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README.md

Tezos Ledger Applications

Overview

Whether you're baking or just trading XTZ, you want to store your keys securely. This is what a "hardware wallet" like the Ledger Nano S/X is for. Your private keys never leave the device, and it performs the signing operations. To use a Ledger Nano device with Tezos, you need to load Tezos-specific software onto it.

The term "hardware wallet" can refer to several devices that store your private keys in a secure way. The term "wallet" refers to the fact that it stores your "money" -- in the case of Tezos, it stores your tez. Remember, storing your tokens means storing the private keys that control your tokens. But the wallet also has other uses, including an application that helps you securely and easily interact with the network, including creating Tezos transactions and baking blocks.

This repository contains two Ledger Nano applications:

  1. The "Tezos Baking" application (Nano S only) is for baking: signing new blocks and endorsements. For more information about baking, see Benefits and Risks of Home Baking.
  2. The "Tezos Wallet" application (Nano S and X) is for making XTZ transactions, originating contracts, delegation, and voting. Basically everything you might want to use the Ledger Nano S/X for on Tezos besides baking.

It is possible to do all of these things without a hardware wallet, but using a hardware wallet provides you better security against key theft.

This documentation was originally written when there was no GUI support, so everything is tailored towards the command line. We recommend you read this entire document to understand the commands available, and which commands are most appropriate to your situation. This will require judgment on how best to meet your needs, and this document will also provide context to help you understand that.

This document is not a comprehensive guide to setting up Tezos software. While it covers some aspects of setting up and installing Tezos nodes and clients, especially as it interacts with the Ledger Nano S/X, you should familiarize yourself with the Tezos Documentation and community resources such as Tezos Community's guide on building a node. If you have questions, please ask them on the Tezos Stack Exchange.

This document is also not a guide on how to use Linux. It assumes you know how to install and configure a Linux system to your general needs, use the command line, or configure GitHub access. Occasionally, it will recommend things like editing a script to match your configuration. Learning how to run commands on Linux, edit scripts, or configure your user accounts to enable groups, is outside the scope of this document, but resources for all of those things are available on the Internet.

The commands in these instructions have only been tested on Linux. If you use any form of virtualization, e.g. docker or VirtualBox, please consult the documentation of that virtualization system to determine how to access USB from inside the virtualization, as that can be a complicated and difficult process.

The commands in this document have been tested as is, and have the correct privileges. If you find yourself using sudo to run commands that are not listed as requiring sudo, that likely indicates a problem with your configuration, most often the udev configuration. Using sudo for commands that should not require it can create security vulnerabilities and corrupt your configuration.

Hacking

See CONTRIBUTING.md

Set up your Ledger device

Tezos recommends two hardware wallets: Ledger Nano S and Ledger Nano X. When you first get a device and set it up, part of the setup process is generating a keypair. The keypair will be associated with a rather long seed phrase that you must write down and keep securely. We'll discuss that seed phrase more below. You also set a PIN code that allows you to unlock the device so that it will sign messages. You can then install the Tezos application to use the Ledger device to interact directly with the Tezos network (see more about this in the application instructions, forthcoming). However, your Ledger device will ask for confirmation before it sends your keys to sign transactions or blocks, and you must confirm by physically pushing a button on the device, and that provides some security against an attacker taking control over your keys.

Protecting your key

The seed phrase is an encoding of your private key itself and can be used to restore your key. If you lose your Ledger device or destroy it somehow, you can buy a new one and set it up with the seed phrase from your old one, hence restoring your tokens.

Consequently, it is extremely important that you keep your seed phrase written down somewhere safe. Losing it can mean you lose control of your account should you, for example, lose your Ledger device. Keeping it somewhere a hacker could find it (such as in a file on your internet-connected computer) means your private key can fall into the wrong hands.

You will write it down on paper, along with your PIN, and store it. If you will have a large amount of money, consider putting your paper in a safe or safe deposit box, but at the very least keep it away from places where children, dogs, housekeepers, or obnoxious neighbors could inadvertently destroy it.

Protecting Your Key -- Further Advanced Reading

More advanced techniques for those interested in even more layers of security or plausible deniability features should look at Ledger's documentation on this.

Note that Ledger devices with different seeds will appear to tezos-client to be different hardware wallets. Note also that it can change what key is authorized in Tezos Baking. When using these features in a Ledger device used for baking, please exit and re-start Tezos Baking right before baking is supposed to happen, and manually verify that it displays the key you expect to bake for.

Tezos Wallet does not require such extra steps, and so these extra protections are more appropriate for keys used for transaction than they are for keys used for baking. If you do use these features, one technique is that your tez be stored in the passphrase-protected and deniable account, and that you delegate them to a baking account. This way, the baking account won't actually store the vast majority of the tez.

Ledger device firmware update

To use these apps, you must be sure to have up-to-date firmware on the Ledger device. This code was tested with version 1.6.0. Please use Ledger Live to do this.

udev rules (Linux only)

You need to set udev rules to set the permissions so that your user account can access the Ledger device. This requires system administration privileges on your Linux system.

