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---
title: "Functional Data"
output: rmarkdown::html_vignette
vignette: >
%\VignetteIndexEntry{mlr}
%\VignetteEngine{knitr::rmarkdown}
\usepackage[utf8]{inputenc}
---
```{r, echo = FALSE, message=FALSE}
library("mlr")
library("BBmisc")
library("ParamHelpers")
library("ggplot2")
library("lattice")
# show grouped code output instead of single lines
knitr::opts_chunk$set(collapse = TRUE)
```
In ([Hooker, 2017](http://faculty.bscb.cornell.edu/~hooker/ShortCourseHandout.pdf)) it is defined, that "Functional data is multivariate data with an ordering on the dimensions".
It means that this type of data consists of curves varying over a continuum, such as time, frequency, or wavelength.
Thus, functional data is often present when measurements at various time points are analyzed.
The curves of functional data are usually interdependent, which means that the measurement at a point, e.g., $t_{i + 1}$, depends on measurements at some other points, e.g., ${t_1, ..., t_i}; i \in \mathbb{N}$.
As the most well-known machine learning techniques generally do not emphasize the interdependence between features, they are often not _well suited_ for such tasks.
Application of these techniques can lead to poor performance.
Functional data analysis, on the other hand, tries to address this issue either by using algorithms particularly tailored to functional data or by transforming the functional covariates into a continuum (e.g., time, wavelength) nondependent feature space.
For a more in-depth introduction to functional data analysis see, e.g. [When the data are functions](http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02293704) (Ramsay, J.O., 1982).
Each observation of a functional covariate in the data is an evaluation of a functional, i.e., it consists of measurements of a scalar value at various time (wavelength or another type of continuum) points.
A single observation might then look like this:
```{r, fig.asp = 0.7, message=FALSE}
# Load required packages
library(FDboost)
library(ggplot2)
```
```{r}
# Plot NIR curve for first observarion
data(fuelSubset, package = "FDboost")
# NIR_Obs_1 contains the measurements for NIR of the first functional covariate and
# lambda indicates the wavelength points the data was measured at.
df = data.frame("NIR_Obs1" = fuelSubset$NIR[1, ],
"lambda" = fuelSubset$nir.lambda)
ggplot(df) +
geom_line(aes(y = NIR_Obs1, x = lambda))
```
*Note:* this is an example of spectroscopic data.
NIR stands for "near infra-red radiation (light)", UVVIS (you will find this below) -- "ultra-violet and visible radiation (light)", and in spectroscopy it is common to denote wavelengths as "lambda" $(\lambda)$.
For the sake of simplicity, you can imagine the wavelengths as adjacent visible and invisible "colors" expressed as numbers.
# How to model functional data?
There are two commonly used approaches for analyzing functional data.
* Directly analyze the functional data using a [learner](learner.html) that is suitable for functional data on a [task](task.html).
Those learners have the prefixes __classif.fda__ and __regr.fda__.
For more info on learners see [fda learners](functional_data.html#constructing-a-learner).
For this purpose, the functional data has to be saved as a matrix column in the data frame used for constructing the [task](task.html).
For more info on functional tasks, consider the following section.
* Transform the task into a format suitable for standard __classification__ or __regression__ [learners](learner.html).
This is done by [extracting](functional_data.html#feature-extraction) non-temporal/non-functional features from the curves.
Non-temporal features do not have any interdependence between each other, similarly to features in traditional machine learning.
This is explained in more detail [below](functional_data.html#feature-extraction).
# Creating a task that contains functional features
The first step is to get the data in the right format.
`mlr` expects a `base::data.frame` which consists of the functional features and the target variable as input.
Functional data in contrast to __numeric__ data have to be stored as a matrix column in the data frame.
After that, a [task](task.html) that contains the data in a well-defined format is created.
The [tasks](task.html) come in different flavors, such as `makeClassifTask()` and `makeRegrTask()`, which can be used according to the class of the target variable.
