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# -*- test-case-name: openid.test.test_consumer -*-
"""OpenID support for Relying Parties (aka Consumers).
This module documents the main interface with the OpenID consumer
library. The only part of the library which has to be used and isn't
documented in full here is the store required to create an
C{L{Consumer}} instance. More on the abstract store type and
concrete implementations of it that are provided in the documentation
for the C{L{__init__<Consumer.__init__>}} method of the
C{L{Consumer}} class.
The OpenID identity verification process most commonly uses the
following steps, as visible to the user of this library:
1. The user enters their OpenID into a field on the consumer's
site, and hits a login button.
2. The consumer site discovers the user's OpenID provider using
the Yadis protocol.
3. The consumer site sends the browser a redirect to the
OpenID provider. This is the authentication request as
described in the OpenID specification.
4. The OpenID provider's site sends the browser a redirect
back to the consumer site. This redirect contains the
provider's response to the authentication request.
The most important part of the flow to note is the consumer's site
must handle two separate HTTP requests in order to perform the
full identity check.
This consumer library is designed with that flow in mind. The
goal is to make it as easy as possible to perform the above steps
At a high level, there are two important parts in the consumer
library. The first important part is this module, which contains
the interface to actually use this library. The second is the
C{L{}} module, which describes the
interface to use if you need to create a custom method for storing
the state this library needs to maintain between requests.
In general, the second part is less important for users of the
library to know about, as several implementations are provided
which cover a wide variety of situations in which consumers may
use the library.
This module contains a class, C{L{Consumer}}, with methods
corresponding to the actions necessary in each of steps 2, 3, and
4 described in the overview. Use of this library should be as easy
as creating an C{L{Consumer}} instance and calling the methods
appropriate for the action the site wants to take.
The C{L{Consumer}} object keeps track of two types of state:
1. State of the user's current authentication attempt. Things like
the identity URL, the list of endpoints discovered for that
URL, and in case where some endpoints are unreachable, the list
of endpoints already tried. This state needs to be held from
Consumer.begin() to Consumer.complete(), but it is only applicable
to a single session with a single user agent, and at the end of
the authentication process (i.e. when an OP replies with either
C{id_res} or C{cancel}) it may be discarded.
2. State of relationships with servers, i.e. shared secrets
(associations) with servers and nonces seen on signed messages.
This information should persist from one session to the next and
should not be bound to a particular user-agent.
These two types of storage are reflected in the first two arguments of
Consumer's constructor, C{session} and C{store}. C{session} is a
dict-like object and we hope your web framework provides you with one
of these bound to the user agent. C{store} is an instance of
Since the store does hold secrets shared between your application and the
OpenID provider, you should be careful about how you use it in a shared
hosting environment. If the filesystem or database permissions of your
web host allow strangers to read from them, do not store your data there!
If you have no safe place to store your data, construct your consumer
with C{None} for the store, and it will operate only in stateless mode.
Stateless mode may be slower, put more load on the OpenID provider, and
trusts the provider to keep you safe from replay attacks.
Several store implementation are provided, and the interface is
fully documented so that custom stores can be used as well. See
the documentation for the C{L{Consumer}} class for more
information on the interface for stores. The implementations that
are provided allow the consumer site to store the necessary data
in several different ways, including several SQL databases and
normal files on disk.
In the flow described above, the user may need to confirm to the
OpenID provider that it's ok to disclose his or her identity.
The provider may draw pages asking for information from the user
before it redirects the browser back to the consumer's site. This
is generally transparent to the consumer site, so it is typically
ignored as an implementation detail.
There can be times, however, where the consumer site wants to get
a response immediately. When this is the case, the consumer can
put the library in immediate mode. In immediate mode, there is an
extra response possible from the server, which is essentially the
server reporting that it doesn't have enough information to answer
the question yet.
Integrating this library into an application is usually a
relatively straightforward process. The process should basically
follow this plan:
Add an OpenID login field somewhere on your site. When an OpenID
is entered in that field and the form is submitted, it should make
a request to your site which includes that OpenID URL.
First, the application should L{instantiate a Consumer<Consumer.__init__>}
with a session for per-user state and store for shared state.
using the store of choice.
Next, the application should call the 'C{L{begin<Consumer.begin>}}' method on the
C{L{Consumer}} instance. This method takes the OpenID URL. The
C{L{begin<Consumer.begin>}} method returns an C{L{AuthRequest}}
Next, the application should call the
C{L{redirectURL<AuthRequest.redirectURL>}} method on the
C{L{AuthRequest}} object. The parameter C{return_to} is the URL
that the OpenID server will send the user back to after attempting
to verify his or her identity. The C{realm} parameter is the
URL (or URL pattern) that identifies your web site to the user
when he or she is authorizing it. Send a redirect to the
resulting URL to the user's browser.
That's the first half of the authentication process. The second
half of the process is done after the user's OpenID Provider sends the
user's browser a redirect back to your site to complete their
When that happens, the user will contact your site at the URL
given as the C{return_to} URL to the
C{L{redirectURL<AuthRequest.redirectURL>}} call made
above. The request will have several query parameters added to
the URL by the OpenID provider as the information necessary to
finish the request.
Get a C{L{Consumer}} instance with the same session and store as
before and call its C{L{complete<Consumer.complete>}} method,
passing in all the received query arguments.
There are multiple possible return types possible from that
method. These indicate whether or not the login was successful,
and include any additional information appropriate for their type.
@var SUCCESS: constant used as the status for
L{SuccessResponse<openid.consumer.consumer.SuccessResponse>} objects.
@var FAILURE: constant used as the status for
L{FailureResponse<openid.consumer.consumer.FailureResponse>} objects.
@var CANCEL: constant used as the status for
L{CancelResponse<openid.consumer.consumer.CancelResponse>} objects.
@var SETUP_NEEDED: constant used as the status for
import cgi
import copy
import logging
from urlparse import urlparse, urldefrag
from openid import fetchers
from import discover, OpenIDServiceEndpoint, \
DiscoveryFailure, OPENID_1_0_TYPE, OPENID_1_1_TYPE, OPENID_2_0_TYPE
from openid.message import Message, OPENID_NS, OPENID2_NS, OPENID1_NS, \
from openid import cryptutil
from openid import oidutil
from openid.association import Association, default_negotiator, \
from openid.dh import DiffieHellman
from import mkNonce, split as splitNonce
from openid.yadis.manager import Discovery
from openid import urinorm
__all__ = ['AuthRequest', 'Consumer', 'SuccessResponse',
'SetupNeededResponse', 'CancelResponse', 'FailureResponse',
def makeKVPost(request_message, server_url):
"""Make a Direct Request to an OpenID Provider and return the
result as a Message object.
