080

The generated documents are just static html files therefore they can served using other server.


Pacioli generates also a <input.ledger>.output/<input.ledger>.latex file. You can process it with

./ -i demo.ledger
cd demo.ledger.output
pdflatex demo.ledger.latex
open demo.ledger.pdf

Other files

Pacioli includes the file demo.ledger which we stole from beancount and we used for testing purposes. It also includes a demo.ledger.output generated from this example.

Pacioli also includes a gaap.lendger (GAAP = General Accepted Accounting Practices) which you can customized and use for your business.


BSD v3


double entry account system compatible with ledger and beancount (but BSD license)







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