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;;-------------------------------------------------------------------------
;; F. Air and Atmosphere (Moved from Geography.kif - Jennie October 2017)
;;--------------------------------------------------------------------------
;; &%altitude: Object x Object x LengthMeasure is defined in Merge.txt.
;; F. Air and atmosphere
(subclass Atmosphere Region)
(subclass Atmosphere (ExtensionFn Fluid))
(documentation Atmosphere EnglishLanguage "&%Atmosphere is a &%Mixture of gases
surrounding any celestial object that has a gravitational field
strong enough to prevent the gases from escaping.")
(documentation Atmosphere EnglishLanguage "&%Atmosphere 是气体的 &%Mixture,它由任何有足够强大
地深吸力阻止气体溢出的天体物体包围着。")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Atmosphere "大气层")
(=>
(instance ?AIR Atmosphere)
(exists (?BODY)
(and
(instance ?BODY AstronomicalBody)
(meetsSpatially ?AIR ?BODY))))
(instance EarthsAtmosphere Atmosphere)
(documentation EarthsAtmosphere EnglishLanguage "EarthsAtmosphere is the layer of gases,
a mixture of mainly oxygen and nitrogen, surrounding PlanetEarth. See
also Air.")
(=>
(instance ?AIRSPACE AtmosphericRegion)
(part ?AIRSPACE EarthsAtmosphere))
(=>
(instance ?AIR Air)
(piece ?AIR EarthsAtmosphere))
(=>
(instance ?AIRSPACE AtmosphericRegion)
(exists (?AIR)
(and
(instance ?AIR Air)
(part ?AIR ?AIRSPACE))))
(=>
(instance ?AIR Air)
(exists (?PART)
(and
(instance ?PART Oxygen)
(part ?PART ?AIR))))
(=>
(instance ?AIR Air)
(exists (?PART)
(and
(instance ?PART Nitrogen)
(part ?PART ?AIR))))
(subclass AirStream FlowRegion)
(subclass AirStream Air)
(documentation AirStream EnglishLanguage
"&%AirStream is the class of &%FlowRegions that consist of air.")
(subclass JetStream AirStream)
(documentation JetStream EnglishLanguage "&%JetStream is the class of high-velocity
&%AirStreams that blow constantly in the upper atmosphere with constant
speed and direction, though their location shifts somewhat. There are
four &%JetStreams in &%EarthsAtmosphere.")
(subclass WindFlow AirStream)
(documentation WindFlow EnglishLanguage "&%WindFlow is the class of variable &%AirStreams
that are in the &%EarthsAtmosphere.")
(=>
(instance ?BLOW WindFlow)
(located ?BLOW EarthsAtmosphere))
(=>
(instance ?R WindFlow)
(exists (?WIND)
(and
(instance ?WIND Wind)
(eventLocated ?WIND ?R))))
;; Measures of wind characteristics:
(instance surfaceWindVelocity TernaryPredicate)
(domain surfaceWindVelocity 1 Object)
(domain surfaceWindVelocity 2 PhysicalQuantity)
(domain surfaceWindVelocity 3 DirectionalAttribute)
(documentation surfaceWindVelocity EnglishLanguage
"(&%surfaceWindVelocity ?PLACE ?SPEED ?TOWARD) means that the
surface &%Wind blowing at ?PLACE has a speed of ?SPEED and is moving
toward the &%DirectionalAttribute ?TOWARD. Surface wind is found at the
surface of the planet, everyday wind. Technically, &%Winds moving
through the atmosphere up to an altitude of 500 feet.")
(=>
(and
(surfaceWindVelocity ?PLACE (SpeedFn ?DIST ?TIME) ?DIRECTION)
(instance ?PLACE WindFlow))
(exists (?BLOW)
(and
(instance ?BLOW Wind)
(eventPartlyLocated ?BLOW ?PLACE)
(measure ?BLOW (VelocityFn ?DIST ?TIME ?PLACE ?DIRECTION)))))
(=>
(and
(instance ?PLACE Object)
(instance ?BLOW Wind)
(measure ?BLOW (VelocityFn ?DIST ?TIME ?PLACE ?DIRECTION)))
(surfaceWindVelocity ?PLACE (SpeedFn ?DIST ?TIME) ?DIRECTION))
(instance surfaceWindSpeed BinaryPredicate)
(domain surfaceWindSpeed 1 Object)
(domain surfaceWindSpeed 2 PhysicalQuantity)
(documentation surfaceWindSpeed EnglishLanguage "(&%surfaceWindSpeed ?PLACE ?RATE)
means that the speed of the surface &%Wind at the &%GeographicArea
?PLACE is ?RATE. Wind speed may be expressed in knots (&%KnotUnitOfSpeed)
or as any distance per time unit (using (&%SpeedFn ?DISTANCE ?TIME)).
Surface wind is found at the surface of the planet, everyday wind.
Technically, &%Winds moving through the atmosphere up to an altitude
of 500 feet.")
(=>
(surfaceWindVelocity ?PLACE ?SPEED ?DIRECTION)
(surfaceWindSpeed ?PLACE ?SPEED))
(=>
(and
(instance ?ZEPHYR WindFlow)
(instance ?PLACE Object)
(partlyLocated ?ZEPHYR ?PLACE)
(measure ?ZEPHYR (SpeedFn ?DIST ?TIME)))
(surfaceWindSpeed ?PLACE (SpeedFn ?DIST ?TIME)))
(=>
(and
(instance ?ZEPHYR WindFlow)
(instance ?PLACE Object)
(partlyLocated ?ZEPHYR ?PLACE)
(measure ?ZEPHYR (MeasureFn ?SPEED KnotUnitOfSpeed)))
(surfaceWindSpeed ?PLACE (MeasureFn ?SPEED KnotUnitOfSpeed)))
(instance surfaceWindDirection BinaryPredicate)
(domain surfaceWindDirection 1 Object)
(domain surfaceWindDirection 2 DirectionalAttribute)
(documentation surfaceWindDirection EnglishLanguage
"(&%surfaceWindDirection ?PLACE ?DIRECTION) means that at ?PLACE
the wind is coming from the compass point ?DIRECTION. For example,
(&%surfaceWindDirection &%SanFranciscoBay &%Northwest) means that the
wind in San Francisco Bay is coming from the Northwest. The wind is
within 500 feet of Earth's surface.")
(=>
(surfaceWindDirection ?PLACE ?DIR)
(exists (?WIND ?FROM)
(and
(instance ?WIND Wind)
(instance ?FROM Region)
(eventPartlyLocated ?WIND ?PLACE)
(origin ?WIND ?FROM)
(orientation ?FROM ?PLACE ?DIR))))
(=>
(and
(surfaceWindVelocity ?PLACE ?SPEED ?DIR-TOWARD)
(oppositeDirection ?DIR-TOWARD ?DIR-FROM))
(surfaceWindDirection ?PLACE ?DIR-FROM))
(=>
(and
(instance ?ZEPHYR WindFlow)
(measure ?ZEPHYR (VelocityFn ?DIST ?TIME ?PLACE ?DIR-TOWARD))
(oppositeDirection ?DIR-TOWARD ?DIR-FROM))
(surfaceWindDirection ?PLACE ?DIR-FROM))
(instance lowAltitudeWindVelocity TernaryPredicate)
(domain lowAltitudeWindVelocity 1 Object)
(domain lowAltitudeWindVelocity 2 PhysicalQuantity)
(domain lowAltitudeWindVelocity 3 DirectionalAttribute)
(documentation lowAltitudeWindVelocity EnglishLanguage
"(&%lowAltitudeWindVelocity ?PLACE ?SPEED ?DIRECTION) means that the
low-altitude &%Wind blowing at ?PLACE has a speed of ?SPEED and comes
from the compass point ?DIRECTION. Low-altitude wind is wind blowing
between 500-10,000 feet.")
(instance lowAltitudeWindSpeed BinaryPredicate)
(instance lowAltitudeWindSpeed AsymmetricRelation)
(domain lowAltitudeWindSpeed 1 Object)
(domain lowAltitudeWindSpeed 2 PhysicalQuantity)
(documentation lowAltitudeWindSpeed EnglishLanguage
"(&%lowAltitudeWindSpeed ?PLACE ?RATE) means that the &%Wind blowing
between 500-10,000 feet at ?PLACE has a speed of ?RATE. &%Wind speed
may be expressed in knots (&%KnotUnitOfSpeed) or as any distance per
time unit (using (&%SpeedFn ?DISTANCE ?TIME)).")
(=>
(lowAltitudeWindVelocity ?PLACE ?SPEED ?DIRECTION)
(lowAltitudeWindSpeed ?PLACE ?SPEED))
(instance mediumAltitudeWindVelocity TernaryPredicate)
(domain mediumAltitudeWindVelocity 1 Object)
(domain mediumAltitudeWindVelocity 2 PhysicalQuantity)
(domain mediumAltitudeWindVelocity 3 DirectionalAttribute)
(documentation mediumAltitudeWindVelocity EnglishLanguage
"(&%mediumAltitudeWindVelocity ?PLACE ?SPEED ?TOWARD) means that the
&%Wind blowing between 10,000-25,000 feet at ?PLACE has a speed of
?SPEED and is moving toward the &%DirectionalAttribute ?TOWARD.")
(instance mediumAltitudeWindSpeed BinaryPredicate)
(instance mediumAltitudeWindSpeed AsymmetricRelation)
(domain mediumAltitudeWindSpeed 1 Object)
(domain mediumAltitudeWindSpeed 2 ConstantQuantity)
(documentation mediumAltitudeWindSpeed EnglishLanguage
"(&%mediumAltitudeWindSpeed ?PLACE ?RATE) means that the &%Wind
blowing between 10,000-25,000 feet at ?PLACE has a speed of ?RATE.")
(=>
(mediumAltitudeWindVelocity ?PLACE ?SPEED ?DIRECTION)
(mediumAltitudeWindSpeed ?PLACE ?SPEED))
(instance highAltitudeWindVelocity TernaryPredicate)
(domain highAltitudeWindVelocity 1 Object)
(domain highAltitudeWindVelocity 2 PhysicalQuantity)
(domain highAltitudeWindVelocity 3 DirectionalAttribute)
(documentation highAltitudeWindVelocity EnglishLanguage
"(&%highAltitudeWindVelocity ?PLACE ?SPEED ?TOWARD) means that the
&%Wind blowing above 25,000 feet at ?PLACE has a speed of ?SPEED
and is moving toward the &%DirectionalAttribute ?TOWARD.")
(instance highAltitudeWindSpeed BinaryPredicate)
(instance highAltitudeWindSpeed AsymmetricRelation)
(domain highAltitudeWindSpeed 1 Object)
(domain highAltitudeWindSpeed 2 ConstantQuantity)
(documentation highAltitudeWindSpeed EnglishLanguage
"(&%highAltitudeWindSpeed ?PLACE ?RATE) means that the &%Wind
blowing above 25,000 feet at ?PLACE has a speed of ?RATE.")
(=>
(highAltitudeWindVelocity ?PLACE ?SPEED ?DIRECTION)
(highAltitudeWindSpeed ?PLACE ?SPEED))
(instance Upwind PositionalAttribute)
(subAttribute Upwind Upstream)
(documentation Upwind EnglishLanguage
"&%Upwind is a &%PositionalAttribute that indicates relative position
upwind (windward) with respect to the direction that the &%Wind is
blowing.")
(instance Downwind PositionalAttribute)
(subAttribute Downwind Downstream)
(documentation Downwind EnglishLanguage
"&%Downwind is a &%PositionalAttribute that indicates relative position
downwind (leeward) with respect to the direction that the &%Wind is
blowing.")
(instance windRelativePosition BinaryPredicate)
(instance windRelativePosition AsymmetricRelation)
(domain windRelativePosition 1 Object)
(domain windRelativePosition 2 Attribute)
(documentation windRelativePosition EnglishLanguage
"(&%windRelativePosition ?OBJECT ?POSITION) means that the &%Wind blows
at ?OBJECT from the relative vector ?POSITION. E.g., &%Crosswind,
&%Headwind, &%Tailwind.")
(instance Crosswind Attribute)
(documentation Crosswind EnglishLanguage "&%Crosswind is the relative attribute of a
&%Wind to an object when the force of the wind is applied to a lateral
&%side of the object.")
(instance Headwind Attribute)
(documentation Headwind EnglishLanguage "&%Headwind is the relative attribute of a
&%Wind to an object when the force of the wind is applied to the front
of the object (&%FrontFn). A headwind can negatively affect the speed
capability of a vehicle.")
(instance Tailwind Attribute)
(documentation Tailwind EnglishLanguage "&%Tailwind is the relative attribute of a
&%Wind to an object when the force of the wind is applied to the back
of the object (&%BackFn). A tailwind can positively affect the speed
capability of a vehicle.")
(subclass BeaufortNumber RelationalAttribute)
(documentation BeaufortNumber EnglishLanguage "&%BeaufortNumber is the
&%Attribute for indicating wind force, according to
classifications based on observable weather conditions and later
related to wind speed ranges.")
(=>
(and
(instance ?BN BeaufortNumber)
(attribute ?OBJECT ?BN))
(instance ?OBJECT Wind))
(instance BeaufortNumberZero BeaufortNumber)
(instance BeaufortNumberOne BeaufortNumber)
(successorAttribute BeaufortNumberZero BeaufortNumberOne)
(instance BeaufortNumberTwo BeaufortNumber)
(successorAttribute BeaufortNumberOne BeaufortNumberTwo)
(instance BeaufortNumberThree BeaufortNumber)
(successorAttribute BeaufortNumberTwo BeaufortNumberThree)
(instance BeaufortNumberFour BeaufortNumber)
(successorAttribute BeaufortNumberThree BeaufortNumberFour)
(instance BeaufortNumberFive BeaufortNumber)
(successorAttribute BeaufortNumberFour BeaufortNumberFive)
(instance BeaufortNumberSix BeaufortNumber)
(successorAttribute BeaufortNumberFive BeaufortNumberSix)
(instance BeaufortNumberSeven BeaufortNumber)
(successorAttribute BeaufortNumberSix BeaufortNumberSeven)
(instance BeaufortNumberEight BeaufortNumber)
(successorAttribute BeaufortNumberSeven BeaufortNumberEight)
(instance BeaufortNumberNine BeaufortNumber)
(successorAttribute BeaufortNumberEight BeaufortNumberNine)
(instance BeaufortNumberTen BeaufortNumber)
(successorAttribute BeaufortNumberNine BeaufortNumberTen)
(instance BeaufortNumberEleven BeaufortNumber)
(successorAttribute BeaufortNumberTen BeaufortNumberEleven)
(instance BeaufortNumberTwelve BeaufortNumber)
(successorAttribute BeaufortNumberEleven BeaufortNumberTwelve)
;;----------------------------------------------------------------------
;; G. Weather & Climate
(subclass WeatherSeason WeatherProcess)
(documentation WeatherSeason EnglishLanguage "&%WeatherSeason is the class of seasonal
processes that are characterized by various weather patterns.
&%WeatherSeasons may recur on a regular annual basis, on a different
pattern, or irregularly.")
(subclass Monsoon WeatherSeason)
(subclass HurricaneSeason WeatherSeason)
(subclass ElNino WeatherSeason)
(subclass WeatherSystem WeatherProcess)
(documentation WeatherSystem EnglishLanguage "&%WeatherSystem is the class of
large-scale atmospheric processes that influence weather in a region
for 2-5 days.")
(subclass LowPressureWeatherSystem WeatherSystem)
(documentation LowPressureWeatherSystem EnglishLanguage "&%LowPressureWeatherSystem is
the class of weather systems characterized by low or unstable
&%barometricPressures. Low pressure systems typically introduce
unsettled weather, frequently including storms.")
(=>
(and
(instance ?SYSTEM LowPressureWeatherSystem)
(eventLocated ?SYSTEM ?AREA))
(and
(barometricPressure ?AREA (MeasureFn ?AMOUNT InchMercury))
(lessThan ?AMOUNT 29.5)))
(subclass CyclonicStorm LowPressureWeatherSystem)
(subclass CyclonicStorm Windstorm)
(documentation CyclonicStorm EnglishLanguage "&%CyclonicStorm is the class of
&%LowPressureWeatherSystems that involve a low pressure area
surrounded by rapidly rotating winds, with the whole system
typically moving forward at 20-30 mph.")
(subclass TropicalCyclone CyclonicStorm)
(documentation TropicalCyclone EnglishLanguage "&%TropicalCyclone is the class of
&%CyclonicStorms that occur in the &%Tropics and typically have
rotational winds of hurricane force (74 mph or higher).")
(=>
(instance ?STORM TropicalCyclone)
(exists (?PLACE)
(and
(instance ?PLACE GeographicArea)
(geographicSubregion ?PLACE Tropics)
(eventLocated ?STORM ?PLACE))))
(subclass Typhoon TropicalCyclone)
(subclass HighPressureWeatherSystem WeatherSystem)
(documentation HighPressureWeatherSystem EnglishLanguage "&%HighPressureWeatherSystem is
the class of weather systems characterized by high &%barometricPressures.
High pressure systems typically cause clear weather.")
(=>
(and
(instance ?SYSTEM HighPressureWeatherSystem)
(eventLocated ?SYSTEM ?AREA))
(and
(barometricPressure ?AREA (MeasureFn ?AMOUNT InchMercury))
(greaterThan ?AMOUNT 30.2)))
(subclass StormSystem WeatherSystem)
(subclass WeatherFront WeatherProcess)
(documentation WeatherFront EnglishLanguage "&%WeatherFront is the class of weather
processes that are involve relationships between two air masses, such
as a high pressure weather system or a low pressure system.")
(subclass WarmFront WeatherFront)
(documentation WarmFront EnglishLanguage "&%WarmFront is the class of transitional
weather processes occurring between a warm air mass that is advancing
upon a cool air mass.")
(subclass ColdFront WeatherFront)
(documentation ColdFront EnglishLanguage "&%ColdFront is the class of transitional
weather processes occurring between a cold air mass that is advancing
upon a warm air mass.")
(subclass OccludedFront WeatherFront)
(documentation OccludedFront EnglishLanguage "&%OccludedFront is the class of complex
weather transition processes in which a cold air mass overtakes a warm
air mass.")
(subclass StationaryFront WeatherFront)
(documentation StationaryFront EnglishLanguage "&%StationaryFront is the class of
boundary areas between two air masses that are stationary, with neither
mass presently replacing the other.")
(subclass Thunderstorm WeatherProcess)
(subclass Waterspout WeatherProcess)
(subclass Hurricane WeatherProcess)
;;---------------------------------
;; Weather- and climate-related data
(instance daylightHoursInterval TernaryPredicate)
(domain daylightHoursInterval 1 Region)
(domainSubclass daylightHoursInterval 2 Day)
(domain daylightHoursInterval 3 TimeInterval)
(documentation daylightHoursInterval EnglishLanguage
"(&%daylightHoursInterval ?PLACE ?DAY ?INTERVAL) means that in the
&%Region ?PLACE, on the &%Day indicated by ?DAY, there is daylight
during the &%TimeInterval ?INTERVAL.")
(instance daylightHoursTotal TernaryPredicate)
(domain daylightHoursTotal 1 Region)
(domainSubclass daylightHoursTotal 2 Day)
(domain daylightHoursTotal 3 TimeDuration)
(documentation daylightHoursTotal EnglishLanguage
"(&%daylightHoursTotal ?PLACE ?DAY ?TIME) means that in the &%Region
?PLACE, on the &%Day indicated by ?DAY, there is daylight for a
total &%TimeDuration ?LENGTH.")
(instance cloudCoverFraction BinaryPredicate)
(domain cloudCoverFraction 1 Region)
(domain cloudCoverFraction 2 NonnegativeRealNumber)
(documentation cloudCoverFraction EnglishLanguage "(&%cloudCoverFraction ?AREA ?AMOUNT)
means that in the &%Region ?AREA, the fraction ?AMOUNT of the sky is
covered with clouds.")
(subclass ClearWeather WeatherProcess)
(documentation ClearWeather EnglishLanguage "&%ClearWeather represents a condition
in which less than 30% of the sky is covered with clouds.")
(=>
(and
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(instance ?WEATHER ClearWeather)
(eventLocated ?WEATHER ?AREA))
(exists (?FRACTION)
(and
(cloudCoverFraction ?AREA ?FRACTION)
(lessThan ?FRACTION 0.3))))
(=>
(and
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(instance ?WEATHER ClearWeather)
(eventLocated ?WEATHER ?AREA)
(cloudCoverFraction ?AREA ?FRACTION))
(lessThan ?FRACTION 0.3))
(subclass PartlyCloudyWeather WeatherProcess)
(documentation PartlyCloudyWeather EnglishLanguage "&%PartlyCloudyWeather
represents a condition in which between 30% and 70% of the
sky is covered with clouds.")
(=>
(and
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(instance ?WEATHER PartlyCloudyWeather)
(eventLocated ?WEATHER ?AREA))
(exists (?FRACTION)
(and
(cloudCoverFraction ?AREA ?FRACTION)
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?FRACTION 0.3)
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?FRACTION 0.7))))
(=>
(and
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(instance ?WEATHER PartlyCloudyWeather)
(eventLocated ?WEATHER ?AREA)
(cloudCoverFraction ?AREA ?FRACTION))
(and
(greaterThanOrEqualTo ?FRACTION 0.3)
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?FRACTION 0.7)))
(subclass OvercastWeather WeatherProcess)
(documentation OvercastWeather EnglishLanguage "&%OvercastWeather represents
a condition in which more than 70% of the sky is covered
with clouds.")
(=>
(and
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(instance ?WEATHER OvercastWeather)
(eventLocated ?WEATHER ?AREA))
(exists (?FRACTION)
(and
(cloudCoverFraction ?AREA ?FRACTION)
(greaterThan ?FRACTION 0.7))))
(=>
(and
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(instance ?WEATHER OvercastWeather)
(eventLocated ?WEATHER ?AREA)
(cloudCoverFraction ?AREA ?FRACTION))
(greaterThan ?FRACTION 0.7))
(instance overcastDaysInPeriod TernaryPredicate)
(domain overcastDaysInPeriod 1 GeographicArea)
(domain overcastDaysInPeriod 2 TimeDuration)
(domain overcastDaysInPeriod 3 NonnegativeRealNumber)
(documentation overcastDaysInPeriod EnglishLanguage
"(&%overcastDaysInPeriod ?AREA ?PERIOD ?NUMBER) means that during the
time ?PERIOD, the &%GeographicArea ?AREA experienced ?NUMBER of
&%OvercastWeather days.")
