Skip to content


Switch branches/tags

Latest commit


Git stats


Failed to load latest commit information.
Latest commit message
Commit time

PaperBLAST is a tool to find papers about homologs of a protein of interest. For an example see

This code base also includes Curated BLAST for Genomes, GapMind, SitesBLAST, and Sites on a Tree.

System Requirements

These scripts should work on any Linux system, and would probably work on other Unix or MacOS as well. All of the code is written in perl. (I am using perl v5.10.1 or perl v5.16.3.)


(These instructions are for PaperBLAST and Curated BLAST for Genomes. If you want to install GapMind, see the SETUP file in the gaps/ directory.)

Please put the blast executables (formatdb, blastall, and fastacmd) in the bin/blast/ subdirectory. I am currently using NCBI BLAST 2.2.18.

Please put the usearch executable in the bin/ subdirectory. I am currently using usearch 10.0.

The cgi/ subdirectory contains the common gateway interface script, litSearch.cgi, which is the interface for using PaperBLAST.

For litSearch.cgi to work, the data/ subdirectory must include the sqlite3 database and the protein BLAST database. These are both built by bin/ (which invokes bin/

Create a tmp/ subdirectory and set it to writable by apache (or everyone) so that litSearch.cgi can write to ../tmp/ (relative to the directory that it is invoked from, which is usually the cgi directory)


sqlite3 is required

To identify search terms from MicrobesOnline, the MicrobesOnline code base must be in ~/Genomics. (This is required for building the database; it is not required by the CGI scripts.) See

The swissknife perl library must be in the SWISS subdirectory (so that the *.pm files are in SWISS/lib/SWISS/). It is available at

As of February 2020, we are using swissknife version 1.79.

Finally, PaperBLAST uses these standard Perl libraries:

Getopt::Long FindBin File::Which IO::Handle XML::LibXML JSON POSIX Time::HiRes LWP::Simple LWP::Protocol::https URI::Escape CGI DBI

The functional residues part of the alignment page (at bottom of showAlign.cgi) requires BioPerl. (See The page should work correctly without bioperl but would not report the conservation of functional residues.

SitesBLAST (sites.cgi) also requires BioPerl.

Downloading the database

The April 2017 version of the PaperBLAST database is avalable at

The current database is available as a FASTA file and a sqlite3 relational database (which is large! 1.5 GB as of July 2017)

If you want to run the CGI scripts, you will also need

If you want to run SitesBLAST, you will also need

Place all of these files in the data/ subdirectory of the main PaperBLAST directory and format the BLAST databases with

formatdb -p T -o T -i data/uniq.faa
formatdb -p T -o T -i data/hassites.faa

Building the Database

The database can be built with the following series of scripts. As of March 2017, the process requires approximately 324 GB of free disk space and takes around a week to run. The majority of the time is for querying EuropePMC.

Download information from RefSeq, UniProt, EcoCyc, EuropePMC, EcoCyc, PubMed, PDBSum, wwPDB, BioLiP:

mkdir indata
nice bin/ -dir indata >& download.log

Before running, you will need to either download ecoli.tar.gz manually from EcoCyc and put it in the current directory, or, set up a file named ecocyc.URL in the current directory that contains a valid URL to fetch ecoli.tar.gz. The contents of ecocyc.URL would look something like but you will need to register at EcoCyc to get a valid URL.

Choose which queries to run against EuropePMC:

mkdir work
nice bin/ -in indata -work work >& run_terms.log

Run all the queries against EuropePMC:

nice bin/ -in indata -work work >& run_search.log

Extract snippets:

nice bin/ -in indata -work work >& run_snippets.log

Before using run_snippets, you should set up a key for the elsevier API and a token for the CrossRef API. These should go in the cache/ directory, in files named elsevier key and crossref_token.

The cache/ directory is also where the articles that are downloaded from the Elsevier API or from Crossref are stored. They are stored as cache_nnnn.pdf or .xml, where the number is the pubmed id. If you use other tools such as pubMunch2 to obtain articles, you need to rename the PDFs to this format and put them in the cache/ directory.

Build the database:

nice bin/ -in indata -work work >& run_final.log

This will create the directory work/data, which will include a BLAST database of unique protein sequences and a sqlite3 relational database. See bin/litsearch.sql for the sqlite3 database schema. These contents can be copied or symbolically linked to the data/ directory, which is where the CGI scripts expect the database to be. (More precisely, the data should be in ../data/ relative to the directory that the CGI script is invoked from.)

-- Morgan Price, Arkin group, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab


PaperBLAST: find papers about a protein or its homologs







No packages published