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Time service sample app - Re-engineered to run on AWS Lambda using AWS Serverless Java Container Library

1) Overview

This project contains a sample backend (micro) service built using (Java and) Spring Boot, that has been re-engineered to run on the AWS Lambda platform, using a solution based on the AWS Serverless Java Container Library.

2) Background & Motivation

The project is part of a broader series of my research into solutions for deploying and running enterprise apps/services, built using Spring Boot, on the AWS Lambda platform - i.e. solutions for Spring-based AWS Lambda functions.

Deploying and running services on Function-as-a-Service (FaaS) platforms like AWS Lambda has some compelling potential benefits for appropriate use-cases, including true, low-latency elastic scalability and significant cost-savings based on scaling to zero.

The Spring application framework (and more recently Spring Boot) encourages and accelerates building modern, flexible enterprise apps that run on JVM, that are easy to test, by abstracting away generic code ('plumbing') for integrating an app with its libraries and APIs; using familiar design/programming patterns (IoC/DI, proxies, Template methods etc); and providing valuable features (declarative transaction management, environment specific config, etc).

However, functions that require a JVM to be launched and rely on a stateful Spring IoC container (Application Context) don't (at first glance) appear to be a naturally good fit for running on FaaS platforms. How can developers and their business' continue to benefit from building enterprise apps using Spring, and also now profit from running those apps on a FaaS platform? Which, if any, use-cases does it make sense to deploy a FaaS solution built using Spring? What solutions are available to support the combination of these technologies, and how do they compare in terms of developer usability/experience and quality (performance, etc)?

3) Project Origins

The project is based on a combination of two other projects.

The project is seeded from a clone of the 'Time service' - a sample backend (micro) service, providing one or more REST APIs, built using (Java and) Spring Boot, that is packaged and deployed as a Docker container.

The cloned Time service has then been re-engineered to run on AWS Lambda using an AWS serverless platform integration solution known as the AWS Serverless Java Container library. The AWS Serverless Java Container library's starter app was used as a reference/guide for how to make the changes required to integrate the library, and package and deploy the app.

This project's git commit logs provide full details of the steps required to port a Docker-container based service, such as the Time service to run on AWS Lambda using the AWS Serverless Java Container library.

4) Spring-based AWS Lambda Function Solution - AWS Serverless Java Container Library

4.1) Solution Overview

The AWS Serverless Java Container Library is an AWS provided solution for running stateful Java web-apps built using popular frameworks, such as Spring, on AWS Lambda, in an efficient manner (avoiding the need to re-launch the app / restart the Java web container across every execution of a Lambda function).

The solution entails packaging and deploying a Java web-app as an AWS serverless app - an app that is built and deployed using a combination of the AWS API Gateway and AWS Lambda services. The AWS API Gateway is used to proxy HTTP requests to the app/service's web API endpoints in order to make use of AWS Lambda's support for invoking Lambda functions in response to HTTP request events received via the AWS API Gateway service.

The AWS Serverless Java Container Library provides a Spring (Boot) specific implementation of the AWS LambdaContainerHandler class that provides integration ('glue') code to facilitate running a Spring web-app on AWS Lambda, in the context of a single AWS Lambda function. The LambdaContainerHandler class knows how to bootstrap a Spring web-app (create and load its web application context). It also provides a request handler method that a Lambda function can delegate to. This handler method adapts an invocation of a Lambda function, that originates from an HTTP request event received via an AWS API Gateway endpoint, to the Servlet API used by Spring MVC. For example, a Lambda function's RequestStreamHandler's InputStream is deserialised to an AwsProxyRequest, which is then adapted/converted to the Servlet API's HttpServletRequest, before then dispatching the request to app's Spring MVC DispatcherServlet. The HttpServletResponse which is generated by an Spring MVC web-app is then adapted to an AwsProxyResponse, which is serialsied to the Lambda function's OutputStream.