Instructions for most distros (not including NixOS)

LedgerHQ provides a script for this purpose. Download this script, read it, customize it, and run it as root:

$ wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/LedgerHQ/udev-rules/master/add_udev_rules.sh
$ chmod +x add_udev_rules.sh

We recommend against running the next command without reviewing the script and modifying it to match your configuration.

$ sudo ./add_udev_rules.sh

Subsequently, unplug your ledger hardware wallet, and plug it in again for the changes to take effect.

Instructions for NixOS

For NixOS, you can set the udev rules by adding the following to the NixOS configuration file typically located at /etc/nixos/configuration.nix:

hardware.ledger.enable = true;

Once you have added this, run sudo nixos-rebuild switch to activate the configuration, and unplug your Ledger device and plug it in again for the changes to take effect.

Installing the Applications with Ledger Live

The easiest way to obtain and install the Tezos Ledger apps is to download them from Ledger Live. Tezos Wallet is readily available in Ledger Live's Manager. To download Tezos Baking, you'll need to enable 'Developer Mode' in Settings.

If you've used Ledger Live for application installation, you can skip ahead to Registering the Ledger Device with the node.

Obtaining the Applications without Ledger Live

If you are using the Nix package manager, you can skip this section and the next one; go directly to the nix directory for simpler Nix-based installation, where documentation is in CONTRIBUTING.md. Then return to this document and continue reading at Registering the Ledger Nano S with the node

The second easiest way to obtain both applications (after Ledger Live) is to download .hex files from the releases page of this repo. After doing so, skip ahead to Installing the apps onto your Ledger device without Ledger Live. You will need to expand the releases tarball somewhere and copy the baking.hex and wallet.hex files into the ledger-app-tezos directory. If you want to compile the applications yourself, keep reading this section.

Compiling the .hex files

The first thing you'll need to do is clone this repository:

$ git clone https://github.com/obsidiansystems/ledger-app-tezos.git

You will need to have the BOLOS SDK to use the Makefile, which can be cloned from Ledger's nanos-secure-sdk git repository. You will also need to download two compilers for use with the SDK. Note that these are specialized compilers to cross-compile for the ARM-based platform of the Ledger device; please don't use the versions of clang and gcc that come with your system.

All of the environment setup can be accomplished with the following commands.

Obtain the BOLOS SDK and the compilers it needs:

$ git clone https://github.com/LedgerHQ/nanos-secure-sdk
$ wget -O clang.tar.xz http://releases.llvm.org/4.0.0/clang+llvm-4.0.0-x86_64-linux-gnu-ubuntu-16.10.tar.xz
$ wget -O gcc.tar.bz2 https://launchpadlibrarian.net/251687888/gcc-arm-none-eabi-5_3-2016q1-20160330-linux.tar.bz2

Unzip the compilers and move them to appropriately-named directories:

$ mkdir bolos_env
$ tar -xJf clang.tar.xz --directory bolos_env
$ mv bolos_env/clang+llvm-4.0.0-x86_64-linux-gnu-ubuntu-16.10 bolos_env/clang-arm-fropi
$ tar -xjf gcc.tar.bz2 --directory bolos_env

Set environment variables:

$ export BOLOS_SDK=$PWD/nanos-secure-sdk
$ export BOLOS_ENV=$PWD/bolos_env

To build the Tezos Wallet app:

$ APP=tezos_wallet make
$ mv bin/app.hex wallet.hex

If this results in an error message that includes this line (possibly repeatedly):

#include <bits/libc-header-start.h>

you may need to run:

$ sudo apt-get install libc6-dev gcc-multilib g++-multilib

and then re-run the make command.

Note that if you build both apps, you need to run make clean before building the second one. So, to build both apps run:

$ APP=tezos_wallet make
$ mv bin/app.hex wallet.hex
$ make clean
$ APP=tezos_baking make
$ mv bin/app.hex baking.hex

To build just the Tezos Baking App:

$ APP=tezos_baking make
$ mv bin/app.hex baking.hex

Installing the apps onto your Ledger device without Ledger Live

Manually installing the apps requires a command-line tool called the BOLOS Python Loader.

Installing BOLOS Python Loader

Install libusb and libudev, with the relevant headers. On Debian-based distros, including Ubuntu, the packages with the headers are suffixed with -dev. Other distros will have their own conventions. So, for example, on Ubuntu, you can do this with:

$ sudo apt-get install libusb-1.0.0-dev libudev-dev # Ubuntu example

Then, install pip3. You must install pip3 for this and not pip. On Ubuntu:

$ sudo apt-get install python3-pip # Ubuntu example

Now, on any operating system, install virtualenv using pip3. It is important to use pip3 and not pip for this, as this module requires python3 support.