;; KJN: Moving this to MILO to remove dependencies
;;(instance airTemperature BinaryPredicate)
;;(instance airTemperature AsymmetricRelation)
;;(domain airTemperature 1 Object)
;;(domain airTemperature 2 TemperatureMeasure)
;;(subrelation airTemperature measure)
;;(documentation airTemperature EnglishLanguage
;;"(&%airTemperature ?AREA ?TEMP) means that the temperature of the
;;air at ?AREA is ?TEMP. Temperature may be expressed in units of
;;&%TemperatureMeasure, including &%CelsiusDegree and &%FahrenheitDegree,
;;among others.")
(instance seaSurfaceTemperature BinaryPredicate)
(instance seaSurfaceTemperature AsymmetricRelation)
(domain seaSurfaceTemperature 1 WaterArea)
(domain seaSurfaceTemperature 2 ConstantQuantity)
(documentation seaSurfaceTemperature EnglishLanguage
"(&%seaSurfaceTemperature ?AREA ?TEMP) means that the
temperature of the sea surface at ?AREA is ?TEMP.
Temperature may be expressed in some &%UnitOfTemperature,
including &%CelsiusDegree and &%FahrenheitDegree, among others.")
(instance averageTemperatureForPeriod TernaryPredicate)
(domain averageTemperatureForPeriod 1 GeographicArea)
(domain averageTemperatureForPeriod 2 TimeDuration)
(domain averageTemperatureForPeriod 3 TemperatureMeasure)
(documentation averageTemperatureForPeriod EnglishLanguage
"(&%averageTemperatureForPeriod ?PLACE ?PERIOD ?AMOUNT) means that
at the &%GeographicArea ?PLACE, and during the &%TimeDuration
?PERIOD, the average daily temperature was ?AMOUNT. Temperature
may be expressed in some &%UnitOfTemperature, including
&%CelsiusDegree and &%FahrenheitDegree, among others.")
(instance highestTemperatureForPeriod TernaryPredicate)
(domain highestTemperatureForPeriod 1 GeographicArea)
(domain highestTemperatureForPeriod 2 TimeDuration)
(domain highestTemperatureForPeriod 3 TemperatureMeasure)
(documentation highestTemperatureForPeriod EnglishLanguage
"(&%highestTemperatureForPeriod ?PLACE ?PERIOD ?AMOUNT) means that
at the &%GeographicArea ?PLACE, during the &%TimeDuration ?PERIOD,
the highest temperature was ?AMOUNT. Temperature may be expressed
in some &%UnitOfTemperature, including &%CelsiusDegree and
&%FahrenheitDegree, among others.")
(instance lowestTemperatureForPeriod TernaryPredicate)
(domain lowestTemperatureForPeriod 1 GeographicArea)
(domain lowestTemperatureForPeriod 2 TimeDuration)
(domain lowestTemperatureForPeriod 3 TemperatureMeasure)
(documentation lowestTemperatureForPeriod EnglishLanguage
"(&%lowestTemperatureForPeriod ?PLACE ?PERIOD ?AMOUNT) means that
at the &%GeographicArea ?PLACE, during the &%TimeDuration ?PERIOD,
the highest temperature was ?AMOUNT. Temperature may be expressed
in some &%UnitOfTemperature, including &%CelsiusDegree and
&%FahrenheitDegree, among others.")
;;---------------------------------
(instance relativeHumidity BinaryPredicate)
(instance relativeHumidity AsymmetricRelation)
(domain relativeHumidity 1 Object)
(domain relativeHumidity 2 NonnegativeRealNumber)
(documentation relativeHumidity EnglishLanguage "(&%relativeHumidity ?AREA ?AMOUNT)
means that the amount of moisture in the air at ?AREA is ?AMOUNT.
Relative humidity expresses the amount of moisture as a percentage,
or ratio, between the actual moisture saturation of the air compared
to the potential moisture saturation of the air. At full (potential)
saturation, precipitation would occur.")
(=>
(relativeHumidity ?PLACE 1)
(exists (?FALLING)
(and
(instance ?FALLING Precipitation)
(eventLocated ?FALLING ?PLACE))))
; Raining - added a new axiom (23 August 2017)
(subclass Raining Precipitation)
(documentation Raining EnglishLanguage "&%Raining is a &%Precipitation &%Process
in which &%Water falls in a &%Liquid state. The size of an raindrop is between 0.1-9
&%Millimeter in &%approximateDiameter. ")
(documentation Raining ChineseLanguage "&%Raining 是一种 &%Precipitation &%Process, 当中
&%Water 以 &%Liquid 状态下坠,雨点的 &%approximateDiameter 介乎 0.1-9 &%Millmeter。")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Raining "降雨")
(=>
(instance ?PROCESS Raining)
(precipitationState ?PROCESS Liquid))
(=>
(instance ?RAIN Raining)
(exists (?CLTN ?R)
(and
(instance ?CLTN Collection)
(instance ?R Water)
(instance ?R LiquidDrop)
(member ?R ?CLTN)
(objectTransferred ?RAIN ?CLTN)
(defaultMinimumSphereRadius ?R
(MeasureFn 0.1 Millimeter))
(defaultMaximumSphereRadius ?R
(MeasureFn 9 Millimeter)))))
; FreezingRain - revised Jennie 6th October 2017
(subclass FreezingRain Precipitation)
(documentation FreezingRain EnglishLanguage "&%FreezingRain occurs when &%Raindrops go
through the &%Process of &%Supercooling at a few hundred &%Meters above a
&%GeographicArea, then undergo &freezing on contact with &%Objects on the ground to
become &%Solid.")
(documentation FreezingRain ChineseLanguage "&%FreezingRain 出现在当 &%Raindrop 在离
&%GeographicArea 几百多 &%Meter 高时经过 &%Supercooling 的 &%Process,然后落地和地面的物体接触,
&freezing 成 &Solid。")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage FreezingRain "冻雨")
(=>
(instance ?PROCESS FreezingRain)
(precipitationState ?PROCESS Liquid))
(=>
(and
(instance ?PROCESS FreezingRain)
(patient ?PROCESS ?STUFF)
(instance ?STUFF Water))
(holdsDuring (ImmediateFutureFn (WhenFn ?PROCESS)) (attribute ?STUFF Solid)))
; HeavyRaining - added axiom and documentation (24 August 2017)
(documentation HeavyRaining EnglishLanguage "&%HeavyRaining is &%rainfallIntensity between
10-50 &%Millimeter per &%HourDuration.")
(documentation HeavyRaining ChineseLanguage "&%HeavyRaining 是降雨量介乎于每小时10-50
&%Millimeter 之间。")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage HeavyRaining "大降雨")
(subclass HeavyRaining Raining)
(=>
(instance ?HR HeavyRaining)
(holdsDuring
(WhenFn ?HR)
(exists (?AREA)
(and
(instance ?AREA Region)
(eventLocated ?HR ?AREA)
(rainfallIntensity ?AREA
(WhenFn ?HR)
(PerFn
(MeasureFn ?NUM Millimeter)
(MeasureFn 1 HourDuration)))
(greaterThan ?NUM 10)
(greaterThan 50 ?NUM)))))
; Snowing (2 August 2017 Jennie)
(documentation Snowing EnglishLanguage "&%Snowing is a &%Precipitation &%Process
in which &%Water falls in a &%Solid state, as &%MonoCrystalline &%Ice.")
(documentation Snowing ChineseLanguage "&%Snowing 是一种 &%Precipitation &%Process, 当中
&%Water 以 &%Solid 状态的 &%MonoCrystalline &%Ice下坠。")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Snowing "降雪")
(subclass Snowing Precipitation)
(=>
(instance ?PROCESS Snowing)
(precipitationState ?PROCESS Solid))
(=>
(instance ?SNOW Snowing)
(exists (?CLTN ?I)
(and
(instance ?CLTN Collection)
(instance ?I Ice)
(attribute ?I MonoCrystalline)
(member ?I ?CLTN)
(objectTransferred ?SNOW ?CLTN))))
; Sleeting 6th October 2017 Jennie
(subclass Sleeting Precipitation)
(documentation Sleeting EnglishLanguage "&%Sleeting is a form of &%Precipitation composed
of &%Rain and partly melted &%Snow.")
(documentation Sleeting ChineseLanguage "&%Sleeting 一种 &%Rain 夹着部分融化了的 &%Snow 的
&%Precipitation。")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Sleeting "雨夹雪")
(=>
(instance ?PROCESS Sleeting)
(exists (?STUFF ?R ?S ?MELT)
(and
(instance ?STUFF Collection)
(objectTransferred ?PROCESS ?STUFF)
(instance ?R Raindrop)
(instance ?S Snowflake)
(member ?R ?STUFF)
(member ?S ?STUFF)
(instance ?MELT Melting)
(subProcess ?MELT ?PROCESS)
(patient ?MELT ?S))))
; Hailing revised 1st October 2017 Jennie
(subclass Hailing Precipitation)
(documentation Hailing EnglishLanguage "&%Hailing is a form of &%Precipitation &%Process
in which &%Water falls in a &%Solid state.")
(documentation Hailing ChineseLanguage "&%Hailing 是一种 &%Precipitation 的 &%Process,当中
&%Water 以 &%Solid 状态落下。")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Hailing "hailing")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Hailing "下冰雹")
(=>
(instance ?PROCESS Hailing)
(precipitationState ?PROCESS Solid))
(instance precipitationState BinaryPredicate)
(instance precipitationState AsymmetricRelation)
(domain precipitationState 1 WeatherProcess)
(domain precipitationState 2 PhysicalState)
(documentation precipitationState EnglishLanguage
"(&%precipitationState ?EVENT ?STATE) means that in the &%Precipitation
?EVENT, the stuff falling is in the &%PhysicalState ?STATE (e.g.,
&%Liquid or &%Solid ice).")
(=>
(precipitationState ?EVENT ?STATE)
(exists (?STUFF)
(and
(instance ?STUFF Water)
(patient ?EVENT ?STUFF)
(attribute ?STUFF ?STATE))))
(instance precipitationRate BinaryPredicate)
(instance precipitationRate AsymmetricRelation)
(domain precipitationRate 1 Precipitation)
(domain precipitationRate 2 FunctionQuantity)
(documentation precipitationRate EnglishLanguage
"(&%precipitationRate ?EVENT ?RATE) means that in the
&%Precipitation ?EVENT, the precipitation falls at a rate
of ?RATE.")
(instance precipitationAmount BinaryPredicate)
(instance precipitationAmount AsymmetricRelation)
(domain precipitationAmount 1 Precipitation)
(domain precipitationAmount 2 ConstantQuantity)
(documentation precipitationAmount EnglishLanguage
"(&%precipitationAmount ?EVENT ?AMOUNT) means that in the
&%Precipitation process ?EVENT, the quantity of precipitation
that fell was ?AMOUNT.")
(instance averagePrecipitationForPeriod TernaryPredicate)
(domain averagePrecipitationForPeriod 1 GeographicArea)
(domain averagePrecipitationForPeriod 2 TimeDuration)
(domain averagePrecipitationForPeriod 3 ConstantQuantity)
(documentation averagePrecipitationForPeriod EnglishLanguage
"(&%averagePrecipitationForPeriod ?PLACE ?PERIOD ?AMOUNT) means
that at the &%GeographicArea ?PLACE, and during the &%TimeDuration
?PERIOD, the average daily precipitation was ?AMOUNT.")
(instance totalPrecipitationForPeriod TernaryPredicate)
(domain totalPrecipitationForPeriod 1 GeographicArea)
(domain totalPrecipitationForPeriod 2 TimeDuration)
(domain totalPrecipitationForPeriod 3 ConstantQuantity)
(documentation totalPrecipitationForPeriod EnglishLanguage
"(&%totalPrecipitationForPeriod ?PLACE ?PERIOD ?AMOUNT) means that
at the &%GeographicArea ?PLACE, and during the &%TimeDuration ?PERIOD,
the total amount of precipitation was ?AMOUNT.")
;;------------------------------------------------------------------------
;; I. Natural Disasters (covered in CIA World Fact Book)
(subclass Wind WeatherProcess)
(subclass Windstorm Wind)
(subclass StrongWind Wind)
(subclass Sirocco Wind)
(subclass HarmattanWind Wind)
(subclass Khamsin Wind)
(subclass Mistral Wind)
(subclass Ghibli Wind)
(subclass ChinookWind Wind)
(subclass Pampero Windstorm)
(subclass Squall WeatherProcess)
(subclass SevereThunderstorm WeatherProcess)
(subclass DustStorm WeatherProcess)
(subclass Sandstorm WeatherProcess)
(subclass Zud WeatherProcess)
(subclass HeavySurf WeatherProcess)
(subclass HeavySurf WaterMotion)
(subclass CoastalFlooding Flooding)
(subclass FlashFlooding Flooding)
(subclass MaritimeHazard LandForm)
(subclass Reef MaritimeHazard)
(subclass Shoal MaritimeHazard)
(subclass Iceberg SelfConnectedObject)
(subclass SeaIce Ice) ;; incl glaciers in sea, floes, bergs
(subclass Tornado WeatherProcess)
(subclass Tsunami WeatherProcess)
(documentation Tsunami EnglishLanguage "&%Tsunami is the class of highly destructive
ocean waves caused by offshore seismic processes.")
(subclass Hurricane TropicalCyclone)
(subclass Drought WeatherProcess)
(documentation Drought EnglishLanguage "&%Drought is the subclass of &%WeatherProcess
that represents long periods without precipitation, which is damaging
to crops, livestock, and human life.")
(=>
(and
(instance ?DRYSPELL Drought)
(eventLocated ?DRYSPELL ?AREA))
(not
(exists (?RAIN ?PLACE)
(and
(instance ?RAIN Raining)
(instance ?PLACE Region)
(eventLocated ?RAIN ?PLACE)
(overlapsSpatially ?PLACE ?AREA)
(overlapsTemporally ?RAIN ?DRYSPELL)))))
(subclass Desertification WeatherProcess)
(documentation Desertification EnglishLanguage "&%Desertification represents the
&%Process by which desert conditions are spread over an area.")
(documentation Icing EnglishLanguage "&%Icing is the process by which &%Ice is deposited
on a %Solid object in polycrystalline form.")
(documentation Icing ChineseLanguage "&%Icing 是当 &%Ice 在 &%Solid 物体上凝结成多晶体。 ")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Icing "大气结冰")
(subclass Icing WeatherProcess)
(subclass Icing Freezing)
(=>
(instance ?ICING Icing)
(exists (?ICE ?OBJ)
(and
(instance ?ICE Ice)
(attribute ?ICE PolyCrystalline)
(patient ?ICING ?ICE)
(instance ?OBJ Object)
(attribute ?OBJ Solid)
(destination ?ICING ?OBJ)
(meetsSpatially ?ICE ?OBJ))))
; 1 Fogging (2 August 2017 Jennie)
(documentation Fogging EnglishLanguage "&%Fogging is &%Water droplets or &%Ice &%Crystal
suspended in the &%EarthAtmosphere, &%causes &%visibilityInMeteorology to be reduced to
less than 1,000 &%Meter.")
(documentation Fogging ChineseLanguage "&%Fogging 是悬浮在 &%EarthAtmosphere 的 &%Water 小滴
或 &%Ice &%Crystal,它 &%causes &%visibilityInMeteorology 下降至少于 1,000 &%Meter.")
(subclass Fogging WeatherProcess)
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Fogging "fog")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Fogging "雾")
(=>
(and
(instance ?FOG Fogging)
(eventLocated ?FOG ?AREA)
(instance ?AREA AtmosphericRegion)
(instance ?A Aerosal)
(locatedAtTime ?A
(WhenFn ?FOG) ?AREA)
(visibilityInMeteorology ?AREA
(WhenFn ?FOG)
(MeasureFn ?VISIBILITY Meter)))
(lessThan ?VISIBILITY 1000))
; AtmosphericHazing 2 August 2017 Jennie
(documentation AtmosphericHazing EnglishLanguage "&%AtomsphericHazing is a
&%WeatherProcess in which the atmosphere of the area is obscured by fine
suspended particles of less than 1 &%Millmeter, causing a reduction in
&%visibilityInMeteorology to be between 2 to 5 kilometres. [text courtesy
wikipedia]")
(documentation AtmosphericHazing ChineseLanguage "&%AtomsphericHazing 是
&%, 它是当一个地方的大气被少于 1 &%Millimeter 的悬浮微颗粒遮盖,导致
&%VisibilityInMeteorology 下降于2 到5公里。")
(subclass AtmosphericHazing WeatherProcess)
(termFormat EnglishLanguage AtmosphericHazing "atmospheric hazing")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage AtmosphericHazing "阴霾")
(=>
(and
(instance ?HAZE AtmosphericHazing)
(eventLocated ?HAZE ?AREA)
(instance ?AREA AtmosphericRegion)
(instance ?PARTICULATE ParticulateMatter)
(locatedAtTime ?PARTICULATE
(WhenFn ?HAZE) ?AREA)
(visibilityInMeteorology ?AREA
(WhenFn ?HAZE)
(MeasureFn ?VISIBILITY Kilometer)))
(and
(greaterThan ?VISIBILITY 2)
(lessThan ?VISIBILITY 5)))
;Blizzard 30 Sept 2017 Jennie
(documentation Blizzard EnglishLanguage "A &%Blizzard is a &%Snowing with
&%surfaceWindSpeed of over 35 &%KnotUnitOfSpeed for a sustained &%duration of at least 3
&%HourDuration. The strong &%Wind results in blowing &%Snow causing the %Region affected
to have &%visibilityInMeteorology reduced to less than 400 &%Meter. ")
(documentation Blizzard ChineseLanguage " &%Blizzard 是在地面风速超过35 &%KnotUnitOfSpeed,伴随
着连续 3 &%HourDuration 以上的 &%Snowing,强风把飘 &%Snow 吹起导致受影响的 %Region 的
&%visibilityInMeteorology 降至少于 400 &%Meter。")
(subclass Blizzard Storm)
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Blizzard "暴风雪")
(=>
(instance ?BLIZZARD Blizzard)
(exists (?PROCESS)
(and
(instance ?PROCESS Snowing)
(subProcess ?PROCESS ?BLIZZARD))))
(=>
(instance ?PROCESS Blizzard)
(holdsDuring
(WhenFn ?PROCESS)
(exists (?AREA ?GALE ?DURATION)
(and
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(eventLocated ?PROCESS ?AREA)
(surfaceWindSpeed ?AREA
(MeasureFn ?GALE KnotUnitOfSpeed))
(greaterThan ?GALE 35)
(duration (WhenFn ?PROCESS)
(MeasureFn ?DURATION HourDuration))
(greaterThan ?DURATION 3)))))
(=>
(instance ?PROCESS Blizzard)
(exists (?AREA ?DIST)
(and
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(eventLocated ?PROCESS ?AREA)
(visibilityInMeteorology ?AREA
(WhenFn ?PROCESS)
(MeasureFn ?DIST Meter))
(lessThan ?DIST 400))))
;---------------------------
;
; New Weather terms (Jennie 2017)
;
;---------------------------
; 1 StandardAmbientTemperaturePressure (New)
(documentation StandardAmbientTemperaturePressure EnglishLanguage "This is an &%Attribute
that refers to the standard ambient temperature and pressure (SATP) of place, which is at
the temperature of 298.15 &%KelvinDegree (25 &%CelsiusDegree, 77 &%FahrenheitDegree) and
the absolute pressure of exactly 100 kPa (750.06 mmHg, 29.530 &%InchMercury), established
by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
&%StandardAmbientTemperaturePressure is a standard set of conditions for experimental
measurements to be established to allow comparisons to be made between different sets of
data. [text courtesy Wikipedia]")
(documentation StandardAmbientTemperaturePressure ChineseLanguage "这是指一个地方的拥有标准的
环境温度和气压(标准状况)(SATP)的 &%Attribute。所指的气温是 298.15 &%KelvinDegree (25
&%CelsiusDegree,77 &%FahrenheitDegree)和绝对气压恰恰是100 kPa (750.06 mmHg, 29.530
&%InchMercury)。这是由国际纯化学和应用化学联合会制定的(IUPAC)。
&%StandardAmbientTemperaturePressure 是为了容许比较拥有不同数据组别而建立的一套量度实验结果的标准
条件。[翻译自维基百科]")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage StandardAmbientTemperaturePressure "standard ambient
temperature and pressure")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage StandardAmbientTemperaturePressure "标准状况")
(instance StandardAmbientTemperaturePressure Attribute)
(<=>
(and
(instance ?X Region)
(holdsDuring ?T
(property ?X StandardAmbientTemperaturePressure)))
(holdsDuring ?T
(and
(airTemperature ?X
(MeasureFn 298.15 KelvinDegree))
(barometricPressure ?X
(MeasureFn 29.530 InchMercury)))))
; 2 visibilityInMeteorology (new)
(documentation visibilityInMeteorology EnglishLanguage "&%visibilityInMeteorology is a
&%TernaryPredicate. It is a &%lengthMeasure that describes the greatest &%Horizontal &%distance an &%agent can observe 1. a black object during &%DayTime; or 2. &%RadiatingVisibleLight of 1,000 &%Candelas during &%NightTime. Visibility during &%DayTime can also be called the meteorological optical range (MOR)")
(documentation visibilityInMeteorology ChineseLanguage "&%visibilityInMeteorology 是一个
&%TernaryPredicate。它是一个 &%lengthMeasure,用来形容一个 &%agent 能看见最远 &%Horizontal
&%distance:在 1. &%DayTime 是黑色物体;或是在 2. &%NightTime 是 1,000 &%Candelas 的
&%RadiatingVisibleLight。&%DayTime 的能见度可以用气象光学范围(MOR)来代表。" )
(domain visibilityInMeteorology 1 Region)
(domain visibilityInMeteorology 2 TimePosition)
(domain visibilityInMeteorology 3 LengthMeasure)
(instance visibilityInMeteorology TernaryPredicate)
(subrelation visibilityInMeteorology measure)
(termFormat EnglishLanguage visibilityInMeteorology "visibility in meteorology")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage visibilityInMeteorology "气象学能见度")
(=>
(visibilityInMeteorology ?Area ?Time ?Distance)
(not
(exists (?Observe ?A ?B ?D2)
(and
(instance ?Observe Looking)
(agent ?Observe ?A)
(patient ?Observe ?B)
(orientation ?A ?B Horizontal)
(during
(WhenFn ?Observe) ?Time)
(eventLocated ?Observe ?Area)
(distance ?A ?B ?D2)
(greaterThan ?D2 ?Distance)))))
(=>
(and
(visibilityInMeteorology ?Area ?Time ?Distance)
(instance ?Time DayTime)
(instance ?Observe Looking)
(instance ?B Object)
(color ?B Black)
(agent ?Observe ?A)
(patient ?Observe ?B)
(orientation ?A ?B Horizontal)
(eventLocated ?Observe ?Area)
(during
(WhenFn ?Observe) ?Time)
(instance ?B Object))
(and
(distance ?A ?B ?D2)
(greaterThan ?Distance ?D2)))
(=>
(and
(visibilityInMeteorology ?Area ?Time ?Distance)
(instance ?Time NightTime)
(instance ?Observe Looking)
(instance ?B Region)
(attribute ?B Illuminated)
(measure ?B (MeasureFn 1000 Candela))
(agent ?Observe ?A)
(patient ?Observe ?B)
(orientation ?A ?B Horizontal)
(eventLocated ?Observe ?Area)
(during
(WhenFn ?Observe) ?Time)
(instance ?B Object))
(and
(distance ?A ?B ?D2)
(greaterThan ?Distance ?D2)))
; 3 Frosting (New)
(documentation Frosting EnglishLanguage "&%Frosting is the &%Process by which a coating or
deposit of &%Ice &%Crystals form on the surface of &%Solid &%Objects.")
(documentation Frosting ChineseLanguage "&%Frosting 是 &%Ice &%Crystal 褂在 &%Solid &%Object
或积聚的 &%Process。")
(subclass Frosting Deposition)
(subclass Frosting WeatherProcess)
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Frosting "霜")
(=>
(instance ?FROST Frosting)
(exists (?ICE ?OBJ)
(and
(instance ?ICE Ice)
(attribute ?ICE MonoCrystalline)
(patient ?FROST ?ICE)
(instance ?OBJ Object)
(attribute ?OBJ Solid)
(destination ?FROST ?OBJ)
(meetsSpatially ?FROST ?OBJ))))
; 4 Drizzling - New (24 August 2007 Jennie)
(documentation Drizzling EnglishLanguage "&%Drizzling is a &%subclass of &%Raining when
the raindrops are less than or equal 0.5 &%Millimeter in &%approximateDiameter.")
(documentation Drizzling ChineseLanguage "&%Drizzling 是 &%Raining 的 &%subclass, 它是当雨点
的 &%approximateDiameter 小于或等于 0.5 &%Millimeter。")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Drizzling "drizzling")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Drizzling "毛毛雨")
(subclass Drizzling Raining)
(=>
(instance ?DRIZZLE Drizzling)
(exists (?RAIN ?CLTN ?R ?SIZE)
(and
(instance ?RAIN Raining)
(instance ?CLTN Collection)
(instance ?R Water)
(instance ?R LiquidDrop)
(member ?R ?CLTN)
(objectTransferred ?RAIN ?CLTN)
(approximateDiameter ?R
(MeasureFn ?SIZE Millimeter))
(modalAttribute
(lessThanOrEqualTo ?SIZE 0.5) Likely))))
; 5 rainfallIntensity - New ( 27th August 2017 Jennie)
(documentation rainfallIntensity EnglishLanguage "&%rainfallIntensity is a
&%TernaryPredicate. It is the rate of &%Raining in a &%Region over a
&%TimeInterval.")
(documentation rainfallIntensity ChineseLanguage "&%rainfallIntensity 是一个
&%TernaryPredicate。它是 &%Raining 在一处 &%GeographicArea 在一段 &%TimeInterval 的频率。")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage rainfallIntensity "rainfall intensity")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage rainfallIntensity "降雨强度")
(domain rainfallIntensity 1 GeographicArea)
(domain rainfallIntensity 2 TimeInterval)
(domain rainfallIntensity 3 FunctionQuantity)
(instance rainfallIntensity TernaryPredicate)
(=>
(rainfallIntensity ?AREA ?TIME ?RATE)
(exists (?RAIN ?CTLN ?R ?BUCKET ?TOP ?BOTTOM ?RAINFALL)
(and
(instance ?RAIN Raining)
(eventLocated ?RAIN ?AREA)
(during (WhenFn ?RAIN) ?TIME)
(instance ?CLTN Collection)
(objectTransferred ?RAIN ?CLTN)
(instance ?R Water)
(member ?R ?CLTN)
(instance ?BUCKET Container)
(bottom ?BOTTOM ?BUCKET)
(attribute ?BOTTOM Flat)
(located ?BUCKET ?AREA)
(holdsDuring
(BeginFn ?TIME)
(attribute ?BUCKET ContainerEmpty))
(holdsDuring
(EndFn ?TIME)
(and
(located ?CLTN ?BUCKET)
(top ?TOP ?CLTN)
(depth ?TOP ?BOTTOM ?RAINFALL)
(equal ?RAINFALL
(MultiplicationFn ?TIME ?RATE)))))))
; 6 RainShowering - Jennie (26 August 2017)
(documentation RainShowering EnglishLanguage "A &%RainShowering is a short period of
&%Raining.")
(documentation RainShowering ChineseLanguage "&%RainShowering 是短时间的 &%Raining.")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage RainShowering "rain showering")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage RainShowering "骤雨")
(subclass RainShowering Raining)
(=>
(instance ?SHOWER RainShowering)
(holdsDuring
(WhenFn ?SHOWER)
(exists (?RAIN1 ?RAIN2 ?AREA)
(and
(instance ?RAIN1 Raining)
(instance ?RAIN2 Raining)
(instance ?AREA Region)
(subProcess ?RAIN1 ?SHOWER)
(subProcess ?RAIN2 ?SHOWER)
(eventLocated ?RAIN1 ?AREA)
(eventLocated ?RAIN2 ?AREA)
(not
(overlapsTemporally (WhenFn ?RAIN1) (WhenFn ?RAIN2)))))))
; 7 Storm - new 30th September 2017
(documentation Storm EnglishLanguage "&%Storms occurs in an area where its &%Atmosphere is
dominated by a &%LowPressureWeatherSystem with &%Air moving in &%MotionUpward.Surface
&%Wind of over 30 &%KnotUnitOfSpeed and or &%Precipitation are &%Likely associated with
&%Storms.")