To utilise this solution for running a Spring-based function or function-based app, an application needs to provide a relatively simple implementation of a single AWS Lambda function - a RequestStreamHandler - that is responsible for the following -

  • Creating and caching the LambdaContainerHandler (and Spring container) - When the AWS Lambda function class is first loaded by the JVM, it must create an instance of the library's LambdaContainerHandler (described above), the process for which includes bootstrapping the Spring web app (creating and loading the WebApplicationContext, and launching the embedded Servlet web container). The LambdaContainerHandler instance is then cached in a static variable. This ensures that the overhead of bootstrapping the Spring web app is only incurred on the first Lambda function request since the supporting JVM was launched (i.e. on a Lambda function 'cold-start', and not subsequent 'warm' executions).
  • Delegating function invocations to the LambdaContainerHandler - Invocations of the function are handled by simply delegating them to the aforementioned handler method of the LambdaContainerHandler, which as described above takes care of adapting the requests to Spring MVC.

The implementation of the Lambda function written to support this application (the ported Time-service) can be found in class com.neiljbrown.service.time.StreamLambdaHandler.

4.2) Summary of Changes to Build, Test and Package and Deploy App

This section lists changes to the way in which an app/service that is ported to run on AWS Lambda, using the AWS Serverless Container library, is built, tested, packaged and deployed. For more details see the 'Changes to support AWS Lambda Integration' subheadings in each of the later, corresponding sections in this readme, which have been updated since being originally written for the cloned, Docker-container based version of the service.

  1. Application software stack.

  2. Dev Environment Setup / Prerequisites.

  3. Automated Tests.

  4. Building the service

  5. Running the service.

  6. Local End-to-end (Integration) Testing with AWS Lambda (New).

  7. Deploying the service to AWS (Lambda and API Gateway) (New) - This section replaces instructions for deploying the service to any one of a number of public platforms that supports Docker containers (e.g. AWS Elastic Beanstalk, etc).

5) Application software stack

The service is built on a software stack of Java (8.x), Spring Boot 2.1.x / Spring (5.1.x) and Tomcat (9) web container (Servlet API 4.0).-

5.1) Changes to support AWS Lambda Integration

To support porting the app to run on AWS Lambda, using the Serverless Container Library, the aforementioned software stack is largely unchanged, however a few changes are necessary and some new restrictions do apply -

  • Utilised web container - The Serverless Container Library provides its own embedded Servlet web container, which is currently Jetty. The embedded Servlet web container that is provided by the Spring Boot web starter POM (which defaults to Tomcat) has to be excluded. (It is not currently known whether the AWS library supports other web containers).
  • Supported Java version - The utilised version of Java remains unchanged, but it's worth noting that it now has to be supported by the AWS Lambda platform/service. Whereas previously, when deploying the app/service as a Docker container there was no such restriction - we were free to use any version of Java.

6) Dev Environment Setup / Prerequisites

To build, test, package, deploy and run this project locally you will need a dev env comprising the following -

1) JDK - Install the correct major version (see above) of the JDK used by this service to support compiling the source code and running the app.

2) Gradle - Gradle is used to build the service. If you run any of the service build script's tasks via the gradle wrapper - ./gradlew - it will automatically download and install the required version of Gradle. See below for more details.

6.1) Changes to support AWS Lambda Integration

3) Docker - The service is packaged and deployed as a Docker image. This requires a Docker (client and server/engine) to be installed in the dev ('local') environment. For non-Linux (i.e. Mac OS X, or Windows) dev environments, install Docker using the corresponding native app (e.g. Docker for Mac). - The app is no longer packaged and deployed as a Docker image. However, Docker still needs to be installed to support local integration testing of the ported app/service in conjunction with AWS services. (See later section below for more details).

4) AWS SAM CLI - The AWS Serverless Application Model (SAM) command line interface needs to be installed to support local integration testing of the app in conjunction with AWS Lambda and AWS API Gateway services (as described in later section). The CLI installation instructions are signposted from AWS SAM project home page. Currently they can be found in the AWS Serverless Application Model Developer Guide.

Note, several different installation options are supported (including npm, Python's pip, etc). But on Mac OS X, after some frustration trying other options, I found that using the Homebrew package was by far the simples and most reliable. Example commands -

$ brew tap aws/tap
$ brew install aws-sam-cli

5) AWS CLI - The broader AWS CLI needs to be installed to support deploying the application using AWS CloudFormation.