$ sudo pip3 install virtualenv # Any OS

Then create a Python virtual environment (abbreviated virtualenv). You could call it anything, but we shall call it "ledger". This will create a directory called "ledger" containing the virtualenv:

$ virtualenv ledger # Any OS

Then, you must enter the virtualenv. If you do not successfully enter the virtualenv, future commands will fail. You can tell you have entered the virtualenv when your prompt is prefixed with (ledger).

$ source ledger/bin/activate

Your terminal session -- and only that terminal session -- will now be in the virtual env. To have a new terminal session enter the virtualenv, run the above source command only in the same directory in the new terminal session.

ledgerblue: The Python Module for Ledger Nano S/X

We can now install ledgerblue, which is a Python module designed originally for Ledger Blue, but also is needed for the Ledger Nano S/X.

Although we do not yet support Ledger Blue, you must still install the following python package. Within the virtualenv environment -- making sure that (ledger) is showing up before your prompt -- use pip to install the ledgerblue Python package. This will install the Ledger Python packages into the virtualenv; they will be available only in a shell where the virtualenv has been activated.

$ pip install ledgerblue

If you have to use sudo or pip3 here, that is an indication that you have not correctly set up virtualenv. It will still work in such a situation, but please research other material on troubleshooting virtualenv setup.

Load the application onto the Ledger device

Next you'll use the installation script to install the application on your Ledger device.

The Ledger device must be in the following state:

  • Plugged into your computer
  • Unlocked (enter your PIN)
  • On the home screen (do not have any application open)
  • Not asleep (you should not see vires in numeris is scrolling across the screen)

If you are already in an application or the Ledger device is asleep, your installation process will fail.

We recommend staying at your computer and keeping an eye on the Ledger device's screen as you continue. You may want to read the rest of these instructions before you begin installing, as you will need to confirm and verify a few things during the process.

Still within the virtualenv, run the ./install.sh command included in the release.tar.gz that you downloaded.

This ./install.sh script takes the path to an application directory. Two such directories were included in the downloaded release.tar.gz. Install both apps like this: ./install.sh wallet baking.

The first thing that should come up in your terminal is a message that looks like this:

Generated random root public key : <long string of digits and letters>

Look at your Ledger device's screen and verify that the digits of that key match the digits you can see on your terminal. What you see on your Ledger hardware wallet's screen should be just the beginning and ending few characters of the longer string that printed in your terminal.

You will need to push confirmation buttons on your Ledger device a few times during the installation process and re-enter your PIN code near the end of the process. You should finally see the Tezos logo appear on the screen.

If you see the "Generated random root public key" message and then something that looks like this:

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "/usr/lib/python3.6/runpy.py", line 193, in _run_module_as_main
<...more file names...>
OSError: open failed

the most likely cause is that your udev rules are not set up correctly, or you did not unplug your Ledger hardware wallet between setting up the rules and attempting to install. Please confirm the correctness of your udev rules.

To load a new version of the Tezos application onto the Ledger device in the future, you can run the command again, and it will automatically remove any previously-loaded version.

Removing Your App

If you'd like to remove your app, you can do this. In the virtualenv described in the last sections, run this command:

$ python -m ledgerblue.deleteApp --targetId 0x31100004 --appName 'Tezos Wallet'

Replace the appName parameter "Tezos" with whatever application name you used when you loaded the application onto the device.

Then follow the prompts on the Ledger device screen.

Confirming the Installation Worked

You should now have two apps, Tezos Baking and Tezos Wallet. The Tezos Baking application should display a 0 on the screen, which is the highest block level baked so far (0 in case of no blocks). The Tezos Wallet application will just display Tezos.

Registering the Ledger device with the node

For the remainder of this document, we assume you have a Tezos node running and tezos-client installed. Also, Docker has some issues working with the Ledger device, so unless you're willing to troubleshoot them, we don't recommend it.

Currently there are two other ways to do this:

  1. If you have the Nix package manager, use the Tezos baking platform.
  2. Build tezos from the tezos repo with these instructions.

Depending on how you build it, you might need to prefix ./ to your commands, and the names of some of the binaries might be different.

What is tezos-client

We can call the network at large "Tezos." Tezos consists of a bunch of nodes, one of which is yours. Your node can be thought of as your gateway to the wider network.

You can't do anything with the Ledger hardware wallet without using tezos-client. Tezos-client is the program you use to access information about the network, which you ultimately get through your node. See the command documentation for the full array of features that tezos-client supports.

In summary:

  • Tezos is the network
  • We connect to the network through a node
  • We access that node through tezos-client
  • We store our client's keys on the Ledger device

Note that tezos-client will not only not support certain commands unless the node is installed, but the error messages for those commands will not even indicate that those commands are possible. If a command documented here gives an Unrecognized command error, make sure you have a node running.

Side note about key generation

Every Ledger hardware wallet generates public and private keys for ed25519, secp256k1, or P-256 encryption systems based on a seed (represented by and encoded in the words associated with that Ledger device) and a BIP32 ("hierarchical deterministic wallet") path.