@raises openid.fetchers.HTTPFetchingError: if an error is
encountered in making the HTTP post.
@rtype: L{openid.message.Message}
resp = fetchers.fetch(server_url, body=request_message.toURLEncoded())
# Process response in separate function that can be shared by async code.
return _httpResponseToMessage(resp, server_url)
def _httpResponseToMessage(response, server_url):
"""Adapt a POST response to a Message.
@type response: L{openid.fetchers.HTTPResponse}
@param response: Result of a POST to an OpenID endpoint.
@rtype: L{openid.message.Message}
@raises openid.fetchers.HTTPFetchingError: if the server returned a
status of other than 200 or 400.
@raises ServerError: if the server returned an OpenID error.
# Should this function be named Message.fromHTTPResponse instead?
response_message = Message.fromKVForm(response.body)
if response.status == 400:
raise ServerError.fromMessage(response_message)
elif response.status not in (200, 206):
fmt = 'bad status code from server %s: %s'
error_message = fmt % (server_url, response.status)
raise fetchers.HTTPFetchingError(error_message)
return response_message
class Consumer(object):
"""An OpenID consumer implementation that performs discovery and
does session management.
@ivar consumer: an instance of an object implementing the OpenID
protocol, but doing no discovery or session management.
@type consumer: GenericConsumer
@ivar session: A dictionary-like object representing the user's
session data. This is used for keeping state of the OpenID
transaction when the user is redirected to the server.
@cvar session_key_prefix: A string that is prepended to session
keys to ensure that they are unique. This variable may be
changed to suit your application.
session_key_prefix = "_openid_consumer_"
_token = 'last_token'
_discover = staticmethod(discover)
def __init__(self, session, store, consumer_class=None):
"""Initialize a Consumer instance.
You should create a new instance of the Consumer object with
every HTTP request that handles OpenID transactions.
@param session: See L{the session instance variable<openid.consumer.consumer.Consumer.session>}
@param store: an object that implements the interface in
C{L{}}. Several
implementations are provided, to cover common database
@type store: C{L{}}
@see: L{}
@see: L{}
self.session = session
if consumer_class is None:
consumer_class = GenericConsumer
self.consumer = consumer_class(store)
self._token_key = self.session_key_prefix + self._token
def begin(self, user_url, anonymous=False):
"""Start the OpenID authentication process. See steps 1-2 in
the overview at the top of this file.
@param user_url: Identity URL given by the user. This method
performs a textual transformation of the URL to try and
make sure it is normalized. For example, a user_url of will be normalized to
normalizing and resolving any redirects the server might
@type user_url: unicode
@param anonymous: Whether to make an anonymous request of the OpenID
provider. Such a request does not ask for an authorization
assertion for an OpenID identifier, but may be used with
extensions to pass other data. e.g. "I don't care who you are,
but I'd like to know your time zone."
@type anonymous: bool
@returns: An object containing the discovered information will
be returned, with a method for building a redirect URL to
the server, as described in step 3 of the overview. This
object may also be used to add extension arguments to the
request, using its
@returntype: L{AuthRequest<openid.consumer.consumer.AuthRequest>}
@raises when I fail to
find an OpenID server for this URL. If the C{yadis} package
is available, L{} is
an alias for C{}.
disco = Discovery(self.session, user_url, self.session_key_prefix)
service = disco.getNextService(self._discover)
except fetchers.HTTPFetchingError, why:
raise DiscoveryFailure(
'Error fetching XRDS document: %s' % (why[0],), None)
if service is None:
raise DiscoveryFailure(
'No usable OpenID services found for %s' % (user_url,), None)
return self.beginWithoutDiscovery(service, anonymous)
def beginWithoutDiscovery(self, service, anonymous=False):
"""Start OpenID verification without doing OpenID server
discovery. This method is used internally by Consumer.begin
after discovery is performed, and exists to provide an
interface for library users needing to perform their own
@param service: an OpenID service endpoint descriptor. This
object and factories for it are found in the
L{} module.
@type service:
@returns: an OpenID authentication request object.
@rtype: L{AuthRequest<openid.consumer.consumer.AuthRequest>}
@See: Openid.consumer.consumer.Consumer.begin
auth_req = self.consumer.begin(service)
self.session[self._token_key] = auth_req.endpoint
except ValueError, why:
raise ProtocolError(str(why))
return auth_req
def complete(self, query, current_url):
"""Called to interpret the server's response to an OpenID
request. It is called in step 4 of the flow described in the
consumer overview.
@param query: A dictionary of the query parameters for this
HTTP request.
@param current_url: The URL used to invoke the application.
Extract the URL from your application's web
request framework and specify it here to have it checked
against the openid.return_to value in the response. If
the return_to URL check fails, the status of the
completion will be FAILURE.
@returns: a subclass of Response. The type of response is
indicated by the status attribute, which will be one of
@see: L{SuccessResponse<openid.consumer.consumer.SuccessResponse>}
@see: L{CancelResponse<openid.consumer.consumer.CancelResponse>}
@see: L{SetupNeededResponse<openid.consumer.consumer.SetupNeededResponse>}
@see: L{FailureResponse<openid.consumer.consumer.FailureResponse>}
endpoint = self.session.get(self._token_key)
message = Message.fromPostArgs(query)
response = self.consumer.complete(message, endpoint, current_url)
del self.session[self._token_key]
except KeyError:
if (response.status in ['success', 'cancel'] and
response.identity_url is not None):
disco = Discovery(self.session,
# This is OK to do even if we did not do discovery in
# the first place.
return response
def setAssociationPreference(self, association_preferences):
"""Set the order in which association types/sessions should be
attempted. For instance, to only allow HMAC-SHA256
associations created with a DH-SHA256 association session:
>>> consumer.setAssociationPreference([('HMAC-SHA256', 'DH-SHA256')])
Any association type/association type pair that is not in this
list will not be attempted at all.
@param association_preferences: The list of allowed
(association type, association session type) pairs that
should be allowed for this consumer to use, in order from
most preferred to least preferred.