7) Source Code

The project uses the standard Maven directory layout for a Java app. Java source code and resources can be found in the src/main/java and src/main/resources folders respectively. Automated test code and resources can be found in the src/test/java and src/test/resources folders.

8) Service Build Script

Building, testing and releasing of the service is automated using a Gradle 'build' script. For a list of available build tasks enter the following command in the project root directory:

./gradlew tasks

For more details see build.gradle in the project root directory.

9) Automated Tests

Automated unit tests and fine-grained intra-service integration tests (that entail launching the Spring container) are implemented in JUnit (5) and AssertJ. To execute the unit tests from the command line, enter the following command:

./gradlew test

9.1) Component Testing

Component tests are types of automated tests in which the functionality of the service's web APIs are tested end-to-end within the app/service, from receipt of an external HTTP request from an API client, through the whole stack, including integrations with stubbed external processes, via real API clients, over the wire, and generation and return of the response.

Component tests are typically implemented using Spring Boot's test support for launching the production web container in the context/scope of the execution of a JUnit test, e.g.

// webEnvironment - Set to 'RANDOM_PORT' to signify that these are component tests that should launch and run in the
// production web container (and bind to and listen on a random HTTP port).
@SpringBootTest(webEnvironment = SpringBootTest.WebEnvironment.RANDOM_PORT)
public class MyApiComponentTest { 

A 'service virtualisation' tool, such as WireMock, can be used to stub external remote web APIs/services.

9.2) Changes to support AWS Lambda Integration

After porting this app to use the AWS Serverless Java Container library, Component tests, written using the @SpringBootTest approach as described in the previous section, can still be executed, however, by default they now use a different implementation of Servlet/web container than what's used in production. A Spring Boot project by default uses embedded Tomcat, whereas the AWS Serverless Java Container uses its own packaged embedded Jetty. As a result, whilst these Components tests are still useful, they are slightly less valuable. (The tests now offer less of a guarantee that the app will subsequently work as expected in when deployed & running in production using a different implementation of web container).

Given that Spring Boot supports alternative types of Servlet/web container, including Jetty, this drawback could be addressed by changing Boot's web starter POM so the project utilises Jetty rather than Tomcat. The version of Jetty used by Boot would also need to be kept aligned with the version used by the Serverless Java Container library.

10) Building the service

To assemble (compile and package) the service execute the following commands:

./gradlew assemble

This will create an executable, fat JAR in the build/libs folder.

In addition a binary distribution, in the form of a zip file is created in the build/distributions folder to support deploying the application to the AWS Lambda platform/service.

To assemble the service, and additionally run the service's checks (tests and any coding standards) beforehand, use the 'build' task, e.g.

./gradlew build

10.1) Changes to support AWS Lambda Integration

The above steps for assembling the service are largely unchanged, except as noted above the app/service is now distributed as an AWS Lambda compatible zip file, rather than a Docker image. (Whilst the app is still assembled into a Spring Boot executable, fat jar, this is only used to support local testing, and not deployment to AWS Lambda).

11) Running the service

You can run the service 'in-place' (without assembling it) from your workspace using the following command:

./gradlew bootRun

To terminate the application, press CTRL-C.

The service is assembled (compiled and packaged) into an executable JAR which includes its own embedded web container. It can therefore be run 'standalone' from any location. To assemble the service and run the application from its assembled JAR in a background process attached to your shell, enter the following commands:

./gradlew assemble
java -jar ./build/libs/time-service-{version}.jar [] &

where {version} is the project version, e.g. 0.0.1-snapshot.

The '' option is used to select the Spring bean profiles which should be activated. This defaults to 'local' - the base profile for the development environment. For more details see the comments in the service's application config file - src/main/resources/application.yaml.