The same seed and BIP32 path will always result in the same key for the same systems. This means that, to keep your Bitcoin application from knowing your Tezos keys, and vice versa, different BIP32 paths have to be used for the same Ledger device. This also means that, in order to sync two Ledger devices, you can set them to the same seed, represented as 24 or some other number of natural language words (English by default).

All Tezos BIP32 paths begin with 44'/1729' (the ' indicates it is "hardened"). Which Ledger device is intended to be used, as well as choice of encryption system, is indicated by a root key hash, the Tezos-specific base58 encoding of the hash of the public key at 44'/1729' on that Ledger device. Because all Tezos paths start with this, in tezos-client commands it is implied.

Beginning in Tezos Wallet V2.2.0, there is also support for a ed25519-bip32 derivation method, which was made available in V1.5.5 of the Nano firmware. The existing ed25519 operation was purposefully not changed to preserve backwards compatibility. If you do nothing, expect no changes. However, it is recommended that all new accounts use the bip25519 command instead of the legacy ed25519. After it is imported, the address can be treated the same as any other.

Importing the key from the Ledger device

This section must be done regardless of whether you're going to be baking or only using the Tezos Wallet application.

Please run with a Tezos application open on your device (either Tezos Baking or Tezos Wallet will do):

$ tezos-client list connected ledgers

The output of this command includes four Tezos addresses derived from the secret stored on the device, via different signing curves and BIP32 paths.

## Ledger `major-squirrel-thick-hedgehog`
Found a Tezos Wallet 2.1.0 (git-description: "091e74e9") application running
on Ledger Nano S at
[IOService:/AppleACPIPlatformExpert/PCI0@0/AppleACPIPCI/XHC1@14/XHC1@14000000/HS03@14300000/Nano
S@14300000/Nano S@0/IOUSBHostHIDDevice@14300000,0].

To use keys at BIP32 path m/44'/1729'/0'/0' (default Tezos key path), use one
of:

tezos-client import secret key ledger_username "ledger://major-squirrel-thick-hedgehog/bip25519/0h/0h"
tezos-client import secret key ledger_username "ledger://major-squirrel-thick-hedgehog/ed25519/0h/0h"
tezos-client import secret key ledger_username "ledger://major-squirrel-thick-hedgehog/secp256k1/0h/0h"
tezos-client import secret key ledger_username "ledger://major-squirrel-thick-hedgehog/P-256/0h/0h"

These show you how to import keys with a specific signing curve (e.g. bip25519) and derivation path (e.g. /0'/0'). The animal-based name (e.g. major-squirrel-thick-hedgehog) is a unique identifier for your Ledger device enabling the client to distinguish different Ledger devices. This is combined with a derivation path (e.g. /0'/0') to indicate one of the possible keys on the Ledger device. Your root key is the full identifier without the derivation path (e.g. major-squirrel-thick-hedgehog/bip25519 by itself) but you should not use the root key directly*.

* NOTE: If you have used your root key in the past and need to import it, you can do so by simply running one of the commands but without the last derivation portion. From the example above, you would import your root key by running tezos-client import secret key ledger_user "ledger://major-squirrel-thick-hedgehog/bip25519". You should avoid using your root key.

The Ledger device does not currently support non-hardened path components. All components of all paths must be hardened, which is indicated by following them with a ' character. This character may need to be escaped from the shell through backslashes \ or double-quotes ".

You'll need to choose one of the four commands starting with tezos-client import secret key ... to run. bip25519 is the standard recommended curve.

The BIP32 path is the part that in the example commands read 0'/0'. You can change it, but if you do (and even if you don't), be sure to write down. You need the full address to use your tez. This means that if you lose all your devices and need to set everything up again, you will need three things:

  1. The mnemonic phrase -- this is the phrase from your Ledger device itself when you set it up, not the animal mnemonic you see on the command line. They are different.
  2. Which signing curve you chose
  3. The BIP32 path, if you used one

The tezos-client import secret key operation copies only the public key; it says "import secret key" to indicate that the Ledger hardware wallet's secret key will be considered available for signing from them on, but it does not leave the Ledger device.

This sends a BIP32 path to the device. You then need to click a button on the Ledger device and it sends the public key back to the computer.

After you perform this step, if you run the list known addresses command, you should see the key you chose in the list:

3$ tezos-client list known addresses
ledger_<...>_ed_0_0: tz1ccbGmKKwucwfCr846deZxGeDhiaTykGgK (ledger sk known)

We recommend reading as much as possible about BIP32 to ensure you fully understand this.

Using the Tezos Wallet application (Nano S and X)

This application and the Tezos Baking Application constitute complementary apps for different use cases -- which could be on paired devices and therefore use the same key, or which could also be used in different scenarios for different accounts. Baking is rejected by this app. The Tezos Wallet Application is available on the Nano S (all versions) and the Nano X (V2.0.1 and later)

The "provide address" command on the Tezos Wallet application shows the address the first time the command is run for any given session. Subsequently, it provides the address without prompting. To display addresses again, exit the Wallet Application and restart it. This is again provided for testing/initial set up purposes.