@type association_preferences: [(str, str)]
@returns: None
@see: C{L{openid.association.SessionNegotiator}}
self.consumer.negotiator = SessionNegotiator(association_preferences)
class DiffieHellmanSHA1ConsumerSession(object):
session_type = 'DH-SHA1'
hash_func = staticmethod(cryptutil.sha1)
secret_size = 20
allowed_assoc_types = ['HMAC-SHA1']
def __init__(self, dh=None):
if dh is None:
dh = DiffieHellman.fromDefaults()
self.dh = dh
def getRequest(self):
cpub = cryptutil.longToBase64(self.dh.public)
args = {'dh_consumer_public': cpub}
if not self.dh.usingDefaultValues():
'dh_modulus': cryptutil.longToBase64(self.dh.modulus),
'dh_gen': cryptutil.longToBase64(self.dh.generator),
return args
def extractSecret(self, response):
dh_server_public64 = response.getArg(
OPENID_NS, 'dh_server_public', no_default)
enc_mac_key64 = response.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'enc_mac_key', no_default)
dh_server_public = cryptutil.base64ToLong(dh_server_public64)
enc_mac_key = oidutil.fromBase64(enc_mac_key64)
return self.dh.xorSecret(dh_server_public, enc_mac_key, self.hash_func)
class DiffieHellmanSHA256ConsumerSession(DiffieHellmanSHA1ConsumerSession):
session_type = 'DH-SHA256'
hash_func = staticmethod(cryptutil.sha256)
secret_size = 32
allowed_assoc_types = ['HMAC-SHA256']
class PlainTextConsumerSession(object):
session_type = 'no-encryption'
allowed_assoc_types = ['HMAC-SHA1', 'HMAC-SHA256']
def getRequest(self):
return {}
def extractSecret(self, response):
mac_key64 = response.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'mac_key', no_default)
return oidutil.fromBase64(mac_key64)
class SetupNeededError(Exception):
"""Internally-used exception that indicates that an immediate-mode
request cancelled."""
def __init__(self, user_setup_url=None):
Exception.__init__(self, user_setup_url)
self.user_setup_url = user_setup_url
class ProtocolError(ValueError):
"""Exception that indicates that a message violated the
protocol. It is raised and caught internally to this file."""
class TypeURIMismatch(ProtocolError):
"""A protocol error arising from type URIs mismatching
def __init__(self, expected, endpoint):
ProtocolError.__init__(self, expected, endpoint)
self.expected = expected
self.endpoint = endpoint
def __str__(self):
s = '<%s.%s: Required type %s not found in %s for endpoint %s>' % (
self.__class__.__module__, self.__class__.__name__,
self.expected, self.endpoint.type_uris, self.endpoint)
return s
class ServerError(Exception):
"""Exception that is raised when the server returns a 400 response
code to a direct request."""
def __init__(self, error_text, error_code, message):
Exception.__init__(self, error_text)
self.error_text = error_text
self.error_code = error_code
self.message = message
def fromMessage(cls, message):
"""Generate a ServerError instance, extracting the error text
and the error code from the message."""
error_text = message.getArg(
OPENID_NS, 'error', '<no error message supplied>')
error_code = message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'error_code')
return cls(error_text, error_code, message)
fromMessage = classmethod(fromMessage)
class GenericConsumer(object):
"""This is the implementation of the common logic for OpenID
consumers. It is unaware of the application in which it is
@ivar negotiator: An object that controls the kind of associations
that the consumer makes. It defaults to
C{L{openid.association.default_negotiator}}. Assign a
different negotiator to it if you have specific requirements
for how associations are made.
@type negotiator: C{L{openid.association.SessionNegotiator}}
# The name of the query parameter that gets added to the return_to
# URL when using OpenID1. You can change this value if you want or
# need a different name, but don't make it start with openid,
# because it's not a standard protocol thing for OpenID1. For
# OpenID2, the library will take care of the nonce using standard
# OpenID query parameter names.
openid1_nonce_query_arg_name = 'janrain_nonce'
# Another query parameter that gets added to the return_to for
# OpenID 1; if the user's session state is lost, use this claimed
# identifier to do discovery when verifying the response.
openid1_return_to_identifier_name = 'openid1_claimed_id'
session_types = {
_discover = staticmethod(discover)
def __init__(self, store): = store
self.negotiator = default_negotiator.copy()
def begin(self, service_endpoint):
"""Create an AuthRequest object for the specified
service_endpoint. This method will create an association if
if is None:
assoc = None
assoc = self._getAssociation(service_endpoint)
request = AuthRequest(service_endpoint, assoc)
request.return_to_args[self.openid1_nonce_query_arg_name] = mkNonce()
if request.message.isOpenID1():
request.return_to_args[self.openid1_return_to_identifier_name] = \
return request
def complete(self, message, endpoint, return_to):
"""Process the OpenID message, using the specified endpoint
and return_to URL as context. This method will handle any
OpenID message that is sent to the return_to URL.
mode = message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'mode', '<No mode set>')
modeMethod = getattr(self, '_complete_' + mode,
return modeMethod(message, endpoint, return_to)
def _complete_cancel(self, message, endpoint, _):
return CancelResponse(endpoint)
def _complete_error(self, message, endpoint, _):
error = message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'error')
contact = message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'contact')
reference = message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'reference')
return FailureResponse(endpoint, error, contact=contact,
def _complete_setup_needed(self, message, endpoint, _):
if not message.isOpenID2():
return self._completeInvalid(message, endpoint, _)
user_setup_url = message.getArg(OPENID2_NS, 'user_setup_url')
return SetupNeededResponse(endpoint, user_setup_url)
def _complete_id_res(self, message, endpoint, return_to):
except SetupNeededError, why:
return SetupNeededResponse(endpoint, why.user_setup_url)
return self._doIdRes(message, endpoint, return_to)
except (ProtocolError, DiscoveryFailure), why:
return FailureResponse(endpoint, why[0])
def _completeInvalid(self, message, endpoint, _):
mode = message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'mode', '<No mode set>')
return FailureResponse(endpoint,
'Invalid openid.mode: %r' % (mode,))
def _checkReturnTo(self, message, return_to):
"""Check an OpenID message and its openid.return_to value
against a return_to URL from an application. Return True on
success, False on failure.
# Check the openid.return_to args against args in the original
# message.
except ProtocolError, why:
logging.exception("Verifying return_to arguments: %s" % (why[0],))
return False
# Check the return_to base URL against the one in the message.
msg_return_to = message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'return_to')
# The URL scheme, authority, and path MUST be the same between
# the two URLs.
app_parts = urlparse(urinorm.urinorm(return_to))
msg_parts = urlparse(urinorm.urinorm(msg_return_to))
# (addressing scheme, network location, path) must be equal in
# both URLs.
for part in range(0, 3):
if app_parts[part] != msg_parts[part]:
return False
return True
_makeKVPost = staticmethod(makeKVPost)
def _checkSetupNeeded(self, message):
"""Check an id_res message to see if it is a
checkid_immediate cancel response.
@raises SetupNeededError: if it is a checkid_immediate cancellation
# In OpenID 1, we check to see if this is a cancel from
# immediate mode by the presence of the user_setup_url
# parameter.
if message.isOpenID1():
user_setup_url = message.getArg(OPENID1_NS, 'user_setup_url')
if user_setup_url is not None:
raise SetupNeededError(user_setup_url)
def _doIdRes(self, message, endpoint, return_to):
"""Handle id_res responses that are not cancellations of
immediate mode requests.