If the service starts up successfully you will see a pageful of info-level logs output to your screen, which will end with a line similar to the following:

2019-01-21 21:35:36.304  INFO 90658 --- [           main] o.s.b.w.embedded.tomcat.TomcatWebServer  : Tomcat started on port(s): 8080 (http) with context path ''
2019-01-21 21:35:36.309  INFO 90658 --- [           main] com.neiljbrown.service.time.Application  : Started Application in 2.984 seconds (JVM running for 3.571)

To terminate the background process from a bash shell, use the following command -

kill $(ps aux | grep '[t]ime-service' | awk '{print $2}')

11.1) Changes to support AWS Lambda Integration

The app/service can still be run in place, and assembled into and run as an Spring Boot executable, fat jar, using the steps described above. However, the Boot jar is no longer used to support production deployment of the app to AWS Lambda. (See section 'Deploying the service to AWS Lambda' below for more details). And as noted above (see 'Component testing' section), running the app from the Boot jar will currently result in it using a different implementation of Servlet/web container (Tomcat) than is used when the app is deployed and run in production. (The AWS Serverless Java container launches its own packaged version of Jetty). Keep this in mind when writing any tests which rely on launching the app via the Boot jar.

12) Local End-to-end (Integration) Testing with AWS Lambda (New)

12.1) The Issue

Re-engineering the app/service to run on AWS Lambda using the AWS Serverless Java Container library introduces some additional, new testing concerns, over and above the ones described for implementing Component tests above, that didn't exist when running the service in a Docker container

Firstly, the app now contains additional code, in the form of an AWS Lambda function (specifically an implementation of an AWS Lambda RequestStreamHandler). See the project's StreamLambdaHandler class. Whilst this class is fairly simple, it should ideally be unit tested. However, writing such a test is not straightforward, as the StreamLambdaHandler depends upon (collaborates with) the serverless library's LambdaContainerHandler, which can't be mocked as it is instantiated using a static initializer block, and stored as static variable (in order to support caching the instance at the JVM/class level).

Secondly, the ported app is now an AWS serverless app, meaning it depends on the AWS Lambda and AWS API Gateway platform services at runtime when deployed and running in post-dev, production-like environments. Invoking the service's web APIs rely upon an additional API endpoint being deployed in AWS API Gateway; and deployment and execution of the service's aforementioned AWS Lambda function to the AWS Lambda service. Integration with these additional AWS runtimes obviously needs to be tested prior to deploying to production. However, performing such testing against the real implementation of these AWS services would have a significant detrimental impact of developer productivity, and would require having to re-package and re-deploy the app each time a change was made, increasing the duration of the code-test feedback cycle.

12.2) The Solution - AWS SAM Local

AWS provide a solution to the above testing concerns. The AWS Serverless Application Model (SAM) Command Line Interface (CLI) tool provides a command named 'local' that supports locally integration testing your AWS Lambda function against a simulation (stub) of the AWS Lambda service (that runs in a local Docker container). The SAM local command also supports local integration testing of an AWS Lambda function that is invoked/triggered by an HTTP request event source, by additionally launching a local simulation of an AWS API Gateway service API endpoint.

The subsections below provide specific examples for how to use the AWS SAM local command to locally integration test this particular app/service with AWS Lambda. Further details of the AWS SAM local command and how to use it, including additional generic examples, can be found in the following online docs:

12.3) Locally Integration Testing this service with AWS

After installing the AWS SAM CLI, as described in section 'Dev Environment Setup / Prerequisites' above, the ported service can be integration tested against AWS services using the commands provided below.

This section contains instructions for manually integration testing the service. Obviously, with a bit more effort, these commands and the tests could be automated.

The following commands were tested against the latest version of the SAM CLI available at time of writing -

$ sam --version
SAM CLI, version 0.12.0

Step 1 - First, build and package the app into the AWS Lambda compatible binary distribution zip file, as would be required for a production deployment -

$ ./gradlew assemble
$ ls ./build/distributions/

Step 2 - Any changes made to the project's SAM template (sam.yaml) can be validated prior to deployment as part of local integration testing, as follows -

$ sam validate --template sam.yaml
2019-04-13 18:11:44 Found credentials in shared credentials file: ...
.../time-service-aws-severless-java-container/sam.yaml is a valid SAM Template

Step 3 - Ensure Docker (engine) is running locally. The SAM local command relies on downloading and launching a Docker container to simulate the AWS Lambda service.