The sign command for the Wallet Application prompts every time for transactions and other "unsafe" operations, with the generic prompt saying "Sign?" We hope to eventually display more transaction details along with this. When block headers and endorsements are sent to the Ledger device, they are rejected silently as if the user rejected them.

Faucet (test networks only)

On the Tezos test networks, you will need to use the Tezos Faucet to obtain some tez. Tell them you're not a robot, then click "Get alphanet tz." It works on zeronet and babylonnet (even though the URL says "alpha").

Run the following command, where <your-name> is some alias you want to use for this wallet, and tz1<...>.json is the name of the file you just downloaded from the faucet.

$ tezos-client activate account <your-name> with ~/downloads/tz1<...>.json
Node is bootstrapped, ready for injecting operations.
Operation successfully injected in the node.
Operation hash is 'onxJStKxK1oMPgGskkzc2gDBDyKeQ7CbBYTrcK4TMMySvKZq6vF'.
Waiting for the operation to be included...
Operation found in block: BMRjW94ge499sCPAMUTvrp3ku2UjWy9kB2LsjtuJhL1bkcQ85Ny (pass: 2, offset: 0)
This sequence of operations was run:
  Genesis account activation:
    Account: tz1Vntj2aVpqcQEeHq2CEmNrSGw8finvbFcX
    Balance updates:
      tz1Vntj2aVpqcQEeHq2CEmNrSGw8finvbFcX ... +ꜩ66835.212314

Account <your-name> (tz1Vntj2aVpqcQEeHq2CEmNrSGw8finvbFcX) activated with ꜩ66835.212314.

You can then check your account balance like this:

$ tezos-client get balance for <your-name>
66835.212314 ꜩ

Transfer

Now transfer the balance to the account whose key resides on your Ledger device:

$ tezos-client transfer 66000 from chris-martin2 to ledger_<...>_ed_0_0

Further transaction details

In general, to send tez, you'll need to:

  • Have a node running
  • Open the Tezos Wallet application on your hardware wallet
  • Know the alias of your account or its public key hash
  • Know the public key hash of the account you are sending tez to

The command you run has the form:

tezos-client transfer QTY from SRC to DST
  • QTY is the amount of tez. It's best to not include commas and to include 6 decimal points (ie. 1000000.000000). If you'd prefer to include commas, you can: 1,000,000.000,000.
  • SRC is the source, or where the money is coming from. This should be your alias or public key has.
  • DST is the destination, or where the money is going. You should use the public key hash, as your computer likely doesn't know any aliases for that account.

Some options which you can consider:

  • --fee <amount> - The fee defaults to 0.05 tez. If you'd like to select another amount, either because you think that's too high or the network is crowded and a higher fee is needed to ensure it goes through, you can include this with the amount of fee you want to pay (ie. --fee 0.05 for the default).
  • -D or --dry-run - Use this if you just want to display what would happen and not actually do the transaction.
  • -G or --gas-limit - This sets the gas limit of the transaction instead.

There are other options which you can read up about more in the docs, but these are the main ones you'd potentially want to use when just sending tez to someone.

Delegation

If you want to delegate tez controlled by an account on the Ledger device to another account to bake, that requires the Wallet App. This is distinct from registering the Ledger device account itself to bake, which is also called "delegation," and which is covered in the section on the baking application below.

since Babylon protocol upgrade (005)

Since Babylon protocol upgrade, it is now possible to delegate directly from an implicit account without creating an originated account.

$ tezos-client set delegate for <SRC> to <DELEGATE>
  • SRC is the implicit account that you want to delegate from
  • DELEGATE is the baker that you want to delegate to

pre-Babylon

To delegate tez controlled by a Ledger device to someone else, you must first originate an account. Please read more about this in the Tezos documentation, How to use Tezos, to understand why this is necessary and the semantics of delegation.

To originate an account, the command is:

$ tezos-client originate account <NEW> for <MGR> transferring <QTY> from <SRC> --delegatable
  • NEW is the alias you will now give to the originated account. Only originated accounts can be delegated, and even then only if originated with this --delegatable flag.
  • MGR is the name of the key you will use to manage the account. If you want to manage it with a Ledger device, it should be an existing imported key from the Ledger hardware wallet.
  • QTY is the initial amount of tez to give to the originated account.
  • SRC is the account where you'll be getting the tez from.

Subsequently, every transaction made with <NEW> will require the Ledger hardware wallet mentioned in <MGR> to sign it. This is done with the wallet application, and includes setting a delegate with:

$ tezos-client set delegate for <NEW> to <DELEGATE>

Originated accounts have names beginning with KT1 rather than tz1, tz2 or tz3.

Signing Michelson

The wallet app allows you to sign packed Michelson values. This can be useful when interacting with a Michelson contract that uses PACK and CHECK_SIGNATURE (multisig contracts use this functionality).