@param message: the response paramaters.
@param endpoint: the discovered endpoint object. May be None.
@raises ProtocolError: If the message contents are not
well-formed according to the OpenID specification. This
includes missing fields or not signing fields that should
be signed.
@raises DiscoveryFailure: If the subject of the id_res message
does not match the supplied endpoint, and discovery on the
identifier in the message fails (this should only happen
when using OpenID 2)
@returntype: L{Response}
# Checks for presence of appropriate fields (and checks
# signed list fields)
if not self._checkReturnTo(message, return_to):
raise ProtocolError(
"return_to does not match return URL. Expected %r, got %r"
% (return_to, message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'return_to')))
# Verify discovery information:
endpoint = self._verifyDiscoveryResults(message, endpoint)"Received id_res response from %s using association %s" %
message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'assoc_handle')))
self._idResCheckSignature(message, endpoint.server_url)
# Will raise a ProtocolError if the nonce is bad
self._idResCheckNonce(message, endpoint)
signed_list_str = message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'signed', no_default)
signed_list = signed_list_str.split(',')
signed_fields = ["openid." + s for s in signed_list]
return SuccessResponse(endpoint, message, signed_fields)
def _idResGetNonceOpenID1(self, message, endpoint):
"""Extract the nonce from an OpenID 1 response. Return the
nonce from the BARE_NS since we independently check the
return_to arguments are the same as those in the response
See the openid1_nonce_query_arg_name class variable
@returns: The nonce as a string or None
return message.getArg(BARE_NS, self.openid1_nonce_query_arg_name)
def _idResCheckNonce(self, message, endpoint):
if message.isOpenID1():
# This indicates that the nonce was generated by the consumer
nonce = self._idResGetNonceOpenID1(message, endpoint)
server_url = ''
nonce = message.getArg(OPENID2_NS, 'response_nonce')
server_url = endpoint.server_url
if nonce is None:
raise ProtocolError('Nonce missing from response')
timestamp, salt = splitNonce(nonce)
except ValueError, why:
raise ProtocolError('Malformed nonce: %s' % (why[0],))
if ( is not None and
not, timestamp, salt)):
raise ProtocolError('Nonce already used or out of range')
def _idResCheckSignature(self, message, server_url):
assoc_handle = message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'assoc_handle')
if is None:
assoc = None
assoc =, assoc_handle)
if assoc:
if assoc.getExpiresIn() <= 0:
# XXX: It might be a good idea sometimes to re-start the
# authentication with a new association. Doing it
# automatically opens the possibility for
# denial-of-service by a server that just returns expired
# associations (or really short-lived associations)
raise ProtocolError(
'Association with %s expired' % (server_url,))
if not assoc.checkMessageSignature(message):
raise ProtocolError('Bad signature')
# It's not an association we know about. Stateless mode is our
# only possible path for recovery.
# XXX - async framework will not want to block on this call to
# _checkAuth.
if not self._checkAuth(message, server_url):
raise ProtocolError('Server denied check_authentication')
def _idResCheckForFields(self, message):
# XXX: this should be handled by the code that processes the
# response (that is, if a field is missing, we should not have
# to explicitly check that it's present, just make sure that
# the fields are actually being used by the rest of the code
# in tests). Although, which fields are signed does need to be
# checked somewhere.
basic_fields = ['return_to', 'assoc_handle', 'sig', 'signed']
basic_sig_fields = ['return_to', 'identity']
require_fields = {
OPENID2_NS: basic_fields + ['op_endpoint'],
OPENID1_NS: basic_fields + ['identity'],
require_sigs = {
OPENID2_NS: basic_sig_fields + ['response_nonce',
OPENID1_NS: basic_sig_fields,
for field in require_fields[message.getOpenIDNamespace()]:
if not message.hasKey(OPENID_NS, field):
raise ProtocolError('Missing required field %r' % (field,))
signed_list_str = message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'signed', no_default)
signed_list = signed_list_str.split(',')
for field in require_sigs[message.getOpenIDNamespace()]:
# Field is present and not in signed list
if message.hasKey(OPENID_NS, field) and field not in signed_list:
raise ProtocolError('"%s" not signed' % (field,))
def _verifyReturnToArgs(query):
"""Verify that the arguments in the return_to URL are present in this
message = Message.fromPostArgs(query)
return_to = message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'return_to')
if return_to is None:
raise ProtocolError('Response has no return_to')
parsed_url = urlparse(return_to)
rt_query = parsed_url[4]
parsed_args = cgi.parse_qsl(rt_query)
for rt_key, rt_value in parsed_args:
value = query[rt_key]
if rt_value != value:
format = ("parameter %s value %r does not match "
"return_to's value %r")
raise ProtocolError(format % (rt_key, value, rt_value))
except KeyError:
format = "return_to parameter %s absent from query %r"
raise ProtocolError(format % (rt_key, query))
# Make sure all non-OpenID arguments in the response are also
# in the signed return_to.
bare_args = message.getArgs(BARE_NS)
for pair in bare_args.iteritems():
if pair not in parsed_args:
raise ProtocolError("Parameter %s not in return_to URL" % (pair[0],))
_verifyReturnToArgs = staticmethod(_verifyReturnToArgs)
def _verifyDiscoveryResults(self, resp_msg, endpoint=None):
Extract the information from an OpenID assertion message and
verify it against the original
@param endpoint: The endpoint that resulted from doing discovery
@param resp_msg: The id_res message object
@returns: the verified endpoint
if resp_msg.getOpenIDNamespace() == OPENID2_NS:
return self._verifyDiscoveryResultsOpenID2(resp_msg, endpoint)
return self._verifyDiscoveryResultsOpenID1(resp_msg, endpoint)
def _verifyDiscoveryResultsOpenID2(self, resp_msg, endpoint):
to_match = OpenIDServiceEndpoint()
to_match.type_uris = [OPENID_2_0_TYPE]
to_match.claimed_id = resp_msg.getArg(OPENID2_NS, 'claimed_id')
to_match.local_id = resp_msg.getArg(OPENID2_NS, 'identity')
# Raises a KeyError when the op_endpoint is not present
to_match.server_url = resp_msg.getArg(
OPENID2_NS, 'op_endpoint', no_default)
# claimed_id and identifier must both be present or both
# be absent
if (to_match.claimed_id is None and
to_match.local_id is not None):
raise ProtocolError(
'openid.identity is present without openid.claimed_id')
elif (to_match.claimed_id is not None and
to_match.local_id is None):
raise ProtocolError(
'openid.claimed_id is present without openid.identity')
# This is a response without identifiers, so there's really no
# checking that we can do, so return an endpoint that's for
# the specified `openid.op_endpoint'
elif to_match.claimed_id is None:
return OpenIDServiceEndpoint.fromOPEndpointURL(to_match.server_url)
# The claimed ID doesn't match, so we have to do discovery
# again. This covers not using sessions, OP identifier
# endpoints and responses that didn't match the original
# request.
if not endpoint:'No pre-discovered information supplied.')