Step 4 - Create a new dedicated terminal (bash) session, and execute the SAM local 'start-api' command -

$ sam local start-api --template sam.yaml

This command will attempt to launch a local web server running a simulated version (stub) of the AWS API Gateway endpoint that's configured as a web API event source for the 'service container' Lambda function in the project's sam.yaml. If the command is successful, it will log output similar to that shown below to the console -

2019-04-13 18:31:27 Found credentials in shared credentials file: ...
2019-04-13 18:31:27 Mounting ServiceContainerFunction at{proxy+} [GET, DELETE, PUT, POST, HEAD, OPTIONS, PATCH]
2019-04-13 18:31:27 You can now browse to the above endpoints to invoke your functions. You do not need to restart/reload SAM CLI while working on your functions, changes will be reflected instantly/automatically. You only need to restart SAM CLI if you update your AWS SAM template
2019-04-13 18:31:27  * Running on (Press CTRL+C to quit)

Step 5 - Using a REST API client of your choosing, perform a cursory, end-to-end integration test of one of the service's web API endpoints, via the locally running simulation of the AWS API Gateway service. For example, from another terminal (bash) session, use the following curl command to invoke this Time service's Get Platform Time API -

$ curl --include

When the local web server simulating the AWS API Gateway endpoint, as launched by the SAM local 'start-api' command, receives the API request it triggers SAM local to deploy the app's packaged Lambda function to a local simulation of the AWS Lambda service. (Behind the scenes this entails SAM local reading the location of the app's packaged Lambda function from the SAM template (see sam.yaml property Resources:ServiceContainerFunction:Properties:CodeUri) and unpacking it to a local temp directory; pulling a Docker image for the AWS Lambda stub and launching it as a Docker container; then mounting the dir containing the Lambda function in the Docker container). If this is successful, logs similar to the following are output to the console of the SAM local 'start-api' command -

2019-04-13 18:40:27 Invoking com.neiljbrown.service.time.StreamLambdaHandler::handleRequest (java8)
2019-04-13 18:40:27 Decompressing .../build/distributions/
Fetching lambci/lambda:java8 Docker container image......
2019-04-13 18:40:29 Mounting /private/var/folders/8b/md1n9xh92cv6ylx3gsd4hd980000gp/T/tmpesqyc0if as /var/task:ro inside runtime container

The above process (specifically the pulling and launch of the Docker container) may take a minute or so. (Issue - Unfortunately, the SAM local command currently repeats the above steps, including restarting the Docker container and redeploying your Lambda function, each time it receives a new request, which negatively impacts developer productivity).

If your Lambda function can be successfully deployed, and the API request is processed successfully end-to-end, you'll see logs similar to the following output by the SAM local 'start-api' command -

START RequestId: 62bbdf29-8a5e-4f8c-879a-2accfe0f7136 Version: $LATEST
END RequestId: 62bbdf29-8a5e-4f8c-879a-2accfe0f7136
REPORT RequestId: 62bbdf29-8a5e-4f8c-879a-2accfe0f7136	Duration: 183.02 ms	Billed Duration: 200 ms	Memory Size: 512 MB	Max Memory Used: 16 MB	
[2019-04-13 18:40:33.767] NO-REQUEST-ID INFO c.a.s.p.i.s.AwsServletContext - 1 Spring WebApplicationInitializers detected on classpath 
  .   ____          _            __ _ _
 /\\ / ___'_ __ _ _(_)_ __  __ _ \ \ \ \
( ( )\___ | '_ | '_| | '_ \/ _` | \ \ \ \
 \\/  ___)| |_)| | | | | || (_| |  ) ) ) )
  '  |____| .__|_| |_|_| |_\__, | / / / /
 :: Spring Boot ::        (v2.0.5.RELEASE)
2019-04-13 18:40:39 - - [13/Apr/2019 18:40:39] "HEAD /v1/platform-time HTTP/1.1" 200 -

(See the subsection below for an explanation and analysis of the above logs).

