Formalization of a reference top-level ontology for types in multi-level conceptual modelling.
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Formal Specifications of the MLT Multi-Level Theory

This project includes formal specifications of the Multi-Level Theory (MLT) and its generalization MLT*.

There are two specifications of MLT in order to support the validation and verification of the theory using the Alloy Analyzer (used in [1]):

  • mlt.als - The first specification of MLT, which assumes static classification
  • mlt_dynamicclassification.als - A minor extension of MLT, indexing the primitive "instance of" predicate with a world variable w, thereby including support for dynamic classification in MLT.

There is also a specification of MLT* in Alloy comprising the following files (used in [2]):

For further information see:

  1. Carvalho, V. A., Almeida, J. P. A.: Toward a well-founded theory for multi-level conceptual modeling. Software & Systems Modeling, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2016.
  2. Almeida, J. P. A., Fonseca, C. M., Carvalho, V. A., A Comprehensive Formal Theory for Multi-level Conceptual Modeling. In: 36th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER 2017), 2017.


  • João Paulo A. Almeida;
  • Claudenir M. Fonseca;
  • Victorio A. Carvalho;