endpoint = self._discoverAndVerify(to_match.claimed_id, [to_match])
# The claimed ID matches, so we use the endpoint that we
# discovered in initiation. This should be the most common
# case.
self._verifyDiscoverySingle(endpoint, to_match)
except ProtocolError, e:
"Error attempting to use stored discovery information: " +
str(e))"Attempting discovery to verify endpoint")
endpoint = self._discoverAndVerify(
to_match.claimed_id, [to_match])
# The endpoint we return should have the claimed ID from the
# message we just verified, fragment and all.
if endpoint.claimed_id != to_match.claimed_id:
endpoint = copy.copy(endpoint)
endpoint.claimed_id = to_match.claimed_id
return endpoint
def _verifyDiscoveryResultsOpenID1(self, resp_msg, endpoint):
claimed_id = resp_msg.getArg(BARE_NS, self.openid1_return_to_identifier_name)
if endpoint is None and claimed_id is None:
raise RuntimeError(
'When using OpenID 1, the claimed ID must be supplied, '
'either by passing it through as a return_to parameter '
'or by using a session, and supplied to the GenericConsumer '
'as the argument to complete()')
elif endpoint is not None and claimed_id is None:
claimed_id = endpoint.claimed_id
to_match = OpenIDServiceEndpoint()
to_match.type_uris = [OPENID_1_1_TYPE]
to_match.local_id = resp_msg.getArg(OPENID1_NS, 'identity')
# Restore delegate information from the initiation phase
to_match.claimed_id = claimed_id
if to_match.local_id is None:
raise ProtocolError('Missing required field openid.identity')
to_match_1_0 = copy.copy(to_match)
to_match_1_0.type_uris = [OPENID_1_0_TYPE]
if endpoint is not None:
self._verifyDiscoverySingle(endpoint, to_match)
except TypeURIMismatch:
self._verifyDiscoverySingle(endpoint, to_match_1_0)
except ProtocolError, e:
logging.exception("Error attempting to use stored discovery information: " +
str(e))"Attempting discovery to verify endpoint")
return endpoint
# Endpoint is either bad (failed verification) or None
return self._discoverAndVerify(claimed_id, [to_match, to_match_1_0])
def _verifyDiscoverySingle(self, endpoint, to_match):
"""Verify that the given endpoint matches the information
extracted from the OpenID assertion, and raise an exception if
there is a mismatch.
@type endpoint:
@type to_match:
@rtype: NoneType
@raises ProtocolError: when the endpoint does not match the
discovered information.
# Every type URI that's in the to_match endpoint has to be
# present in the discovered endpoint.
for type_uri in to_match.type_uris:
if not endpoint.usesExtension(type_uri):
raise TypeURIMismatch(type_uri, endpoint)
# Fragments do not influence discovery, so we can't compare a
# claimed identifier with a fragment to discovered information.
defragged_claimed_id, _ = urldefrag(to_match.claimed_id)
if defragged_claimed_id != endpoint.claimed_id:
raise ProtocolError(
'Claimed ID does not match (different subjects!), '
'Expected %s, got %s' %
(defragged_claimed_id, endpoint.claimed_id))
if to_match.getLocalID() != endpoint.getLocalID():
raise ProtocolError('local_id mismatch. Expected %s, got %s' %
(to_match.getLocalID(), endpoint.getLocalID()))
# If the server URL is None, this must be an OpenID 1
# response, because op_endpoint is a required parameter in
# OpenID 2. In that case, we don't actually care what the
# discovered server_url is, because signature checking or
# check_auth should take care of that check for us.
if to_match.server_url is None:
assert to_match.preferredNamespace() == OPENID1_NS, (
"""The code calling this must ensure that OpenID 2
responses have a non-none `openid.op_endpoint' and
that it is set as the `server_url' attribute of the
`to_match' endpoint.""")
elif to_match.server_url != endpoint.server_url:
raise ProtocolError('OP Endpoint mismatch. Expected %s, got %s' %
(to_match.server_url, endpoint.server_url))
def _discoverAndVerify(self, claimed_id, to_match_endpoints):
"""Given an endpoint object created from the information in an
OpenID response, perform discovery and verify the discovery
results, returning the matching endpoint that is the result of
doing that discovery.
@type to_match:
@param to_match: The endpoint whose information we're confirming
@returns: The result of performing discovery on the claimed
identifier in `to_match'
@raises DiscoveryFailure: when discovery fails.
"""'Performing discovery on %s' % (claimed_id,))
_, services = self._discover(claimed_id)
if not services:
raise DiscoveryFailure('No OpenID information found at %s' %
(claimed_id,), None)
return self._verifyDiscoveredServices(claimed_id, services,
def _verifyDiscoveredServices(self, claimed_id, services, to_match_endpoints):
"""See @L{_discoverAndVerify}"""
# Search the services resulting from discovery to find one
# that matches the information from the assertion
failure_messages = []
for endpoint in services:
for to_match_endpoint in to_match_endpoints:
endpoint, to_match_endpoint)
except ProtocolError, why:
# It matches, so discover verification has
# succeeded. Return this endpoint.
return endpoint
logging.error('Discovery verification failure for %s' %
for failure_message in failure_messages:
logging.error(' * Endpoint mismatch: ' + failure_message)
raise DiscoveryFailure(
'No matching endpoint found after discovering %s'
% (claimed_id,), None)
def _checkAuth(self, message, server_url):
"""Make a check_authentication request to verify this message.
@returns: True if the request is valid.
@rtype: bool
"""'Using OpenID check_authentication')
request = self._createCheckAuthRequest(message)
if request is None:
return False
response = self._makeKVPost(request, server_url)
except (fetchers.HTTPFetchingError, ServerError), e:
logging.exception('check_authentication failed: %s' % (e[0],))
return False
return self._processCheckAuthResponse(response, server_url)
def _createCheckAuthRequest(self, message):
"""Generate a check_authentication request message given an
id_res message.
signed = message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'signed')
if signed:
for k in signed.split(','):
val = message.getAliasedArg(k)
# Signed value is missing
if val is None:'Missing signed field %r' % (k,))
return None
check_auth_message = message.copy()
check_auth_message.setArg(OPENID_NS, 'mode', 'check_authentication')
return check_auth_message
def _processCheckAuthResponse(self, response, server_url):
"""Process the response message from a check_authentication
request, invalidating associations if requested.
is_valid = response.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'is_valid', 'false')
invalidate_handle = response.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'invalidate_handle')
if invalidate_handle is not None:
'Received "invalidate_handle" from server %s' % (server_url,))
if is None:
logging.error('Unexpectedly got invalidate_handle without '
'a store!')
else:, invalidate_handle)
if is_valid == 'true':
return True
logging.error('Server responds that checkAuth call is not valid')
return False
def _getAssociation(self, endpoint):
"""Get an association for the endpoint's server_url.
First try seeing if we have a good association in the
store. If we do not, then attempt to negotiate an association
with the server.
If we negotiate a good association, it will get stored.
@returns: A valid association for the endpoint's server_url or None
@rtype: openid.association.Association or NoneType
assoc =
if assoc is None or assoc.expiresIn <= 0:
assoc = self._negotiateAssociation(endpoint)
if assoc is not None:, assoc)
return assoc
def _negotiateAssociation(self, endpoint):
"""Make association requests to the server, attempting to
create a new association.
@returns: a new association object
@rtype: L{openid.association.Association}
# Get our preferred session/association type from the negotiatior.
assoc_type, session_type = self.negotiator.getAllowedType()
assoc = self._requestAssociation(
endpoint, assoc_type, session_type)
except ServerError, why:
supportedTypes = self._extractSupportedAssociationType(why,
if supportedTypes is not None:
assoc_type, session_type = supportedTypes
# Attempt to create an association from the assoc_type
# and session_type that the server told us it
# supported.
assoc = self._requestAssociation(
endpoint, assoc_type, session_type)
except ServerError, why:
# Do not keep trying, since it rejected the
# association type that it told us to use.
logging.error('Server %s refused its suggested association '
'type: session_type=%s, assoc_type=%s'
% (endpoint.server_url, session_type,
return None
return assoc
return assoc
def _extractSupportedAssociationType(self, server_error, endpoint,
"""Handle ServerErrors resulting from association requests.
@returns: If server replied with an C{unsupported-type} error,
return a tuple of supported C{association_type}, C{session_type}.
Otherwise logs the error and returns None.
@rtype: tuple or None
# Any error message whose code is not 'unsupported-type'
# should be considered a total failure.
if server_error.error_code != 'unsupported-type' or \
'Server error when requesting an association from %r: %s'
% (endpoint.server_url, server_error.error_text))
return None
# The server didn't like the association/session type
# that we sent, and it sent us back a message that
# might tell us how to handle it.
'Unsupported association type %s: %s' % (assoc_type,
# Extract the session_type and assoc_type from the
# error message
assoc_type = server_error.message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'assoc_type')
session_type = server_error.message.getArg(OPENID_NS, 'session_type')
if assoc_type is None or session_type is None:
logging.error('Server responded with unsupported association '
'session but did not supply a fallback.')
return None
elif not self.negotiator.isAllowed(assoc_type, session_type):
fmt = ('Server sent unsupported session/association type: '
'session_type=%s, assoc_type=%s')
logging.error(fmt % (session_type, assoc_type))
return None
return assoc_type, session_type
def _requestAssociation(self, endpoint, assoc_type, session_type):
"""Make and process one association request to this endpoint's
OP endpoint URL.
@returns: An association object or None if the association
processing failed.
@raises ServerError: when the remote OpenID server returns an error.
assoc_session, args = self._createAssociateRequest(
endpoint, assoc_type, session_type)
response = self._makeKVPost(args, endpoint.server_url)
except fetchers.HTTPFetchingError, why:
logging.exception('openid.associate request failed: %s' % (why[0],))
return None
assoc = self._extractAssociation(response, assoc_session)
except KeyError, why:
logging.exception('Missing required parameter in response from %s: %s'
% (endpoint.server_url, why[0]))
return None
except ProtocolError, why:
logging.exception('Protocol error parsing response from %s: %s' % (
endpoint.server_url, why[0]))
return None
return assoc
def _createAssociateRequest(self, endpoint, assoc_type, session_type):
"""Create an association request for the given assoc_type and
@param endpoint: The endpoint whose server_url will be
queried. The important bit about the endpoint is whether
it's in compatiblity mode (OpenID 1.1)
@param assoc_type: The association type that the request
should ask for.
@type assoc_type: str
@param session_type: The session type that should be used in
the association request. The session_type is used to
create an association session object, and that session
object is asked for any additional fields that it needs to
add to the request.
@type session_type: str
@returns: a pair of the association session object and the
request message that will be sent to the server.
@rtype: (association session type (depends on session_type),
session_type_class = self.session_types[session_type]
assoc_session = session_type_class()
args = {
'mode': 'associate',
'assoc_type': assoc_type,
if not endpoint.compatibilityMode():
args['ns'] = OPENID2_NS
# Leave out the session type if we're in compatibility mode
# *and* it's no-encryption.
if (not endpoint.compatibilityMode() or
assoc_session.session_type != 'no-encryption'):
args['session_type'] = assoc_session.session_type
message = Message.fromOpenIDArgs(args)
return assoc_session, message
def _getOpenID1SessionType(self, assoc_response):
"""Given an association response message, extract the OpenID
1.X session type.
This function mostly takes care of the 'no-encryption' default
behavior in OpenID 1.
If the association type is plain-text, this function will
return 'no-encryption'
@returns: The association type for this message
@rtype: str
@raises KeyError: when the session_type field is absent.
# If it's an OpenID 1 message, allow session_type to default
# to None (which signifies "no-encryption")
session_type = assoc_response.getArg(OPENID1_NS, 'session_type')
# Handle the differences between no-encryption association
# respones in OpenID 1 and 2:
# no-encryption is not really a valid session type for
# OpenID 1, but we'll accept it anyway, while issuing a
# warning.
if session_type == 'no-encryption':
logging.warn('OpenID server sent "no-encryption"'
'for OpenID 1.X')
# Missing or empty session type is the way to flag a
# 'no-encryption' response. Change the session type to
# 'no-encryption' so that it can be handled in the same
# way as OpenID 2 'no-encryption' respones.
elif session_type == '' or session_type is None:
session_type = 'no-encryption'
return session_type
def _extractAssociation(self, assoc_response, assoc_session):
"""Attempt to extract an association from the response, given
the association response message and the established
association session.