And your REST client should receive an HTTP success response back from the API, e.g. for the above curl command -

HTTP/1.0 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json
Content-Length: 35
Server: Werkzeug/0.14.1 Python/3.7.2
Date: Sat, 27 Apr 2019 13:48:30 GMT


The has served to integration test deploying and running the service as an AWS serverless app (in which the web container is launched by an AWS Lambda function), locally, avoiding the need to do a full deployment to AWS.

12.4) Analysis of Logs Written During Request Processing

The logs that are output to the console during processing of an API request by the Lambda function, as shown in the above examples, are the same as those output by the real AWS Lambda service. They're insightful and contain some useful information.

The first pair of logs, shown below, record the start and end of processing of the request, identified by a UUID.

START RequestId: 62bbdf29-8a5e-4f8c-879a-2accfe0f7136 Version: $LATEST
END RequestId: 62bbdf29-8a5e-4f8c-879a-2accfe0f7136

The AWS Lambda service then outputs a log detailing the function's execution time, billed duration and resource usage, e.g.

REPORT RequestId: 62bbdf29-8a5e-4f8c-879a-2accfe0f7136	Duration: 183.02 ms	Billed Duration: 200 ms	Memory Size: 512 MB	Max Memory Used: 16 MB

In this example, the function is deployed with a RAM size of 512MB (this is configurable in sam.yaml). From a resource sizing perspective it's useful to know that this function only consumed 16MB of RAM. It might therefore be cheaper to deploy the Lambda function with a small RAM size of 128MB, although this will depend on whether the associated downsizing of the CPU will result in the Lambda function now taking an extra billable 100ms to run. Whilst it's useful to see the logged execution time ('Duration') of the Lambda function, this is specific to the local environment. It's therefore still essential to performance test the Lambda function running on the real AWS Lambda service, and size its resources according to findings there.

The next logs output to the console are written by the app's AWS Lambda function itself - the StreamLambdaHandler class, which is an implementation of AWS Lambda RequestStreamHandler. These logs report the utilised serverless container library's LambdaContainerHandler loading the app's Spring container the first time a request is processed after the Lambda function is launched -

[2019-04-13 18:40:33.767] NO-REQUEST-ID INFO c.a.s.p.i.s.AwsServletContext - 1 Spring WebApplicationInitializers detected on classpath 
  .   ____          _            __ _ _
 /\\ / ___'_ __ _ _(_)_ __  __ _ \ \ \ \
( ( )\___ | '_ | '_| | '_ \/ _` | \ \ \ \
 \\/  ___)| |_)| | | | | || (_| |  ) ) ) )
  '  |____| .__|_| |_|_| |_\__, | / / / /
 :: Spring Boot ::        (v2.0.5.RELEASE)

Issue - Unfortunately, as already noted above, the SAM local command recycles the Docker container running the stub of the AWS Lambda function each time a request is processed. As a result, these integration tests do NOT currently prove that the Spring container is cached and the overhead of its startup only occurred on a Lambda function 'cold-start' (after the JVM hosting the Lambda function is recycled). Currently that can only be verified after deploying to AWS (instructions for which are provided below).

13) Deploying the service to AWS (Lambda and API Gateway) (New)

This section contains instructions and examples on how to deploy the service (now re-engineered to be an AWS serverless app) to AWS (API Gateway and Lambda services). (A terser set of instructions can be found in the readme of the AWS serverless Java container library's stater app for any of the supported Java frameworks, a copy of which can be found in my generated copy of the starter app for Spring Boot at

These instructions currently rely on manually entering commands. With a bit more effort, deployment could be fully automated by scripting these commands.

13.1) Prerequisites

First ensure you've installed the AWS CLI using the instructions detailed in section 'Dev Environment Setup / Prerequisites' above. This is needed to support deploying the service/app using AWS CloudFormation.

You also need an AWS account, and account credentials (e.g. root) that have the permission to create and deploy AWS resources (API Gateway endpoints and Lambda functions).

