Zero MQ made easy with a few wrappers around pyzmq
Switch branches/tags
Nothing to show
Clone or download
Fetching latest commit…
Cannot retrieve the latest commit at this time.
Permalink
Type Name Latest commit message Commit time
Failed to load latest commit information.
py
.gitignore
.pylintrc
.travis.yml
LICENSE
README.md
install.sh
log.json

README.md

zero

Zero MQ wrapper that makes it trivial to set up 0MQ connections. A wrapper for a wrapper... Does that make any sense? Well, to me it did, since the pyzmq wrapper tries to stay very close to the reference C implementation.

zero tries to be simpler to use. It doesn't supply all of the fine aspects and features of 0MQ, (though they are available through member variables ctx and sock). Instead it aims to make 0MQ messaging trivial.

You can even get access to it all through a command line interface. Very useful for testing 0MQ even if you are not writing your program in python at all.

Example, a server that pulls messages (fan-in) and publishes a stream of them (fan-out):

zero pull 8000 | zero pub 8001 -

Installation

The installer will install pip if it is missing and then use that to install the zmq module (pyzmq) and a few other requirements.

./install.sh

Note: I developed this on a Mac, should work on other unix as well.

Command line interface

Overall usage (see complete with zero -h):

zero [--dbg] [--wait] (pub|rep) <socket> [-c] (-|<message> [<message>...])
zero [--dbg] [--wait] (push|req) <socket> [-b] (-|<message> [<message>...])
zero [--dbg] [--wait] pull <socket> [-c] [-n MESSAGES]
zero [--dbg] [--wait] sub <socket> [-b] [<subscription>...] [-n MESSAGES]

Options:
-b, --bind      Use bind instead of connect
-c, --connect   Use connect instead of bind
    -n MESSAGES     Number of messages before exiting [default: inf]
    --wait          Waits for user input at the end of the program, before
                    quitting
    --dbg           Enables debug output

Push-pull

The simplest is a fan-in push-pull:

# Terminal 1, binds
zero pull 8000

# Terminal 2, connects
zero push 8000 "Hello world"

To make a fan out push-pull (useful for distributing work):

# Terminal 1, binds
zero pull 8000 -c

# Terminal 2, connects
zero push 8000 -b "Hello world"

Pub-sub

Fan-out pub-sub:

# Terminal 1, binds
zero pub 8000 alpha polka baton appel

# Terminal 2, connects
zero sub 8000

Fan-out pub-sub with subscriber filter:

# Terminal 1, binds
zero pub 8000 alpha polka baton appel

# Terminal 2, connects, subscribes to strings that start with a and b.
zero sub 8000 '"a'" '"b'

Req-rep

# Terminal 1, binds, replies "hola":
zero --dbg rep 8000 hola

# Terminal 2, connects, asks "que":
zero --dbg req 8000 que

Python API

Most important in the zero module is ZeroSetup and Zero. The ZeroSetup is the input to constructing Zero. That way the result of docopt (ZeroSetup.argv) is the same as using ZeroSetup() and calling a few factory-like functions on it.

The Zero object is both callable and iterable. Iterate over incoming messages and call to transmit a message. Objects are automatically marshalled before returning out of the iterator or before transmission.

Default marshalling is JSON. Marshalling is configurable. See below for more information. All examples assume from zero import *.

Push-pull fan-in

Useful for workers feeding status messages or objects to a persistence. E.g. logfile writer.

# The pull (bind) server
zero = Zero(ZeroSetup('pull', 8000))
for msg in zero:
    zero.setup.warn('Pulled %s', msg)
# The push (connect) client, with debugging on, so that it is visible
# what the client is doing. Connects to localhost and sends three 
# messages ("alpha", "beta", "gamma").
zero = Zero(ZeroSetup('push', 8000).debugging())
zero('alpha')
zero('beta')
zero('gamma')

Push-pull fan-out

Useful for distributing work from a server to multiple workers. Combines well with RPC, see below.

# The push (bind) server
zero = Zero(ZeroSetup('push', 8000).binding().debugging())
for work in range(1000):
    # Insert a sleep here for testing
    zero(work)
# The pull (connect) client, each client gets a message from the push 
# in round robin fashion.
zero = Zero(ZeroSetup('push', 8000).binding(False))
for msg in zero:
    print "Doing work %s" % msg

Pub-sub fan-out

The most common for feeding a large number of listeners a stream of messages.

# The pub (bind) server
zero = Zero(ZeroSetup('pub', 8000))
for msg in ['alpha', 'beta', 'gamma']:
    zero(msg)
# The sub (connect) client
zero = Zero(ZeroSetup('sub', 8000))
for msg in zero:
    zero.setup.warn('Published %s', msg)

If you want to filter messages you subscribe to then remember that messages are json encoded. The example here assumes that messages of interest are lists with a string level as the first element.

# The sub (connect) client
zero = Zero(ZeroSetup('sub', 8000).subscribing(['["error"', '["warning"']))
for msg in zero:
    zero.setup.warn('Published %s', msg)

Req-rep

RPC style calls. Simplest form just replies to input, such as this doubler service:

# The rep (bind) server
zero = Zero(ZeroSetup('rep', 8000))
for msg in zero:
    zero(2 * msg)
# The req (connect) client
zero = Zero(ZeroSetup('req', 8000))
for msg in [1, 2, "hello"]:
    rep = zero(msg)
    zero.setup.warn('%r became %r', msg, rep)

RPC

Remote Procedure Call. Name the procedure and supply a dictionary of arguments. Works with rep, pull and even sub.

Note: It is quite useful and possible to activate a pull server. It can't reply, but it can act on incoming orders.

You will need to implement your RPC server. It is simple, just extend ZeroRPC and add the methods you need to the class. All methods that are not prefixed with _ are exposed.

Then create a zero and activate it with an RPC object.

from zero.rpc import ZeroRPC

class RPCDemo(ZeroRPC):
    def ping(self):
        return "pong"
    def greet(self, name):
        return "hello %s" % name

# The rep (bind) server, activated with RPCDemo
zero = Zero(ZeroSetup('rep', 8000).activated(RPCDemo())
for msg in zero:
    # msg here is the result after going through RPCDemo
    zero.setup.warn('Reply with %r', msg)
    zero(msg)
# The req (connect) client
zero = Zero(ZeroSetup('req', 8000))
print zero(['ping'])
print zero(['greet', {'name': 'Phil'}])

Configuration based RPC

Create a configuration object. The easiest way is a json file with your configuration. Configuration based RPC only looks at the section named workers, allowing other system specific setup to be stored alongside the RPC configuration.

Example configuration file:

config =  {'workers': {
    'common': {
        'module': 'zero.test',
        'class': 'CommonRPC',
        'zmq': {'port': 8000, 'method': 'rep'}
    }
}}

The zmq node also accepts (optional) bind, debug and host, see rpc.py for details.

To establish an activated Zero with the RPC object based on your configuration:

from zero.rpc import zrpc

zero = zrpc(config, 'common')
for msg in zero:
    zero(msg)

To call your RPC, create a client:

from zero.rpc import zrpc

zserver = zrpc(config, 'common')
zero = zserver.opposite()

print 'Server returned:', zero(['echo', {'msg': 'Say hello'}])

Marshalling

If you need a different marshalling, just supply encode and decode methods to Zero.marshals.

Test

Set up environment and run tests:

bin/zero test

Optionally -v for a more verbose test report.

Travis continuous integration: