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Small web server for Arduino, fits in 10KB ROM, less than 512 bytes RAM

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README.md

Arduino TinyWebServer

A small web server for Arduino.

Check out this video demonstrating what you can do with it:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qZXKk6nCYuM

You can read up on TinyWebServer's history here:

http://www.webweavertech.com/ovidiu/weblog/archives/000484.html

http://www.webweavertech.com/ovidiu/weblog/archives/000477.html

The library is licensed under the terms of LGPL 2.1. Which means you're free to use it in your projects (including commercial ones) as long as you're sending back the changes you make to the library.

External dependencies

TinyWebServer depends on the external library Flash version 4.0, which is found here:

http://arduiniana.org/libraries/flash/

Make sure you dowload the Flash library and install it in your Arduino's libraries directory, as described in this document:

http://arduino.cc/en/Guide/Libraries

Basic web server

To make use of the TinyWebServer library, you need to include the following your sketch:

#include <Ethernet.h>
#include <Flash.h>
#include <SD.h>
#include <TinyWebServer.h>

TWS is implemented by the TinyWebServer class. The constructor method takes two arguments. The first one is a list of handlers, functions to be invoked when a particular URL is requested by an HTTP client. The second one is a list of HTTP header names that are needed by the implementation of your handlers. More on these later.

An HTTP handler is a simple function that takes as argument a reference to the TinyWebServer object. When you create the TinyWebServer class, you need to pass in the handlers for the various URLs. Here is a simple example of a web server with a single handler.

static uint8_t mac[] = { 0xDE, 0xAD, 0xBE, 0xEF, 0xFE, 0xED };

boolean index_handler(TinyWebServer& web_server) {
  web_server.send_error_code(200);
  web_server << F("<html><body><h1>Hello World!</h1></body></html>\n");
  return true;
}

TinyWebServer::PathHandler handlers[] = {
  // Register the index_handler for GET requests on /
  {"/", TinyWebServer::GET, &index_handler },
  {NULL}, // The array has to be NULL terminated this way
};

// Create an instance of the web server. No HTTP headers are requested
// by the HTTP request handlers.
TinyWebServer web = TinyWebServer(handlers, NULL);

void setup() {
  Serial.begin(115200);
  EthernetDHCP.begin(mac);
  web.begin();
}

void loop() {
  EthernetDHCP.maintain();
  web.process();
}

In the loop() function we need the call to the process() to make sure HTTP requests are serviced. If there is no new request, the method returns immediately. Otherwise the process() method blocks until the request is handled.

For a complete working example look in TinyWebServer/example/SimpleWebServer.

Serving files from the SD card

Now that we've seen the basics, let's see how we can extend this web server to serve files stored on the SD card. The idea is to register a handler that serves any URLs. Once the handler is invoked, it interprets the URL path as a file name on the SD card and returns that.

boolean file_handler(TinyWebServer& web_server) {
  char* filename = TinyWebServer::get_file_from_path(web_server.get_path());
  if (!filename) {
    web_server.send_error_code(404);
    web_server << "Could not parse URL";
  } else {
    TinyWebServer::MimeType mime_type
      = TinyWebServer::get_mime_type_from_filename(filename);
    web_server.send_error_code(mime_type, 200);
    if (file.open(filename, O_READ)) {
      web_server.send_file(file);
      file.close();
    } else {
      web_server << "Could not find file: " << filename << "\n";
    }
    free(filename);
  }
  return true;
}

We can now register this in the handlers array:

TinyWebServer::PathHandler handlers[] = {
  {"/" "*", TinyWebServer::GET, &file_handler },
  {NULL},
};

Note how the URL for the HTTP request is specified. We want it to be /, very much like a regular expression. However Arduino's IDE preprocessor has a bug in how it handles / inside strings. By specifying the string as "/" "*" we avoid the bug, while letting the compiler optimize and concatenate the two strings into a single one.

The * works only at the end of a URL, anywhere else it would be interpreted as part of the URL. If the * is at the end of the URL, the code in TinyWebServer assumes the handler can process requests that match the URL prefix. For example, if the URL string was /html/* then any URL starting with /html/ would be handled by the specified handler. In our case, since we specified /*, any URL starting with / (except for the top level / URL) will invoke the specified handler.

Uploading files to the web server and store them on SD card's file system

Now wouldn't it be nice to update Arduino's Web server files using HTTP? This way we can focus on building the actual interface with the hardware, and provide just enough HTTP handlers to interact with it. After we implement a minimal user interface, we can iterate it without having to remove the SD card from the embedded project, copy the HTML, JavaScript and/or image files on a computer, and plug it back in. We could do this remotely from the computer, using a simple script.