In the following example, the data is first stored as matrix columns using the helper function `makeFunctionalData()` for the [fuelSubset](&fuelSubset.task) data from package `FDboost`.
The data is provided in the following structure:
```{r}
str(fuelSubset)
```
* __heatan__ is the target variable, in this case, a numeric value.
* __h2o__ is an additional scalar variable.
* __NIR__ and __UVVIS__ are matrices containing the curve data.
Each column corresponds to a single wavelength the data was sampled at.
Each row indicates a single curve.
__NIR__ was measured at 231 wavelength points, while __UVVIS__ was measured at 129 wavelength points.
* __nir.lambda__ and __uvvis.lambda__ are numeric vectors of length 231 and 129 indicate the wavelength points the data was measured at.
Each entry corresponds to one column of __NIR__ and __UVVIS__ respectively.
For now, we ignore this additional information in `mlr`.
Our data already contains functional features as matrices in a list.
In order to demonstrate how such a matrix can be created from arbitrary numeric columns, we transform the list into a data frame with a set of numeric columns for each matrix.
These columns refer to the matrix columns in the list, i.e., __UVVIS.1__ is the first column of the UVVIS matrix.
```{r}
# Put all values into a data frame
df = data.frame(fuelSubset[c("heatan", "h2o", "UVVIS", "NIR")])
str(df[, 1:5])
```
Before constructing the [task](task.html), the data is again reformatted therefore it contains column matrices.
This is done by providing a list __fd.features__, that identifies the functional covariates.
All columns not mentioned in the list are kept as-is.
In our case, the column indices 3:136 correspond to the columns of the UVVIS matrix.
Alternatively, we could also specify the respective column names.
```{r}
library(mlr)
# fd.features is a named list, where each name corresponds to the name of the
# functional feature and the values to the respective column indices or column names.
fd.features = list("UVVIS" = 3:136, "NIR" = 137:367)
fdf = makeFunctionalData(df, fd.features = fd.features)
```
`makeFunctionalData()` returns a `base::data.frame`, where the functional features are contained as matrices.
```{r}
str(fdf)
```
Now with a data frame containing the functionals as matrices, a [task](task.html) can be created:
```{r}
# Create a regression task, classification tasks behave analogously
# In this case we use column indices
tsk1 = makeRegrTask("fuelsubset", data = fdf, target = "heatan")
tsk1
```
# Constructing a learner
For functional data, [learners](learner.html) are constructed using `makeLearner("classif.<R_method_name>")` or `makeLearner("regr.<R_method_name>")` depending on the target variable.
Applying learners to a [task](task.html) works in two ways
**Either use a [learner](learner.html) suitable for functional data:**
```{r}
# The following learners can be used for tsk1 (a regression task).
listLearners(tsk1, properties = "functionals", warn.missing.packages = FALSE)
```
```{r}
# Create an FDboost learner for regression
fdalrn = makeLearner("regr.FDboost")
```
```{r}
# Or alternatively, use knn for classification:
knn.lrn = makeLearner("classif.fdausc.knn")
```
**or use a standard [learner](learner.html):**
In this case, the temporal structure is disregarded, and the functional data treated as simple numeric features.
```{r}
# Decision Tree learner
rpartlrn = makeLearner("classif.rpart")
```
Alternatively, transform the functional data into a non-temporal/non-functional space by [extracting](functional_data.html#feature-extraction) features before training.
In this case, a standard regression- or classification-[learner](learner.html) can be applied.
This is explained in more detail in the [feature extraction](functional_data.html#feature-extraction) section below.
# Training the learner
The resulting [learner](learner.html) can now be trained on the task created in section [Creating a task](functional_data.html#creating-a-task) above.
```{r, warning = FALSE, message=FALSE}
# Train the fdalrn on the constructed task
m = train(learner = fdalrn, task = tsk1)
p = predict(m, tsk1)
performance(p, rmse)
```
Alternatively, learners that do not explicitly treat functional covariates can be applied.
In this case, the temporal structure is completely disregarded, and all columns are treated as independent.