Here is an example:

tezos-client hash data '"hello world!"' of type string
tezos-client sign bytes <bytes> for <my-ledger>

The ledger will prompt with Unrecognized Michelson: Sign Hash and the hash of the data

Proposals and Voting

To submit (or upvote) a proposal during the Proposal Period, open the Wallet application on your ledger and run

$ tezos-client submit proposals for <ACCOUNT> <PROTOCOL-HASH>

The Wallet application will then ask you to confirm the various details of the proposal submission.

Note: While tezos-client will let you submit multiple proposals at once with this command, submitting more than one will cause the Wallet application to show "Sign Hash" instead of showing each field of each proposal for your confirmation. Signing an operation that you can't confirm is not safe and it is highly recommended that you simply submit each proposal one at a time so you can properly confirm the fields on the ledger device. To manually confirm the hash, refer to Manually Confirming Operation Hashes.

Voting for a proposal during the Exploration or Promotion Vote Period also requires that you have the Wallet application open. You can then run

$ tezos-client submit ballot for <ACCOUNT> <PROTOCOL-HASH> <yea|nay|pass>

The Wallet application will ask you to confirm the details of your vote.

Keep in mind that only registered delegate accounts can submit proposals and vote. Each account can submit up to 20 proposals per proposal period and vote only once per voting period. For a more detailed post on participating during each phase of the amendment process, see this Medium post. For a full description of how voting works, refer to the Tezos documentation.

Manually Confirming Operation Hashes

Many operations are too large or complex for Tezos Wallet to show you enough detail on the device that you could safely confirm it. For example, it is possible to create an operation that includes hundreds of transactions. It is not feasible to confirm all of them on a tiny device screen. For any operation that Tezos Wallet can't easily confirm via screen prompts, it will instead show you the "Sign Hash" prompt. This shows you a hash of the entire operation that you should cross-check with another source. tezos-client will show you this hash if you ask it to run the operation with --verbose-signing. This will include additional output like the following:

Pre-signature information (verbose signing):
  * Branch: BMRELbkCkHvCAr2vZfavjYUKXLbKrGvX6oN3qNEDKPjp8aJHqRm
  * Watermark: `Generic-operation` (0x03)
  * Operation bytes:
    e0ac9e16f0005865f71bcf039d10ec2bb8d604210c9139968949f64ea5c9d1320500aed01
    1841ffbb0bcc3b51c80f2b6c333a1be3df00000000000000040ab22e46e7872aa13e366e4
    55bb4f5dbede856ab0864e1da7e122554579ee71f876cd995a324193bbe09ac2d5c53f69f
    93778f8d608f1fea885f9b53e0abdb6e4
  * Blake 2B Hash (raw): Hnw7wQsfv8fvMUejXNJ31NauapEtzLZg859JwqNUEDEE
  * Blake 2B Hash (ledger-style, with operation watermark):
    C5Qkk9tTwaUbhnrN29JpXSmsYCEi1uhM8rSsentBwmbN
  * JSON encoding:
    { "branch": "BMRELbkCkHvCAr2vZfavjYUKXLbKrGvX6oN3qNEDKPjp8aJHqRm",
      "contents":
        [ { "kind": "proposals",
            "source": "tz1baMXLyDZ7nx7v96P2mEwM9U5Rhj5xJUnJ", "period": 0,
            "proposals":
              [ "Pt24m4xiPbLDhVgVfABUjirbmda3yohdN82Sp9FeuAXJ4eV9otd",
                "Psd1ynUBhMZAeajwcZJAeq5NrxorM6UCU4GJqxZ7Bx2e9vUWB6z" ] } ] }

Here, the hash under Blake 2B Hash (ledger-style, with operation watermark) is C5Qkk9tTwaUbhnrN29JpXSmsYCEi1uhM8rSsentBwmbN and should match the hash on the Ledger screen.

To be truly confident in the correctness of this operation, run the same operation multiple times from different places. tezos-client has two options to help with this: --dry-run which skips the last step of injecting the operation into the chain, and --block <block-hash> to pin an operation to a specific block.

Using the Tezos Baking Application (Nano S only)

The Tezos Baking Application supports the following operations:

  1. Get public key
  2. Setup ledger for baking
  3. Reset high watermark
  4. Get high watermark
  5. Sign (blocks and endorsements)

It will only sign block headers and endorsements, as the purpose of the baking application is that it cannot be co-opted to perform other types of operations (like transferring XTZ). If a Ledger device is running with the Tezos Baking Application, it is the expectation of its owner that no transactions will need to be signed with it. To sign transactions with that Ledger device, you will need to switch it to using the Tezos Wallet application, or have the Tezos Wallet application installed on a paired device. Therefore, if you have a larger stake and bake frequently, we recommend the paired device approach. If, however, you bake infrequently and can afford to have your baker offline temporarily, then switching to the Tezos Wallet application on the same Ledger device should suffice.

Start the baking daemon

$ tezos-baker-005-PsBabyM1 run with local node ~/.tezos-node ledger_<...>_ed_0_0

This won't actually be able to bake successfully yet until you run the rest of these setup steps. This will run indefinitely, so you might want to do it in a dedicated terminal or in a tmux or screen session.