TinyWebServer provides a simple file upload HTTP handler that uses the HTTP 1.0 PUT method. This allows you to implement an Ajax interface using XMLHttpRequest or simply use a tool like curl to implement file uploads.

Here's how you add file uploads to your Arduino web server:

TinyWebServer::PathHandler handlers[] = {
  // `put_handler' is defined in TinyWebServer
  {"/upload/" "*", TinyWebServer::PUT, &TinyWebPutHandler::put_handler },
  {"/" "*", TinyWebServer::GET, &file_handler },
  {NULL},

Note that the order in which you declare the handlers is important. The URLs are matched in the order in which they are declared.

This is where the headers array mentioned before comes into picture. The put_handler makes use of the Content-Length. To avoid unnecessary work and minimize precious memory usage, TinyWebServer does not do any header processing unless it's instructed. To do so, you need to declare an array of header names your handlers are interested in. In this case, we need to add Content-Length.

const char* headers[] = {
  "Content-Length",
  NULL
};

And we now initialize the instance of TinyWebServer like this:

TinyWebServer web = TinyWebServer(handlers, headers);

The put_handler method is really generic, it doesn't actually implement the code to write the file to disk. Instead the method relies on a user provided function that implements the actual logic. This allows you to use a different file system implementation than Fat16 or do something totally different than write the file to disk.

The user provided function take 4 parameters. The first is a reference to the TinyWebServer instance. The second is a PutAction enum which could be either START, WRITE or END. START and END are called exactly once during a PUT handler's execution, while WRITE is called multiple times. Each time the function is called with the WRITE param, the third and fourth parameters are set to a buffer and a number of bytes in this buffer that should be used.

Here is a small example of a user provided function that writes the PUT request's content to a file:

void file_uploader_handler(TinyWebServer& web_server,
                           TinyWebPutHandler::PutAction action,
                           char* buffer, int size) {
  static uint32_t start_time;

  switch (action) {
  case TinyWebPutHandler::START:
    start_time = millis();
    if (!file.isOpen()) {
      // File is not opened, create it. First obtain the desired name
      // from the request path.
      char* fname = web_server.get_file_from_path(web_server.get_path());
      if (fname) {
        Serial << "Creating " << fname << "\n";
        file.open(fname, O_CREAT | O_WRITE | O_TRUNC);
        free(fname);
      }
    }
    break;

  case TinyWebPutHandler::WRITE:
    if (file.isOpen()) {
      file.write(buffer, size);
    }
    break;

  case TinyWebPutHandler::END:
    file.sync();
    Serial << "Wrote " << file.fileSize() << " bytes in "
           << millis() - start_time << " millis\n";
    file.close();
  }
}

To activate this user provided function, assign its address to put_handler_fn, like this:

void setup() {
  // ...

  // Assign our function to `upload_handler_fn'.
  TinyWebPutHandler::put_handler_fn = file_uploader_handler;

  // ...
}

You can now test uploading a file using curl:

*Note that since the handler in the source looks like this:

{"/upload/" "*", TinyWebServer::PUT, &TinyWebPutHandler::put_handler }

you must ensure that the path '/upload/' is in your submitted URL

curl -0 -T index.htm http://my-arduino-ip-address/upload/

For a complete working example of the file upload and serving web server, look in TinyWebServer/examples/FileUpload.

Advanced topic: persistent HTTP connections

Sometimes it's useful to have an HTTP client start a request. For example, I need to be able to enter an IR learning process. This means that I cannot afford TinyWebServer's process() to block while serving my /learn request that initiated the IR learning process. Instead I want the handler of the /learn request to set a variable in the code that indicates that IR learning is active, and then return immediately.

If you noticed the HTTP handlers return a boolean. If the returned value is true, as it was the case in our examples above, the connection to the HTTP client is closed immediately. If the returned value is false the connection is left open. Your handler should save the Client object handling the HTTP connection with the original request. Your code becomes responsible with closing it when it's no longer needed.

To obtain the Client object, use the get_client() method while in the HTTP handler. You can write asynchronously to the client, to update it with the state of the web server.

In my remotely controlled projection screen application, I have another handler on /cancel that closes the /learn client forcibly. Otherwise the /learn's Client connection is closed at the end of the IR learning procedure. Since the Ethernet shield only allows for 4 maximum HTTP clients open at the same time (because of 4 maximum client sockets), in my application I allow only one /learn handler to be active at any given time.

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