```{r}
# Train a normal learner on the constructed task.
# Note that we get a message, that functionals have been converted to numerics.
rpart.lrn = makeLearner("regr.rpart")
m = train(learner = rpart.lrn, task = tsk1)
m
```
# Feature extraction
In contrast to applying a learner that works on a [task](task.html) containing functional features, the [task](task.html) can be converted to a standard [task](task.html).
This works by transforming the functional features into a non-functional domain, e.g., by extracting wavelets.
The currently supported preprocessing functions are:
* discrete wavelet transform;
* fast Fourier transform;
* functional principal component analysis;
* multi-resolution feature extraction.
In order to do this, we specify methods for each functional feature in the task in a __list__.
In this case, we simply want to extract the Fourier transform from each __UVVIS__ functional and the Functional PCA Scores from each __NIR__ functional.
Variable names can be specified multiple times with different extractors.
Additional arguments supplied to the _extract_ functions are passed on.
```{r}
# feat.methods specifies what to extract from which functional
# In this example, we extract the Fourier transformation from the first functional.
# From the second functional, fpca scores are extracted.
feat.methods = list("UVVIS" = extractFDAFourier(), "NIR" = extractFDAFPCA())
# Either create a new task from an existing task
extracted = extractFDAFeatures(tsk1, feat.methods = feat.methods)
extracted
```
## Wavelets
In this example, discrete wavelet feature transformation is applied to the data using the function `extractFDAWavelets`.
Discrete wavelet transform decomposes the functional into several _wavelets_.
This essentially transforms the time signal to a time-scale representation, where every wavelet captures the data at a different resolution.
We can specify which additional parameters (i.e., the `filter` (a type of wavelet) and the `boundary`) in the pars argument.
This function returns a regression task of type _regr_ since the raw data contained temporal structure but the transformed data does not inherit temporal structure anymore.
For more information on wavelets consider the documentation of `wavelets::dwt`.
A more comprehensive guide is, for example, given [here](https://www.cs.unm.edu/~williams/cs530/arfgtw.pdf).
```{r, eval = FALSE}
# Specify the feature extraction method and generate new task.
# Here, we use the Haar filter:
feat.methods = list("UVVIS" = extractFDAWavelets(filter = "haar"))
task.w = extractFDAFeatures(tsk1, feat.methods = feat.methods)
# Use the Daubechie wavelet with filter length 4.
feat.methods = list("NIR" = extractFDAWavelets(filter = "d4"))
task.wd4 = extractFDAFeatures(tsk1, feat.methods = feat.methods)
```
## Fourier transformation
Now, we use the Fourier feature transformation.
The Fourier transform takes a functional and transforms it to a frequency domain by splitting the signal up into its different frequency components.
A more detailed tutorial on Fourier transform can be found [here](http://www0.cs.ucl.ac.uk/teaching/GZ05/03-fourier.pdf).
Either the amplitude or the phase of the complex Fourier coefficients can be used for analysis.
This can be specified in the additional `trafo.coeff` argument:
```{r, eval = FALSE}
# Specify the feature extraction method and generate new task.
# We use the Fourier features and the amplitude for NIR, as well as the phase for UVVIS
feat.methods = list("NIR" = extractFDAFourier(trafo.coeff = "amplitude"),
"UVVIS" = extractFDAFourier(trafo.coeff = "phase"))
task.fourier = extractFDAFeatures(tsk1, feat.methods = feat.methods)
task.fourier
```
# Wrappers
Additionally we can wrap the preprocessing around a standard learner such as [classif.rpart](rpart::rpart()).
For additional information, please consider the [Wrappers](wrapper.html#wrapper) section.
```{r}
# Use a FDAFeatExtractWrapper
# In this case we extract the Fourier features from the NIR variable
feat.methods = list("NIR" = extractFDAFourier())
wrapped.lrn = makeExtractFDAFeatsWrapper("regr.rpart", feat.methods = feat.methods)
# And run the learner
train(wrapped.lrn, fuelsubset.task)
```
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