You will also want to start the endorser and accuser daemons:

$ tezos-endorser-005-PsBabyM1 run ledger_<...>_ed_0_0
$ tezos-accuser-005-PsBabyM1 run

Again, each of these will run indefinitely, and each should be in its own terminal tmux, or screen window.

Note: The binaries shown above all correspond to current Tezos mainnet protocol. When the Tezos protocol upgrades, the binaries shown above will update to, for instance, tezos-baker-006-********.

Setup ledger device to bake and endorse

You need to run a specific command to authorize a key for baking. Once a key is authorized for baking, the user will not have to approve this command again. If a key is not authorized for baking, signing endorsements and block headers with that key will be rejected. This authorization data is persisted across runs of the application, but not across application installations. Only one key can be authorized for baking per Ledger hardware wallet at a time.

In order to authorize a public key for baking, use the APDU for setting up the ledger device to bake:

```
$ tezos-client setup ledger to bake for <ALIAS>
```

This only authorizes the key for baking on the Ledger device, but does
not inform the blockchain of your intention to bake. This might
be necessary if you reinstall the app, or if you have a different
paired Ledger device that you are using to bake for the first time.

Registering as a Delegate

Note: The ledger device will not sign this operation unless you have already setup the device to bake using the command in the previous section.

In order to bake from the Ledger device account you need to register the key as a delegate. This is formally done by delegating the account to itself. As a non-originated account, an account directly stored on the Ledger device can only delegate to itself.

Open the Tezos Baking Application on the device, and then run this:

$ tezos-client register key <ALIAS> as delegate

This command is intended to inform the blockchain itself of your intention to bake with this key. It can be signed with either Tezos Wallet or Tezos Baking, however Tezos Baking can only sign self-delegations.

Sign

The sign operation is for signing block headers and endorsements.

Block headers must have monotonically increasing levels; that is, each block must have a higher level than all previous blocks signed with the Ledger device. This is intended to prevent double baking and double endorsing at the device level, as a security measure against potential vulnerabilities where the computer might be tricked into double baking. This feature will hopefully be a redundant precaution, but it's implemented at the device level because the point of the Ledger hardware wallet is to not trust the computer. The current High Watermark (HWM) -- the highest level to have been baked so far -- is displayed on the device's screen, and is also persisted between runs of the device.

The sign operation will be sent to the hardware wallet by the baking daemon when configured to bake with a Ledger device key. The Ledger device uses the first byte of the information to be signed -- the magic number -- to tell whether it is a block header (which is verified with the High Watermark), an endorsement (which is not), or some other operation (which it will reject, unless it is a self-delegation).

With the exception of self-delegations, as long as the key is configured and the high watermark constraint is followed, there is no user prompting required for signing. Tezos Baking will only ever sign without prompting or reject an attempt at signing; this operation is designed to be used unsupervised. As mentioned, the only exception to this is self-delegation.

Reset High Watermark

When updating the version of Tezos Baking you are using or if you are switching baking to a new ledger device, we recommend setting the HWM to the current head block level of the blockchain. This can be accomplished with the reset command. The following command requires an explicit confirmation from the user:

$ tezos-client set ledger high watermark for "ledger://<tz...>/" to <HWM>

<HWM> indicates the new high watermark to reset to. Both the main and test chain HWMs will be simultaneously changed to this value.

If you would like to know the current high watermark of the ledger device, you can run:

$ tezos-client get ledger high watermark for "ledger://<tz...>/"

While the ledger device's UI displays the HWM of the main chain it is signing on, it will not display the HWM of a test chain it may be signing on during the 3rd period of the Tezos Amendment Process. Running this command will return both HWMs as well as the chain ID of the main chain.

Upgrading

When you want to upgrade to a new version, whether you built it yourself from source or whether it's a new release of the app.hex files, use the same commands as you did to originally install it. As the keys are generated from the device's seeds and the derivation paths, you will have the same keys with every version of this Ledger hardware wallet app, so there is no need to re-import the keys with tezos-client.

Special Upgrading Considerations for Bakers

If you've already been baking on an old version of Tezos Baking, the new version will not remember which key you are baking with nor the High Watermark. You will have to re-run this command to remind the hardware wallet what key you intend to authorize for baking. As shown, it can also set the HWM:

$ tezos-client setup ledger to bake for <ALIAS> --main-hwm <HWM>

Alternatively, you can also set the High Watermark to the level of the most recently baked block with a separate command:

$ tezos-client set ledger high watermark for "ledger://<tz...>/" to <HWM>

The latter will require the correct URL for the Ledger device acquired from:

$ tezos-client list connected ledgers

Troubleshooting

Display Debug Logs

If you are worried about bugs, you should configure your system to display debug logs. Add the following line to ~/.bashrc and to ~/.bash_profile, or set the equivalent environment variable in whatever system you use to launch your daemons:

export TEZOS_LOG="client.signer.ledger -> debug"

If you have a bug report, it is far more likely we'll be able to fix it if you include the entire output of the transaction, including debug messages enabled by that command above. Please copy and paste the entire run of the command (for tezos-client) or everything involving the failed block level and the previous one (for baking); if you need to anonymize the PKH then please do so by using XXX or similar rather than by removing those entire lines. We need as much context as possible to help troubleshoot.

script is also a useful command for logging all the output of a long-running process. If you run script <file-name> it opens a new shell where everything output and typed is also output to that file, giving you a transcript of your terminal session.

