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This code was origanally on sourceforge and has been forked over to github because its better origally located at http://libots.sourceforge.net/ Open Text summarizer --------------------- Nadav Rotem 2003 firstname.lastname@example.org --------------------- The open text summarizer is an open source tool for summarizing texts. The program reads a text and decides which sentences are important and which are not. OTS will create a short summary or will highlight the main ideas in the text. OTS is both a library and a command line tool. Word processors such as AbiWord and KWord can link to the library and summarize documents while the command line tool lets you summarize text on the console. The program can either print the summarized text as text or HTML. If in HTML, the important sentences are highlighted. The program is multi lingual and works with UTF-8 encoding. Supported languages: (ca,bg,cs,cy,da,de,el,en,eo,es,et,eu,fi,fr,ga,gl,he,hu,ia,id,is,it,lv,mi,ms,mt,nl,nn, pl,pt,ro,ru,sv,tl,tr,uk,yi) Basque (seminal) Bulgarian (seminal) Catalan (seminal) Czech (seminal) Danish (seminal) Dutch English Esperanto (seminal) Estonian (seminal) Finnish (seminal) French (seminal) Galician (seminal) German (seminal) Greek (seminal) Hebrew Hungarian (seminal) Icelandic (seminal) Indonesian (seminal) Interlingua (seminal) Irish (Gaelic) (seminal) Italian (seminal) Latvian (seminal) Malaysian (seminal) Maltese (seminal) Maori (seminal) Norwegian Nynorsk (seminal) Polish (seminal) Portuguese (seminal) Romanian (seminal) Russian (seminal) Spanish (seminal) Swedish (seminal) Tagalog (Pilipino) (seminal) Turkish (seminal) Ukrainian (seminal) Welsh (seminal) Yiddish (seminal) Command line Usage: $ ots --ratio [0..100] :select the summary ratio --html :print summary in highlighted html form --keywords :print key words in the article --dic :use dictionary other then english, for example 'he' or 'es' --about :tells that the article talks about --file :input file --out :output file --help :print this help screen example1: ots articles/sacbee1.txt --ratio 20 --html This command will summarize the article from the Sacramento Bee and highlight the 20% of sentences most important to the content of the article. example2: ots --ratio 40 --file big_article.txt This command will summarize the article down to 40% and print it. How it works: The Idea behind OTS is that the important ideas in an article are described with many of the same words while redundant information uses less technical terms and is not related to the main subject of the article. Important lines are lines that are related to the subject of the article. The subject of the article is the list of ideas that are most discussed in the article. In practice , the article is scanned once and a list of all of the words and their occurrence in the text is stored in a list. After sorting this list by the occurrence of words in the text we will see a list similar to this: 11 are 17 is 16 a 14 Harry 14 on 13 Sally 11 Love 11 such 4 an 2 taxi 1 university 1 chicago 1 meets ... ... Now we will remove all the words that are common in the English language using a dictionary file. Example of such words: "The","a","since","after","will". These words are words that don't teach us anything about the subject of the article. Knowing that the word "Police" is in a given text can tell us that the article might talk about the police , however knowing that the word "will" is in the text can't teach us anything about the subject of the text. After removing the redundant words the new list will look like this: 14 Harry 13 Sally 11 Love 2 taxi 1 university 1 chicago 1 meets From this list we may assume that the text talks about "Harry , Sally , Love". So an important sentence in the text will be a sentence that talks about Harry, Sally and Love. A sentence that talks about the university of Chicago may be neglected because we find the word "chicago" only once in the text, so we may assume that "chicago" is not one of the main ideas in the text. Each sentence is given a grade based on the the keywords in it. A line that holds many important words will be given a high grade. To produce a 20% summary we print the top 20% sentences with the highest grade. Ots will not work on books because they cover too many topics. however, each page may be fed individually, this will produce a good result. Poems or other non-standard texts will not produce a good result because they are structured in a "funny" way. Every new language to be implemented needs to contain a list of VERY common words in the language. 250 words is more than enough. See en.dic for example. Writing such a dictionary is an iteratice process. It is suggested that the author of such a dictionary will try to scan a few articles using OTS and try it with the "--keywords" flag on. This will tell him if OTS thinks for some reason that "his" is the subject of the text. If this is the case then "his" needs to be added to the dictionary. Stemming: stemming is the ability to take a word such as "running" and trace it back to its original form to the word "run". We use this feature to group together all of the the derivatives of a certain words. Now what we group together these words ots will know what the subject of this article is the one word "run" and not ("running","run", "runnable" ...). Now, when we encounter a sentence that talks about some "runner" we will know to that it is related to the topic of the article. In previous versions this has never been done because "running"!="run"; The stemming support is now integrated into OTS. To allow stemming I had to create a new file format that will hold the stemming rules. That format is XML based. libxml2 is being used. Example: [dam]==[dams] stem[dam] [asking]==[asked] stem[ask] [build]==[building] stem[build] [accidents]==[accident] stem[accident] [policing]==[police] stem[polic] [reported]==[report] stem[report] [years]==[year] stem[year] [increased]==[increase] stem[increas] [study]==[studies] stem[study] [reported]==[reports] stem[report] [gates]==[gate] stem[gat] [locked]==[lock] stem[lock]