(documentation Storm ChineseLanguage "&%Storm 发生于由 &%LowPressureWeatherSystem 的
&%Atmosphere 占领的地区,里面的 &%Air 的流动方向是 &%MotionUpward。地面 &%Wind 速 &%Likely
高于30 &%KnotUnitOfSpeed 并或伴有 &%Precipitation。")
(subclass Storm WeatherProcess)
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Storm "storm")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Storm "风暴")
(=>
(instance ?STORM Storm)
(holdsDuring
(WhenFn ?STORM)
(modalAttribute
(exists (?P ?AREA)
(and
(instance ?P Precipitation)
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(eventLocated ?P ?AREA)
(subProcess ?P ?STORM))) Likely)))
(=>
(instance ?STORM Storm)
(holdsDuring
(WhenFn ?STORM)
(exists (?AREA ?STRONG)
(and
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(surfaceWindSpeed ?AREA
(MeasureFn ?STRONG KnotUnitOfSpeed))
(greaterThan ?STRONG 30)))))
(=>
(instance ?STORM Storm)
(holdsDuring
(WhenFn ?STORM)
(exists (?LOW ?AREA ?AIR ?RISE)
(and
(instance ?LOW LowPressureWeatherSystem)
(instance ?AREA Region)
(eventLocated ?LOW ?AREA)
(instance ?AIR Air)
(instance ?RISE MotionUpward)
(patient ?RISE ?AIR)
(eventLocated ?RISE ?AREA)
(subProcess ?RISE ?LOW)))))
; 8 Snowstorm 30 Sept 2017 Jennie
(documentation Snowstorm EnglishLanguage "A &%Snowstorm is &%Snowing at the
&%snowfallIntensity of more than 5 &%Centimeter per &%HourDuration.")
(documentation Snowstorm ChineseLanguage " &%Snowstorm 是 每 &%HourDuration 超过 5
&%Centimeter &%snowfallIntensity 的 &%Snowing。")
(subclass Snowstorm Storm)
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Snowstorm "snow storm")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Snowstorm "雪暴")
(=>
(instance ?SNOWSTORM Snowstorm)
(holdsDuring
(WhenFn ?SNOWSTORM)
(exists (?SNOW ?AREA ?NUM)
(and
(instance ?SNOW Snowing)
(instance ?AREA GeographicArea)
(eventLocated ?SNOW ?AREA)
(subProcess ?SNOW ?SNOWSTORM)
(snowfallIntensity ?AREA
(WhenFn ?SNOW)
(PerFn
(MeasureFn ?NUM Centimeter)
(MeasureFn 1 HourDuration)))
(greaterThan ?NUM 5)))))
; 9 Rain 1st October 2017 Jennie
(documentation Rain EnglishLanguage "&%Rain refers to the &%Water resulting from
&%Raining.")
(documentation Rain ChineseLanguage "&%Rain 是 &%Raining 而来的 &%Water。")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Rain "rain")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Rain "雨水")
(subclass Rain Water)
(=>
(instance ?PROCESS Raining)
(exists (?RAIN)
(and
(instance ?RAIN Rain)
(objectTransferred ?PROCESS ?RAIN))))
; 10 Raindrop 1st October 2017 Jennie
(documentation Raindrop EnglishLanguage "A &%Raindrop is one &%LiquidDrop from the
&%Collection of &%Rain.")
(documentation Raindrop ChineseLanguage "一滴 &%Raindrop 是指 &%Rain &%Collection 里的一滴
&%LiquidDrop。")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Raindrop "rain drop")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Raindrop "雨点")
(subclass Raindrop LiquidDrop)
(=>
(instance ?DROP Raindrop)
(exists (?RAIN)
(and
(instance ?RAIN Rain)
(instance ?RAIN Collection)
(member ?DROP ?RAIN))))
; 11 Snow 1st October 2017 Jennie
(documentation Snow EnglishLanguage "&%Snow refers to the &%Substance resulting from
&%Snowing.")
(documentation Snow ChineseLanguage "&%Snow 是 &%Snowing 而来的 &%Substance。")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Snow "snow")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Snow "雪")
(subclass Snow Ice)
(=>
(instance ?PROCESS Snowing)
(exists (?SNOW)
(and
(instance ?SNOW Snow)
(objectTransferred ?PROCESS ?SNOW))))
; 12 Snowflake 1st October 2017 Jennie
(documentation Snowflake EnglishLanguage "A &%Snowflake is one &%Ice &%Crystal from the
&%Collection of &%Snow.")
(documentation Snowflake ChineseLanguage "一片 &%Snowflake 是指 &%Snow &%Collection 里的一片
&%Ice &%Crystal。")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Snowflake "snowflake")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Snowflake "雪花")
(subclass Snowflake Crystal)
(=>
(instance ?S Snowflake)
(exists (?SNOW)
(and
(instance ?SNOW Snow)
(instance ?SNOW Collection)
(member ?S ?SNOW))))
; 13 snowfallIntensity 1st October 2017 Jennie
(documentation snowfallIntensity EnglishLanguage "&%snowfallIntensity is a
&%TernaryPredicate. It is the rate of &%Snowing in a &%GeographicArea over a
&%TimeInterval.")
(documentation snowfallIntensity ChineseLanguage "&%snowfallIntensity 是一个
&%TernaryPredicate。它是 &%Snowing 在一处 &%GeographicArea 在一段 &%TimeInterval 的频率。")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage snowfallIntensity "snowfall intensity")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage snowfallIntensity "降雪强度")
(domain snowfallIntensity 1 GeographicArea)
(domain snowfallIntensity 2 TimeInterval)
(domain snowfallIntensity 3 FunctionQuantity)
(instance snowfallIntensity TernaryPredicate)
(=>
(snowfallIntensity ?AREA ?TIME ?RATE)
(exists (?PROCESS ?STUFF ?BOARD ?TOP ?BOTTOM ?SNOWFALL)
(and
(instance ?PROCESS Snowing)
(eventLocated ?PROCESS ?AREA)
(during (WhenFn ?PROCESS) ?TIME)
(instance ?STUFF Snow)
(objectTransferred ?PROCESS ?STUFF)
(instance ?BOARD BoardOrBlock)
(bottom ?BOTTOM ?BOARD)
(attribute ?BOTTOM Flat)
(located ?BOARD ?AREA)
(holdsDuring
(BeginFn ?TIME)
(not
(exists (?X)
(and
(instance ?X Object)
(located ?X ?BOARD)))))
(holdsDuring
(EndFn ?TIME)
(and
(located ?STUFF ?BOARD)
(top ?TOP ?STUFF)
(depth ?TOP ?BOTTOM ?SNOWFALL)
(equal ?SNOWFALL
(MultiplicationFn ?TIME ?RATE)))))))
; 14 Hailstone 1st October 2017 Jennie
(documentation Hailstone EnglishLanguage "A &%Hailstone is a round &%Ice &%Crystal
resulting from &%Hailing. Its &%approximateDiameter ranges between 0.5 &%Centimeter to
15 &%Centimeter. ")
(documentation Hailstone ChineseLanguage "&%Hailstone 是 &%Hailing 时落下园形的 &%Ice
&%Crystal,它的 &%approximateDiameter 介乎0.5 &%Centimeter 与15 &%Centimeter 之间。")
(termFormat EnglishLanguage Hailstone "hailstone")
(termFormat ChineseLanguage Hailstone "冰雹")
(subclass Hailstone Ice)
(=>
(instance ?STUFF Hailstone)
(exists (?PROCESS ?CLTN)
(and
(instance ?PROCESS Hailing)
(instance ?CLTN Collection)
(objectTransferred ?PROCESS ?CLTN)
(member ?STUFF ?CLTN))))
(=>
(instance ?STUFF Hailstone)
(and
(defaultMinimumSphereRadius ?STUFF (MeasureFn 0.5 Centimeter))
(defaultMaximumSphereRadius ?STUFF (MeasureFn 15 Centimeter))))