13.2) Step 1 - Create an S3 Bucket

Create an S3 bucket to which the application's binary distribution (the Lambda zip file) can subsequently be uploaded. (This is required to support deploying an app using AWS CloudFormation).

The bucket can have any name, as long as it's unique, and the default new bucket settings/configs suffice.

You can use either the AWS Management Console web-app or the AWS CLI. For example, to create the S3 bucket using the AWS CLI, use a command similar to the following -

$ aws s3api create-bucket --bucket <s3-bucket-name> --region us-east-1 --profile <your-aws-credentials-profile> 

where '' is substituted for a unique S3 bucket name e.g. .aws-serverless-java-container.time-service

13.3) Step 2 - Upload Lambda Function to S3 and Generate the CloudFormation (Deployment) Template

AWS serverless apps such as this one, whose component AWS resources (e.g. API Gateway endpoints and Lambda functions), and any supporting infrastructure, are declared in a SAM template (sam.yaml), can be deployed using AWS CloudFormation. AWS CloudFormation supports generating a CloudFormation template from sam.yaml, which can then be used to automate deploying the AWS serverless app's resources as a CloudFormation 'stack'.

First assemble the app into its AWS Lambda distribution zip file. (See Gradle command in earlier section above). Then use the following AWS CLI command to upload the zip file to the S3 bucket created in the previous step, and generate the CloudFormation template from the app's sam.yaml -

$ cd  <project-root-path>
$ aws cloudformation package \
 --profile <your-aws-credentials-profile> \
 --template-file sam.yaml \
 --output-template-file output-sam.yaml \
 --s3-bucket <s3-bucket-name> 

If the command is successful it will generate output similar to the following -

Uploading to <auto-generated-uuid-for-uploaded-package>  ...
Successfully packaged artifacts and wrote output template to file output-sam.yaml.
Execute the following command to deploy the packaged template
aws cloudformation deploy --template-file <project-root-path>/output-sam.yaml --stack-name <YOUR STACK NAME>

The command generates a CloudFormation template (deployment descriptor) named output-sam.yaml in the current directory. This template is very similar to the source sam.yaml file. The main difference is that the 'CodeUri' property which specifies the URI of the app's binary distribution zip file is re-written to point to the AWS S3 bucket from which the app will be deployed rather than a project's local path.

If you wish, you can use the following AWS CLI command to view the Lambda zip file that has been uploaded to the S3 bucket -

$ aws s3 ls <s3-bucket-name> --profile <your-aws-credentials-profile> --human --recurs 

13.4) Step 3 - Deploy the app using the generated CloudFormation Template

Use the following AWS CLI command to deploy the app (from the S3 bucket) using the instructions in the previously generated CloudFormation template -

$ aws cloudformation deploy \
 --profile <your-aws-credentials-profile> \
 --template-file <project-root-path>/output-sam.yaml \
 --stack-name TimeServiceServerlessJavaContainer \
 --capabilities CAPABILITY_IAM 

The command creates a new CloudFormation 'stack' named 'TimeServiceServerlessJavaContainer'. You're free to use any stack name of your choosing in your account.

If the command is successful it will generate output similar to the following -

Waiting for changeset to be created..
Waiting for stack create/update to complete
Successfully created/updated stack - TimeServiceServerlessJavaContainer

The app is now fully deployed to AWS. You can use the AWS Management Console web-app to peruse exactly what has been deployed. In particular, the AWS Lambda web console will show that a (serverless) 'Application' named 'TimeServiceServerlessJavaContainer', comprising the AWS resources (API Gateway endpoint and Lambda function) declared in sam.yaml is deployed. You can use both the Lambda web console and the API Gateway web console to drill down and inspect each component AWS resource that has been deployed.

13.4.1) AWS API Gateway Stages

When an AWS API Gateway endpoint is deployed using SAM it creates two Gateway stages named 'stage' and 'prod' by default. At the time of writing SAM doesn't currently provide any means to customise this behaviour. The implications of this is that two instances of the API endpoint are deployed, one per stage, with distinct URL's, each prefixed by a URL path corresponding to the stage name - '/stage' and '/prod'

13.5) Step 4 - Verify Deployment and Operation of Service on AWS by Invoking Service APIs

Use the commands below to verify that this backend service has been correctly deployed to AWS, and is accessible and operating correctly when invoked in this production runtime environment.

