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This repository holds the code for "Midas" (Middle Dutch Annotation System), a Tagger-Lemmatiser for Middle Dutch. While Midas has been originally developed to deal with medieval Dutch, it is largely language-independent and can be applied to other (historic) languages such as medieval Latin or Old French. Midas provides functionality for tokenization, part-of-speech tagging and lemmatization, with a heavy bias towards language which show a considerable amount of orhtographic variation in spelling and spacing. Midas is written in pure Python (>= py2.7 or py3) and has been tested on UNIX-like systems. Via keras and theano, Midas makes heavy use of neural networks for its language modeling: luckily, training the tagger-lemmatizer can accelerated by running Midas on the GPU instead of the CPU.

Data format

All input files should be encoded in UTF-8. Midas expects annotated training data to have the following, three-column format:

@ begin_of_text.txt
ambrosius	N(prop)	ambrosius
ende	Conj(coord)	en
iacob	N(prop)	jacob
van	Adp()	van
uitri	N(prop)	vitry

ende	Conj(coord)	en
isidorus	N(prop)	isidorus
dar~bi	PronAdv(dem)	daarbij

nomic	V(fin,pres,lex)+Pron(pers,1,sing)	noemen+ik
iv	Pron(pers,2,plu)	gij
dese	Pron(dem)	deze
bi	Adp()	bij
namen	N(sing)	naam

A normal line should contain the original token, the part-of-speech tag and the lemma, separated by tabs. The beginning of a new document can be encoded as "@ begin_of_text.txt". Empty newlines (\n\n) can be used to indicate utterance boundaries, e.g. to mark verse endings in medieval poetry. If consecutive tokens in the original input, had to be concatenated to assign a lemma to them (e.g. dar~bi in the example above), the concatenation can be marked using a tilde and, if needed, a tokenizer can be trained to learn and reproduce this behaviour. Due to cliticization phenomena, sometimes composite tags are assigned to words (e.g. noemen+ik); Midas considers as these atomic tags. Midas is agnostic with respect to the specific tag or lemma set used: any system can be used as long as it is consistent.

With respect to unannotated data (used for pretraining), Midas simply expects utf8-encoded files, respecting the original spacing between tokens and using empty lines to mark boundaries between utterances:

ambrosius ende iacob van uitri

ende isidorus dar bi

nomic iv dese bi namen

Running midas

Midas can be used in the following modes: "tag", "test" and "train". Its configuration and hyperparameters can be set using a standard config file. Previously trained models can be saved via pickling and reused for tagging or testing. Run midas from the command line:

>>> python train config.txt my_model
>>> python tag config.txt my_model
>>> python test config.txt my_model

To enable GPU acceleration, add something like:

>>> THEANO_FLAGS=mode=FAST_RUN,device=gpu,floatX=float32 python train config.txt my_model


Midas mainly depends on scikit-learn, keras (and thus theano). If you want to use theano's support GPU-acceleration (which comes highly recommended for larger data sets), you will have to properly install Nvidia’s CUDA.


Middle Dutch Annotation System -- Tagger-Lemmatiser for Middle Dutch



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