NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline
NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline is designed to annotate bacterial and archaeal genomes (chromosomes and plasmids).
Genome annotation is a multi-level process that includes prediction of protein-coding genes, as well as other functional genome units such as structural RNAs, tRNAs, small RNAs, pseudogenes, control regions, direct and inverted repeats, insertion sequences, transposons and other mobile elements.
NCBI has developed an automatic prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline that combines ab initio gene prediction algorithms with homology based methods. The first version of NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Automatic Annotation Pipeline (PGAAP; see Pubmed Article) developed in 2005 has been replaced with an upgraded version that is capable of processing a larger data volume.
To run the PGAP pipeline you will need Linux, Docker, CWL (Common Workflow Language), and about 30GB of supplemental data. We provide instructions here for running under the CWL reference implementation, cwltool. Full instructions for installing, running, and interpreting the results may be found in our wiki.
NCBI prokaryotic genome annotation pipeline.
Tatusova T, DiCuccio M, Badretdin A, Chetvernin V, Nawrocki EP, Zaslavsky L, Lomsadze A, Pruitt KD, Borodovsky M, Ostell J.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2016 Aug 19;44(14):6614-24. Epub 2016 Jun 24.
RefSeq: an update on prokaryotic genome annotation and curation.
Haft DH, DiCuccio M, Badretdin A, Brover V, Chetvernin V, O'Neill K, Li W, Chitsaz F, Derbyshire MK, Gonzales NR, Gwadz M, Lu F, Marchler GH, Song JS, Thanki N, Yamashita RA, Zheng C, Thibaud-Nissen F, Geer LY, Marchler-Bauer A, Pruitt KD.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2018 Jan 4;46(D1):D851-D860.
Modeling leaderless transcription and atypical genes results in more accurate gene prediction in prokaryotes
Lomsadze A, Gemayel K, Tang S, Borodovsky M.
Genome Research. 2018; 28(7):1079-1089.
TIGRFAMs: a protein family resource for the functional identification of proteins.
Haft DH, Loftus BJ, Richardson DL, Yang F, Eisen JA, Paulsen IT, White O.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2001 Jan 1;29(1):41-3.
The TIGRFAMs database of protein families.
Haft DH, Selengut JD, White O.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2003 Jan 1;31(1):371-3.
TIGRFAMs and Genome Properties: tools for the assignment of molecular function and biological process in prokaryotic genomes.
Selengut JD, Haft DH, Davidsen T, Ganapathy A, Gwinn-Giglio M, Nelson WC, Richter AR, White O.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2007 Jan;35(Database issue):D260-4. Epub 2006 Dec 6.
TIGRFAMs and Genome Properties in 2013.
Haft DH, Selengut JD, Richter RA, Harkins D, Basu MK, Beck E.
Nucleic Acids Res. 2013 Jan;41(Database issue):D387-95. doi: 10.1093/nar/gks1234. Epub 2012 Nov 28.
NCBI PGAP CWL
The NCBI PGAP CWL and other code authored by NCBI is a "United States Government Work" under the terms of the United States Copyright Act. It was written as part of the authors' official duties as United States Government employees and thus cannot be copyrighted. This software is freely available to the public for use. The National Library of Medicine and the U.S. Government have not placed any restriction on its use or reproduction.
Although all reasonable efforts have been taken to ensure the accuracy and reliability of the software and data, the NLM and the U.S. Government do not and cannot warrant the performance or results that may be obtained by using this software or data. The NLM and the U.S. Government disclaim all warranties, express or implied, including warranties of performance, merchantability or fitness for any particular purpose.
Please cite NCBI in any work or product based on this material.
The Docker image contains third-party tools distributed under the licensing terms of the respective license holders.
GeneMarkS-2+ is distributed as part of PGAP with limited rights of use and redistribution from the Georgia Tech Research Corporation. See the full text of the license.
The original TIGRFAMs database was a research project of the J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) . TIGRFAMs, short for The Institute for Genomic Research's database of protein families, is a collection of manually curated protein families focusing primarily on prokaryotic sequences. It consists of hidden Markov models (HMMs), multiple sequence alignments, Gene Ontology (GO) terminology, Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers, gene symbols, protein family names, descriptive text, cross-references to related models in TIGRFAMs and other databases, and pointers to the literature. The work has been described in the articles listed in the References section above and use of the TIGRFAMs database must grant proper attribution by citing those four articles.
As of April 2018, rights were transferred to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), National Library of Medicine, NIH, for the data to be made available for distribution under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 license. Please see (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/) for a brief summary of the license and (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/legalcode) to see the full text.