@param assoc_response: The association response message from
the server
@type assoc_response: openid.message.Message
@param assoc_session: The association session object that was
used when making the request
@type assoc_session: depends on the session type of the request
@raises ProtocolError: when data is malformed
@raises KeyError: when a field is missing
@rtype: openid.association.Association
# Extract the common fields from the response, raising an
# exception if they are not found
assoc_type = assoc_response.getArg(
OPENID_NS, 'assoc_type', no_default)
assoc_handle = assoc_response.getArg(
OPENID_NS, 'assoc_handle', no_default)
# expires_in is a base-10 string. The Python parsing will
# accept literals that have whitespace around them and will
# accept negative values. Neither of these are really in-spec,
# but we think it's OK to accept them.
expires_in_str = assoc_response.getArg(
OPENID_NS, 'expires_in', no_default)
expires_in = int(expires_in_str)
except ValueError, why:
raise ProtocolError('Invalid expires_in field: %s' % (why[0],))
# OpenID 1 has funny association session behaviour.
if assoc_response.isOpenID1():
session_type = self._getOpenID1SessionType(assoc_response)
session_type = assoc_response.getArg(
OPENID2_NS, 'session_type', no_default)
# Session type mismatch
if assoc_session.session_type != session_type:
if (assoc_response.isOpenID1() and
session_type == 'no-encryption'):
# In OpenID 1, any association request can result in a
# 'no-encryption' association response. Setting
# assoc_session to a new no-encryption session should
# make the rest of this function work properly for
# that case.
assoc_session = PlainTextConsumerSession()
# Any other mismatch, regardless of protocol version
# results in the failure of the association session
# altogether.
fmt = 'Session type mismatch. Expected %r, got %r'
message = fmt % (assoc_session.session_type, session_type)
raise ProtocolError(message)
# Make sure assoc_type is valid for session_type
if assoc_type not in assoc_session.allowed_assoc_types:
fmt = 'Unsupported assoc_type for session %s returned: %s'
raise ProtocolError(fmt % (assoc_session.session_type, assoc_type))
# Delegate to the association session to extract the secret
# from the response, however is appropriate for that session
# type.
secret = assoc_session.extractSecret(assoc_response)
except ValueError, why:
fmt = 'Malformed response for %s session: %s'
raise ProtocolError(fmt % (assoc_session.session_type, why[0]))
return Association.fromExpiresIn(
expires_in, assoc_handle, secret, assoc_type)
class AuthRequest(object):
"""An object that holds the state necessary for generating an
OpenID authentication request. This object holds the association
with the server and the discovered information with which the
request will be made.
It is separate from the consumer because you may wish to add
things to the request before sending it on its way to the
server. It also has serialization options that let you encode the
authentication request as a URL or as a form POST.
def __init__(self, endpoint, assoc):
Creates a new AuthRequest object. This just stores each
argument in an appropriately named field.
Users of this library should not create instances of this
class. Instances of this class are created by the library
when needed.
self.assoc = assoc
self.endpoint = endpoint
self.return_to_args = {}
self.message = Message(endpoint.preferredNamespace())
self._anonymous = False
def setAnonymous(self, is_anonymous):
"""Set whether this request should be made anonymously. If a
request is anonymous, the identifier will not be sent in the
request. This is only useful if you are making another kind of
request with an extension in this request.
Anonymous requests are not allowed when the request is made
with OpenID 1.
@raises ValueError: when attempting to set an OpenID1 request
as anonymous
if is_anonymous and self.message.isOpenID1():
raise ValueError('OpenID 1 requests MUST include the '
'identifier in the request')
self._anonymous = is_anonymous
def addExtension(self, extension_request):
"""Add an extension to this checkid request.
@param extension_request: An object that implements the
extension interface for adding arguments to an OpenID
def addExtensionArg(self, namespace, key, value):
"""Add an extension argument to this OpenID authentication
Use caution when adding arguments, because they will be
URL-escaped and appended to the redirect URL, which can easily
get quite long.
@param namespace: The namespace for the extension. For
example, the simple registration extension uses the
namespace C{sreg}.
@type namespace: str
@param key: The key within the extension namespace. For
example, the nickname field in the simple registration
extension's key is C{nickname}.
@type key: str
@param value: The value to provide to the server for this
@type value: str
self.message.setArg(namespace, key, value)
def getMessage(self, realm, return_to=None, immediate=False):
"""Produce a L{openid.message.Message} representing this request.
@param realm: The URL (or URL pattern) that identifies your
web site to the user when she is authorizing it.
@type realm: str
@param return_to: The URL that the OpenID provider will send the
user back to after attempting to verify her identity.
Not specifying a return_to URL means that the user will not
be returned to the site issuing the request upon its
@type return_to: str
@param immediate: If True, the OpenID provider is to send back
a response immediately, useful for behind-the-scenes
authentication attempts. Otherwise the OpenID provider
may engage the user before providing a response. This is
the default case, as the user may need to provide
credentials or approve the request before a positive
response can be sent.
@type immediate: bool
@returntype: L{openid.message.Message}
if return_to:
return_to = oidutil.appendArgs(return_to, self.return_to_args)
elif immediate:
raise ValueError(
'"return_to" is mandatory when using "checkid_immediate"')
elif self.message.isOpenID1():
raise ValueError('"return_to" is mandatory for OpenID 1 requests')
elif self.return_to_args:
raise ValueError('extra "return_to" arguments were specified, '
'but no return_to was specified')
if immediate:
mode = 'checkid_immediate'
mode = 'checkid_setup'
message = self.message.copy()
if message.isOpenID1():
realm_key = 'trust_root'
realm_key = 'realm'
if not self._anonymous:
if self.endpoint.isOPIdentifier():
# This will never happen when we're in compatibility
# mode, as long as isOPIdentifier() returns False
# whenever preferredNamespace() returns OPENID1_NS.
claimed_id = request_identity = IDENTIFIER_SELECT
request_identity = self.endpoint.getLocalID()
claimed_id = self.endpoint.claimed_id
# This is true for both OpenID 1 and 2
message.setArg(OPENID_NS, 'identity', request_identity)
if message.isOpenID2():
message.setArg(OPENID2_NS, 'claimed_id', claimed_id)
if self.assoc:
message.setArg(OPENID_NS, 'assoc_handle', self.assoc.handle)
assoc_log_msg = 'with association %s' % (self.assoc.handle,)
assoc_log_msg = 'using stateless mode.'"Generated %s request to %s %s" %
(mode, self.endpoint.server_url, assoc_log_msg))
return message
def redirectURL(self, realm, return_to=None, immediate=False):
"""Returns a URL with an encoded OpenID request.
The resulting URL is the OpenID provider's endpoint URL with
parameters appended as query arguments. You should redirect
the user agent to this URL.
OpenID 2.0 endpoints also accept POST requests, see
C{L{shouldSendRedirect}} and C{L{formMarkup}}.
@param realm: The URL (or URL pattern) that identifies your
web site to the user when she is authorizing it.
@type realm: str
@param return_to: The URL that the OpenID provider will send the
user back to after attempting to verify her identity.
Not specifying a return_to URL means that the user will not
be returned to the site issuing the request upon its
@type return_to: str
@param immediate: If True, the OpenID provider is to send back
a response immediately, useful for behind-the-scenes
authentication attempts. Otherwise the OpenID provider
may engage the user before providing a response. This is
the default case, as the user may need to provide
credentials or approve the request before a positive
response can be sent.
