Clock and Scheduler library for Atmel AVR
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### Clock and Scheduler for 16Mhz AVR

## Synopsis

task_t foo_task;
void foo(void *arg);

int main() {
	#define DELAY 2000L
	sched_msec_from_now(&foo_task, DELAY, foo, NULL);
	// infinite loop to pump events

void foo(void *arg) {
	// repeat at regular interval
	sched_again_at_msec(&foo_task, foo_task.wakeTime + DELAY);

## Clock

This library implements a clock which takes over one of the timer-counters
to create both a 32-bit tick counter and a 32-bit millisecond counter.
The tick counter is a combination of a 16-bit rollover count with the live
value of the 16-bit timer for the lower bits.  The millisecond counter is
a plain 32-bit int incremented by an interrupt.  Each time the interrupt
fires it increments the millisecond count and sets a new compare-interrupt
on the timer.

At 16Mhz, the 16-bit timer rolls over every 33ms.  As long as interrupts
are never disabled for this long, the millisecond count will be able to
recover from missed interrupts (though of course it will be up to 33ms off
while interrupts are disabled).

Tick counts and millisecond counts are all unsigned values, and when
comparing them you should use notation like (int32_t)(time2-time1) > VALUE
to properly handle wrap-around.

## Scheduler

The scheduler maintains a list of tasks which need to run at points in the
future.  Task records are allocated by the caller, and a task can only be
scheduled once at a time.  Re-scheduling a task will cancel the previous
execution time.  Tasks may be scheduled from interrupt routines.

When nothing is due the scheduler will put the AVR into idle-sleep mode.
This will last at most until the next clock interrupt, which happens at
least 1/sec.


Currently, the clock wakes once per millisecond.  It could be made to only
update once per timer overflow, but then reading the millisecond count would
require reading the timer and division to determine how many milliseconds
had elapsed.  Anyway, it could be improved to wake the AVR less often, but
that would be hard and error-prone and maybe inefficient.

Currently the scheduler only calls sleep if it is waiting until the next
millisecond, and busy-waits otherwise.  It would be better to set a timer
compare interrupt for the desired wake time and then sleep for fractions
of a millisecond as well.  It will in fact need to do this if the clock is
improved to not wake every millisecond.