Importing a Fundraiser Account to a Ledger Device

You currently cannot directly import a fundraiser account to the Ledger device. Instead, you'll first need to import your fundraiser account to a non-hardware wallet address from which you can send the funds to an address on the ledger. You can do so with wallet providers such as Galleon or TezBox.

Two Ledger Devices at the Same Time

Two Ledger devices with the same seed should not ever be plugged in at the same time. This confuses tezos-client and other client programs. Instead, you should plug only one of a set of paired ledgers at a time. Two Ledger devices of different seeds are fine and are fully supported, and the computer will automatically determine which one to send information to.

If you have one running the baking app, it is bad for security to also have the wallet app plugged in simultaneously. Plug the wallet application in as-needed, removing the baking app, at a time when you are not going to be needed for endorsement or baking. Alternatively, use a different computer for wallet transactions.

unexpected seq num

$ client/bin/tezos-client list connected ledgers
Fatal error:                                                                                                                                        Header.check: unexpected seq num

This means you do not have the Tezos application open on your device.

No device found

$ tezos-client list connected ledgers
No device found.
Make sure a Ledger device is connected and in the Tezos Wallet app.

In addition to the possibilities listed in the error message, this could also mean that your udev rules are not set up correctly.

Unrecognized command

If you see an Unrecognized command error, it might be because there is no node for tezos-client to connect to. Please ensure that you are running a node. ps aux | grep tezos-node should display the process information for the current node. If it displays nothing, or just displays a grep command, then there is no node running on your machine.

Ledger Application Crashes

If the Ledger application crashes when you load it, there are two primary causes:

  • Quitting the tezos-client process before the device responds. Even if you meant to cancel the operation in question, cancel it from the device before pressing Ctrl-C, otherwise you might have to restart the Ledger device.
  • Out of date firmware: If the Ledger application doesn't work at all, make sure you are running firmware version 1.6.0.

Tezos Baking: Screen does blank and the device no longer responds to requests

On Ledger firmware 1.6.0 with the default MCU firmware, the device's screen can go blank while running Tezos Baking and the device may stop responding to requests. This is due to an issue in the device's MCU firmware. Please upgrade it using this tool, distributed by Ledger - https://ledger-live-tools.now.sh/mcu-repair. You will need to use a browser with webHID, such as Chrome. After a successful upgrade, the device's MCU firmware should report as 1.12.

Error "Unexpected sequence number (expected 0, got 191)" on macOS

If tezos-client on macOS intermittently fails with an error that looks like

client.signer.ledger: APDU level error: Unexpected sequence number (expected 0, got 191)

then your installation of tezos-client was built with an older version of HIDAPI that doesn't work well with macOS (see #30).

To fix this you need to get the yet-unreleased fixes from the HIDAPI library and rebuild tezos-client.

If you got HIDAPI from Homebrew, you can update to the master branch of HIDAPI like this:

$ brew install hidapi --HEAD

Then start a full rebuild of tezos-client with HIDAPI's master branch:

$ brew unlink hidapi   # remove the current one
$ brew install autoconf automake libtool  # Just keep installing stuff until the following command succeeds:
$ brew install hidapi --HEAD

Finally, rebuild ocaml-hidapi with Tezos. In the tezos repository:

$ opam reinstall hidapi
$ make all build-test
$ ./tezos-client list connected ledgers  # should now work consistently

Note that you may still see warnings similar to Unexpected sequence number (expected 0, got 191) even after this update. The reason is that there is a separate, more cosmetic, issue in tezos-client itself which has already been fixed but may not be in your branch yet (see the merge request).

Command Line Installations: "This app is not genuine"

If you install a Ledger application, such as Tezos Wallet or Tezos Baking, outside of Ledger Live you will see the message "This app is not genuine" followed by an Indentifier when opening the app. This message is generated by the device firmware as a warning to the user whenever an application is installed outside Ledger Live. Ledger signs the applications available in Ledger Live to verify their authenticity, but the same applications available elsewhere, such as from this repo, are not signed by Ledger. As a result, the user is warned that the app is not "genuine", i.e. signed by Ledger. This helps protect users who may have accidentally downloaded an app from a malicious client without knowing it. Note that the application available from this repo's releases page is otherwise no different from the one downloaded from Ledger Live.

Contact Us

You can email us at tezos@obsidian.systems and request to join our Slack. We have several channels about baking and one specifically for our Ledger applications. You can ask questions and get answers from Obsidian staff or from the community.

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