@type immediate: bool
@returns: The URL to redirect the user agent to.
@returntype: str
message = self.getMessage(realm, return_to, immediate)
return message.toURL(self.endpoint.server_url)
def formMarkup(self, realm, return_to=None, immediate=False,
"""Get html for a form to submit this request to the IDP.
@param form_tag_attrs: Dictionary of attributes to be added to
the form tag. 'accept-charset' and 'enctype' have defaults
that can be overridden. If a value is supplied for
'action' or 'method', it will be replaced.
@type form_tag_attrs: {unicode: unicode}
message = self.getMessage(realm, return_to, immediate)
return message.toFormMarkup(self.endpoint.server_url,
def htmlMarkup(self, realm, return_to=None, immediate=False,
"""Get an autosubmitting HTML page that submits this request to the
IDP. This is just a wrapper for formMarkup.
@see: formMarkup
@returns: str
return oidutil.autoSubmitHTML(self.formMarkup(realm,
def shouldSendRedirect(self):
"""Should this OpenID authentication request be sent as a HTTP
redirect or as a POST (form submission)?
@rtype: bool
return self.endpoint.compatibilityMode()
FAILURE = 'failure'
SUCCESS = 'success'
CANCEL = 'cancel'
SETUP_NEEDED = 'setup_needed'
class Response(object):
status = None
def setEndpoint(self, endpoint):
self.endpoint = endpoint
if endpoint is None:
self.identity_url = None
self.identity_url = endpoint.claimed_id
def getDisplayIdentifier(self):
"""Return the display identifier for this response.
The display identifier is related to the Claimed Identifier, but the
two are not always identical. The display identifier is something the
user should recognize as what they entered, whereas the response's
claimed identifier (in the L{identity_url} attribute) may have extra
information for better persistence.
URLs will be stripped of their fragments for display. XRIs will
display the human-readable identifier (i-name) instead of the
persistent identifier (i-number).
Use the display identifier in your user interface. Use
L{identity_url} for querying your database or authorization server.
if self.endpoint is not None:
return self.endpoint.getDisplayIdentifier()
return None
class SuccessResponse(Response):
"""A response with a status of SUCCESS. Indicates that this request is a
successful acknowledgement from the OpenID server that the
supplied URL is, indeed controlled by the requesting agent.
@ivar identity_url: The identity URL that has been authenticated; the Claimed Identifier.
See also L{getDisplayIdentifier}.
@ivar endpoint: The endpoint that authenticated the identifier. You
may access other discovered information related to this endpoint,
such as the CanonicalID of an XRI, through this object.
@type endpoint: L{OpenIDServiceEndpoint<>}
@ivar signed_fields: The arguments in the server's response that
were signed and verified.
@cvar status: SUCCESS
status = SUCCESS
def __init__(self, endpoint, message, signed_fields=None):
# Don't use setEndpoint, because endpoint should never be None
# for a successfull transaction.
self.endpoint = endpoint
self.identity_url = endpoint.claimed_id
self.message = message
if signed_fields is None:
signed_fields = []
self.signed_fields = signed_fields
def isOpenID1(self):
"""Was this authentication response an OpenID 1 authentication
return self.message.isOpenID1()
def isSigned(self, ns_uri, ns_key):
"""Return whether a particular key is signed, regardless of
its namespace alias
return self.message.getKey(ns_uri, ns_key) in self.signed_fields
def getSigned(self, ns_uri, ns_key, default=None):
"""Return the specified signed field if available,
otherwise return default
if self.isSigned(ns_uri, ns_key):
return self.message.getArg(ns_uri, ns_key, default)
return default
def getSignedNS(self, ns_uri):
"""Get signed arguments from the response message. Return a
dict of all arguments in the specified namespace. If any of
the arguments are not signed, return None.
msg_args = self.message.getArgs(ns_uri)
for key in msg_args.iterkeys():
if not self.isSigned(ns_uri, key):"SuccessResponse.getSignedNS: (%s, %s) not signed."
% (ns_uri, key))
return None
return msg_args
def extensionResponse(self, namespace_uri, require_signed):
"""Return response arguments in the specified namespace.
@param namespace_uri: The namespace URI of the arguments to be
@param require_signed: True if the arguments should be among
those signed in the response, False if you don't care.
If require_signed is True and the arguments are not signed,
return None.
if require_signed:
return self.getSignedNS(namespace_uri)
return self.message.getArgs(namespace_uri)
def getReturnTo(self):
"""Get the openid.return_to argument from this response.
This is useful for verifying that this request was initiated
by this consumer.
@returns: The return_to URL supplied to the server on the
initial request, or C{None} if the response did not contain
an C{openid.return_to} argument.
@returntype: str
return self.getSigned(OPENID_NS, 'return_to')
def __eq__(self, other):
return (
(self.endpoint == other.endpoint) and
(self.identity_url == other.identity_url) and
(self.message == other.message) and
(self.signed_fields == other.signed_fields) and
(self.status == other.status))
def __ne__(self, other):
return not (self == other)
def __repr__(self):
return '<%s.%s id=%r signed=%r>' % (
self.identity_url, self.signed_fields)
class FailureResponse(Response):
"""A response with a status of FAILURE. Indicates that the OpenID
protocol has failed. This could be locally or remotely triggered.
@ivar identity_url: The identity URL for which authenitcation was
attempted, if it can be determined. Otherwise, None.
@ivar message: A message indicating why the request failed, if one
is supplied. otherwise, None.
@cvar status: FAILURE
status = FAILURE
def __init__(self, endpoint, message=None, contact=None,
self.message = message = contact
self.reference = reference
def __repr__(self):
return "<%s.%s id=%r message=%r>" % (
self.__class__.__module__, self.__class__.__name__,
self.identity_url, self.message)
class CancelResponse(Response):
"""A response with a status of CANCEL. Indicates that the user
cancelled the OpenID authentication request.
@ivar identity_url: The identity URL for which authenitcation was
attempted, if it can be determined. Otherwise, None.
@cvar status: CANCEL
status = CANCEL
def __init__(self, endpoint):
class SetupNeededResponse(Response):
"""A response with a status of SETUP_NEEDED. Indicates that the
request was in immediate mode, and the server is unable to
authenticate the user without further interaction.
@ivar identity_url: The identity URL for which authenitcation was
@ivar setup_url: A URL that can be used to send the user to the
server to set up for authentication. The user should be
redirected in to the setup_url, either in the current window
or in a new browser window. C{None} in OpenID 2.0.
@cvar status: SETUP_NEEDED
def __init__(self, endpoint, setup_url=None):
self.setup_url = setup_url