The verification steps are based on invoking the service's 'Get Platform Time' web API via its AWS API Gateway endpoint.

13.5.1) Discover Public URL of Deployed Service APIs

First discover the public URL of the deployed web API's endpoint. (This is necessary as the URL of AWS API Gateway endpoint that was created for the Lambda function comprises a generated hostname that is unique and varies per AWS region). This can be achieved by describing the CloudFormation stack that was created when the app was deployed using the following AWS CLI command -

$ aws cloudformation describe-stacks --profile <your-aws-credentials-profile> --stack-name TimeServiceSeverlessJavaContainer 

The command will return a JSON representation of the CF stack that contains an array of output values (variables for values generated by CF, as defined in sam.yaml) that includes the URL of AWS API Gateway endpoint in the 'OutputValue' of the entry in the 'Outputs' JSON array with 'OutputKey' named 'GetPlatformTimeApiUrl'. For example, if the command is successful it will generate output similar to the following -

    "Stacks": [
            "StackId": "arn:aws:cloudformation:...",
            "StackName": "TimeServiceSeverlessJavaContainer",
            "ChangeSetId": "arn:aws:cloudformation:...",
            "Description": "AWS Serverless implementation of Time service APIs - com.neiljbrown::time-service",
            "CreationTime": "2019-03-15T18:25:02.147Z",
            "LastUpdatedTime": "2019-03-15T18:25:07.835Z",
            "RollbackConfiguration": {},
            "StackStatus": "CREATE_COMPLETE",
            "DisableRollback": false,
            "NotificationARNs": [],
            "Capabilities": [
            "Outputs": [
                    "OutputKey": "GetPlatformTimeApiUrl",
                    "OutputValue": "https://<generated-host-name>",
                    "Description": "URL for application",
                    "ExportName": "GetPlatformTimeApiUrl"
            "Tags": [],
            "EnableTerminationProtection": false

In the above example, the public URL of the Time service's Get Platform Time API (in the AWS Gateway 'Stage' environment) is, where '' is a generated value.

13.5.2) Invoke Service API, Running on AWS Lambda

Using a REST API client of your choosing, test invoking the deployed service's 'Get Platform Time' web API via its AWS API Gateway endpoint. For example, from a terminal (bash) session, use a curl command similar to the following -

$ curl --include "<GetPlatformTimeApiUrl>"

where '<GetPlatformTimeApiUrl>' is the URL discovered in the previous step.

If the app/service has been successfully deployed and is operating correctly then the API should return an HTTP success response similar to the following -

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Sat, 27 Apr 2019 13:45:37 GMT
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 35
Connection: keep-alive
x-amzn-RequestId: bd258dc7-68f2-11e9-b68e-2b5a476bff01
x-amz-apigw-id: YzN4QG-uDoEFtLw=
X-Amzn-Trace-Id: Root=1-5cc45d01-537d82ed8e696ac91d03f4ca;Sampled=0


The first request will have a latency of several seconds as it will incur an AWS Lambda cold-start as the supporting Java container (including Spring) is deployed and started. However, subsequent executions should be much faster. For example, as shown below, without any tuning the warm execution time for the service's Get Platform Time API is less than 200ms -

$ time curl --include "https://<generated-host-name>"
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Sat, 27 Apr 2019 13:53:28 GMT
Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 35
Connection: keep-alive
x-amzn-RequestId: d5f11985-68f3-11e9-a22e-5170544e663e
x-amz-apigw-id: YzPB3HpuDoEFfkw=
X-Amzn-Trace-Id: Root=1-5cc45ed8-5f79edf0f5e0a5a713d03014;Sampled=0

real	0m0.167s
user	0m0.017s
sys	0m0.011s




Sample backend (micro) service built using Java/Spring Boot, re-engineered to run on AWS Lambda platform, using a solution based on the AWS Serverless Java Container library.




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